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Harmless marijuana?

10 Aug 2018

Often savvy teens flaunt their knowledge and tell their parents that marijuana does not give an addictive effect, so its use is not harmful. It is even allowed in some countries, and it is sold in pharmacies to people in the late stages of AIDS and cancer, because it helps relieve pain symptoms. And all this is true. Rather, one side of the coin. And on the other side is your still healthy child, who has not lived for twenty years, and he does not have any stages of cancer and AIDS, but he has a golden childhood and great prospects.

Harmless marijuana

Do not conflict with the child about the issue of addiction, give him the following facts.

Almost 90% of those who use such strong drugs as heroin, started with marijuana.

Five marijuana cigarettes have the same ability to cause cancer as 112 normal cigarettes.

Marijuana remains in the body, deposited in fat cells for a period of three to five weeks. It has a negative effect on mental activity and on the physical state of the body throughout this period.

A person who smokes marijuana regularly suffers from intense formation and accumulation of toxic substances in body fat cells, especially in brain cells. So for a complete cleansing of the body of a smoker it takes from three to five months after stopping smoking.

In adolescence, the formation of that part of the brain that ensures the ability of a person to concentrate his attention, engage in creativity, learn, form concepts at a sufficiently high level is still continuing. The constant use of marijuana at this age leads to a slowdown in the normal growth of brain cells.

A study conducted at Columbia University found that women who smoke marijuana suffer from a sharp increase in the number of cells with damaged DNA molecules that carry genetic information. Female eggs are particularly susceptible to destruction by marijuana.

In another study, also conducted at Columbia University, it was found that a control group whose members smoked one cigarette with marijuana every day throughout the year had a 39% decrease in the blood of white blood cells compared to the norm. This meant damage to the immune system, which increased the susceptibility of these people to infections and various diseases.

Smoking one cigarette with marijuana leads to a reduction in motor functions by 41%, and two - by 63%.


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Lerivon - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

09 Aug 2018

Antidepressant: Lerivon

Active ingredient: mianserin (Mianserin)Analogs: Venlaksor, Mirtazapin Sandoz, Simbalga, Velaxin, Prefaxin, Remeron, Mirzaten, Esprital 45, Melitor, Deprim Forte, and others.

Lerivon (Mianserin) refers to tricyclic antidepressants. It is well tolerated, and comparable in effectiveness to other modern antidepressants. The drug acts on presynaptic adrenoreceptors by suppressing them, which in turn increases the mediator concentration in the brain. In addition, it blocks H1-histamine and serotonin receptors. Thus, lerivon affects the re-uptake of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin.

Lerivon - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

In addition to the antidepressant effect, the drug has a pronounced soothing, hypnotic effect. Notable improvements appear already in the first week of reception: sleep is normalized, and anxiety also disappears. Lerivon (Mianserin) does not have a negative effect on the cardiovascular system, moreover, due to the analgesic effect it can be used in the treatment of depression in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis, as well as coronary heart disease.

Indications for use: Treatment of various depressions, including endogenous and reactive (involuntary depression).

Contraindications: Minor age, hypersensitivity to the drug and its components, acute stage of myocardial infarction, manic syndrome, pregnancy and breastfeeding, serious impairment of liver function.

Dosage and administration: Lerivon is taken orally, with water, without chewing. It is advisable to take the drug at night, given its sedative effect. The daily dose can be divided into several receptions (a single evening reception is still preferable).

The dose is selected individually, based on the age, the features of the course of the disease, as well as the response to taking the drug.
It is recommended to start with 30-40 mg / day (elderly patients are not recommended to exceed the initial dose of 30 mg / day), the effective dose is 30-90 mg / day (the optimal average dosage is 60 mg / day). In the event that the desired clinical effect was not achieved within 2-4 weeks, the dose may be increased to 90-150 mg / day.

Once the onset of improvement is monitored, it is necessary to begin a gradual decrease in the amount of the drug to the minimum maintenance dose.
To fix the achieved improvement, it is recommended to continue taking mianserin for at least 4 months (best six months). If after the next 2-4 weeks, the therapeutic effect does not occur, you must abandon the drug. Termination of mianserin administration rarely provokes withdrawal syndrome.

Side effects: The most common side effects are: drowsiness, orthostatic hypotension, hypomania, exanthema, skin allergic rashes.

Storage conditions: Keep away from children, in a dry, dark place (temperature - no higher than 25 C).

Terms of selling from pharmacies: Lerivon (Mianserin) is released on prescription.


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Antidepressants: take or not?

08 Aug 2018

This question is now almost rhetorical. And all because the modern rhythm of life, constant stress, lack of time for a loved one is guaranteed by a constant high level of anxiety, sleep disturbance, nervous breakdowns without a reason and other "delights".

Antidepressants - take or not

Why?

There is an opinion in the society that people are coming to specialists for treatment, especially if it concerns delicate problems. Depressions, neuroses, and emotional stresses are also among the delicacies. Not wishing to become a target for gossip, many ladies go to the pharmacy for an antidepressant, bypassing a psychologist, neuropathologist and other specialists.

It turns out that all or almost all herbal preparations, defined as antidepressants, can be found in the ordinary pharmacy, which is near the house. The situation is different with their synthetic counterparts: such preparations can not be sold without a doctor's prescription.

Soothing or antidepressant?
Interest in drugs, called antidepressants, strongly warms up advertising, which promises the necessary effect, the absence of contraindications and accessibility for every layman. However, not everyone understands the difference between conventional sedatives and antidepressants proper. Let's try to figure it out.

Soothing drugs are called such biologically active additives and drugs, the action of which is based on the usual relaxation of muscles and calming nerves. Antidepressants also normalize the production in the body of those essential substances that can improve mood. The development of certain substances in depression, for example, serotonin, is reduced, and without normalization of its level, normal brain work is impossible.

St. John's Wort, which is known to everyone, it turns out, is not only a "booster" of pressure, but also an antidepressant. Some sedative preparations on the plant basis of the current generation also have some antidepressant properties, despite a greater soothing effect. Therefore, for home use, such drugs are quite appropriate. But synthetic drugs are needed to treat more severe disorders, for example, at a high level of depression, when simple sedatives are ineffective. That is why it is important to distinguish antidepressants and their properties from conventional sedatives.

Harm or benefit?
Undoubtedly, the effect of antidepressants on the human body takes place. However, the therapeutic effect does not stop only at the level of the human psyche. There is an opinion that where the treatment ends, addiction begins. This is so, but only if the dosage and regimen are not met.

The current stereotype "taking antidepressants indicates weakness" is currently rejected. At least, doctors. After all, depression is like a sore that requires treatment (you should agree that it is foolish to blame a patient for hypertension in wanting to reduce the aggravation or desire of a patient with polyarthritis to relieve pain). So in the case of depression.

Of course, not always and not all drugs can cure depression itself, but their action is based, rather, on the removal of painful feelings of the soul. Moreover, antidepressants are prescribed in combination with other methods of treatment. Eliminating depression, drugs give a sense of confidence and stability - that's why such drugs, if they are prescribed by a doctor, should be taken because they can really help to cope with the manifestations of the disease, and modern medical technologies exclude the moment of habituation.

What is being treated?
Currently, there are many antidepressants (Xanax, Phenazepam), but on the positive side only a few dozen drugs have proven themselves. In this case, each antidepressant is different from its counterpart and the effectiveness of the impact, and side effects and a number of other indicators. But the common property of all drugs of this kind is based on the object of treatment. Antidepressants have a direct effect on depression and its manifestations: chronic headache, tension, musculoskeletal pain, migraine attacks, etc.

Of course, in addition to depression, such medications are treated with anxiety disorders and vegetative dysfunctions, manifested by attacks of fear and panic, obsessive thoughts and actions, states of constant internal tension and an increased level of anxiety. Often in combination with psychotherapy.

The choice of the drug, dosage and duration of treatment is determined only by the doctor on the basis of anamnesis and an analysis of the degree of depression in each particular patient. Only a specialist can analyze the causes of the disease, the presence of concomitant somatic diseases.

Mechanism of action
When the balance of the state of mind is broken, the symptoms do not make you wait long: sleep deterioration, loss of appetite, loss of strength, the inability to concentrate for long on something other than your pain and experience, chronic pain is not a complete list of symptoms of depression. The mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs is simple: the active substance adjusts to the cyclical nature of the manifestations of disorders, improves and controls the balance of chemicals, and therefore the thoughts, behaviors, physical signs characteristic of depression are under constant management.

Antidepressants eliminate pain and fatigue, normalize sleep and energy. Agree that in a more or less normal state, when a person feels rested, it is easier to struggle with daily problems, which means that one can easily and without interference be carried away by something interesting, to plan the future from a positive angle, and this is the essence of treating depression.

Result from application
Far from always the effect is immediately apparent. Some improvement, of course, is noticeable already from the first days of treatment, but certainly a good therapeutic result is felt by the patient only after some time from the moment of application. In this case, doctors approach each case individually, advise taking the drug from 2 months to 6 months, because only a sufficiently long reception will provide the maximum effect, and the deterioration of the condition does not occur immediately after discontinuation of treatment. At the same time, the mode of taking medications becomes important.

In order for the patient to take antidepressants on a regular basis, it is important for the doctor to explain why this is necessary. In addition, the treatment takes into account the effects of the drug: to normalize sleep, the drug with a soothing effect is prescribed overnight. To reduce drowsiness during the day, another drug is chosen that increases the efficiency and activity that must be taken in the morning.

Restrictions
As in any treatment, antidepressant therapy has its own nuances. First, the intake of medications should be strictly according to the scheme determined by the treating doctor. Secondly, it is worth remembering that some antidepressants can adversely affect the feelings and manifestation of libido, and therefore the other half should be warned about taking such medicines to avoid misunderstandings. Thirdly, if a couple is going to have a baby, then it's worth remembering that the optimal time for taking antidepressants is about six months, and therefore you do not need to plan for conception for this period.

Depression is a disorder characterized by a depressed mood with a negative, pessimistic assessment of yourself and your situation in the present, past and future. Proved is the fact that depression increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases of the heart and brain (heart attack, stroke) regardless of age. To understand what to drink: antidepressants or soothing - only a specialist will help. But on the very rhetorical question that is given in the title, the answer should be positive. Because it is better to lower your painful sensations, than to splash out them on associates. Positive attitude to you!


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Third stage of alcoholism

08 Aug 2018

Duration 5-10 years.

Third stage of alcoholism

All manifestations of the third stage - pathological attraction to alcohol, loss of quantitative control, withdrawal syndrome, alcoholic amnesia - undergo further development and are manifested in the form of the most severe clinical variants.

Intensive attraction is also manifested in the loss of situational control (there is no criticism of the place, circumstances, the company of drinking companions), which is facilitated by the loss of intellectual abilities that has come.

The main sign of the transition of alcoholism to the third stage is a decrease in tolerance to alcohol, the patient gets drunk from smaller, than usual, doses of alcohol. Activating effects of alcoholic beverages are reduced, they only moderately level the tone, almost every alcoholic intoxication ends with amnesia.

Physical dependence and irresistible attraction determine the life of the patient; The lack of quantitative control in combination with decreased tolerability often leads to fatal overdoses.


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Signs of White Fever

08 Aug 2018

White delirium (delirium) is a disease. It develops after five years of alcohol dependence. The textbooks say that it affects people about 40 years, but in practice there are also 18-year-olds. According to statistics: for 10 patients three are over the age of 40, and seven and 30 are not yet.

Signs of White Fever

The first signs of white fever precede the weeks, months and years of drinking-bout, as a result, nightmares and frequent awakenings begin to appear. In the afternoon the person feels exhausted, tired and in a state of depression.

At the beginning of the treatment of alcohol dependence, after 3-4 days, after giving up alcohol and developing delirium. And his offensive can be accompanied by epileptic attacks, which are provoked by various injuries and operations that coincide in time with the refusal of alcohol.

Signs of white fever begin with a disturbance of sleep, against this background there are hallucinations that accompany sudden changes in mood. Further - even worse. The person sees images in the form of moving small and large quantities of insects, snakes, devils, threads and cobwebs (mostly in patients the plots coincide). The patient perceives them as a reality - his phrases, actions and movements are guided by hallucinations.

Further signs of white fever are the appearance of auditory, tactile (creeping and touching), taste and olfactory hallucinations.

Periodically, during the illness, enlightenment occurs - when it seems that the person has become completely sane, but by the evening all the symptoms return in a more severe form. Usually delirium lasts 3-4 days, and ends with a strong sleep, after which many patients are in a state of depression and exhaustion. But sometimes in practice there are cases when signs of white fever pass gradually, that is, within 10 days.

Among the signs of white fever singled out the following forms:

Hypnagogic - hallucinations, when a person falls asleep or just closes his eyes.

"Delirium without delirium" - proceeds without delirium and hallucinations or they are weakly expressed, but the patient is afraid, he is fussy, excited.

The systematized form is a multiple hallucination and a persecution mania. In this case, the state of fear is extremely pronounced.

There is also a delirium with pronounced auditory hallucinations, that is, the patient clearly hears voices that condemn him, while anxiety and fear prevail. This state is accompanied by delirium, and with convincingly arranged in places "seen and heard" events and facts that are mixed with reality.

Atypical delirium is characterized by a combination of signs of white fever with delusions, loss of a sense of self-awareness and reality. Completion of this form of psychosis can be sharp or gradual, in the latter case, delirium may not pass.

In turn, from the atypical form of delirium, professionalism is singled out - when delusions and hallucinations deteriorate sharply, and motor excitement comes to replace. In this excitement there are some episodes from life - dressing-undressing, lighting a match. In such a state, patients are almost silent all the time and can "recognize" their relatives and acquaintances in strangers.

Reduced delirium - characterized by a weak expression and short duration of the main manifestations.

Severe delirium - most often develops against a background of chronic or acute physical illness and is accompanied by symptoms of mental illness with disregard for orientation in space and time, a drop in blood pressure, a decrease in heart rate. This form is characterized by an increase in body temperature, convulsions, impaired motor activity and speech.

A severe form of delirium can occur in several scenarios. In one case, the disease causes dehydration, vague muttering, pathological neurological reflexes. This condition can lead to death. In the second - the appearance of movements, which mimic the working activity.


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Addiction

08 Aug 2018

The main mechanism for the formation of dependence and its consequences are the same from both alcohol and narcotic substances. Specificity of its manifestation can be called a shorter time interval of dependence in the addict (from the moment of experimentation with psychoactive substance). Often dependent alternates psychoactive substances (alcohol, drugs). Despite certain differences in the formation of dependence, the essence of their impact on a person is one. So are the ways of recovery of patients with alcoholism and drug addiction.

Addiction. Phenotropil. Meldonium

The essence of the disease of dependence in the loss of control over consumption

Dependent is a person who can not consciously control the use and who can not be responsible for his behavior after he starts to use.

Disease dependency consists of two elements: psychological dependence, which leads to the fact that the addict / alcoholic does not imagine life without use and physiological sensitivity. Despite the fact that every use causes more and more problems with health, family, environment, law dependent person uses again and again.

The most surprising thing is that despite obvious symptoms, the addict / alcoholic himself almost does not believe that he is ill.

Dependence refers to a particular group of diseases, where denial of the disease, its symptoms, is a manifestation of the disease.

The evolution of the use of chemically active substances, leading to the formation of dependence, can be described as follows:

- Contact with the substance. As a rule, the first experience causes positive feelings.
- Experimentation. Repeated return to the use of chemically active substances in anticipation of a certain physical and emotional state. The search for exactly those chemically active substances, which, in the opinion of the experimenter himself, are the most optimal and acceptable.
- Use. Increasing quantitative and qualitative reception of chemically active substances.
- Abuse. At a certain stage in his life, the person who uses it begins to lose complete control over how much he has used.
- Chemical dependence. This stage resembles a reference point, when quantitative processes pass into a new quality of the functioning of the organism and the human psyche. Then alcohol and drugs for an addicted person become more important than air and water, as they, in his opinion, determine the physical and emotional state. "We lived to take drugs, and took drugs to live."

The time intervals for the formation of all stages of human involvement in chemical dependence are very individual.

So, alcohol and other chemically active substances act destroy all spheres of a person - physical, mental, social and spiritual.

Main characteristics of the disease

Chronic - Formed and flowing for a long time. Like all other chronic diseases has a specific effect on the personality and predictable course and the dynamics of the disease. It is a disease that can be stopped, but can not be cured. The only effective alternative for an alcoholic and a drug addict is complete abstinence from chemically active substances until the end of life. Even a small dose can provoke the emergence of a desire to eat and lead to the resumption of the disease. For months and years, while the dependent is kept away from use, he behaves just like other people. Once he injects alcohol or drugs into his body, something happens to his physical and mental state - and he is no longer able to stop.

Progressive, (recurrent, i.e., recurring) - Regardless of the period of sobriety, there is always the risk of a relapse ("recession"). In a state of relapse, the patient may be long before active consumption. This will manifest itself in the course of his thoughts, emotional states, which is very important to monitor for the prevention of relapse. Progression of the disease manifests itself in the fact that the conditions and consequences of use are constantly exacerbated and worsen.

Deadly - Since these diseases are chronic and progressive, their course is predictable: physical destruction - degradation of the person - death.

The main symptoms of alcoholism and drug addiction

Change in tolerance - This is the ability of the body to change the required amount of chemically active substances that affect the emotional state in order to evoke the expected physico-emotional effect. Alcoholics and drug addicts need more and more alcohol and drugs over time to achieve the expected result. The ability to drink and take chemically active substances intensifies in time, in other words, a person can hold more alcohol and drugs than before. There is also a reverse tolerance, when intoxication comes from less than in the past.

Loss of control - The symptoms are:

- Repeated failures in attempts to stop using;
- Uselessness of effort to control or reduce use.
- Substitution of drugs or vice versa.
- Transition to use since. medical narcotic drugs.
- Taking drugs and alcohol alone.
- Necessity of use before bedtime and immediately upon awakening.
- Emotional state and mood depends on the presence or absence of alcohol and drugs.
- Continuation of use, despite the negative consequences.

Abstinence syndrome (withdrawal syndrome). Can be improved by Phenotropil. It is accompanied by a tremor of extremities, increased sweating, cardiac arrhythmia, impaired coordination of movements, etc. The essence of this phenomenon is that as soon as alcohol and drugs stop their euphoric impact, a person experiences suffering at the level of the body and mind (breaking, cold turkey - a drug addict, a hangover - an alcoholic). In order to get rid of this agonizing condition, the dependent person again takes a chemically active substance, which gives him relief and a state of euphoria, but only for a certain time. Use - a hangover - use to remove hangovers. The circle closes.

If at the first stage the goal of taking a reactive substance is to achieve an euphoric state, then use is necessary to remove the most severe physiological and emotional consequences. In the second and third stages of dependence, a person takes substances simply in order to maintain existence.

Alcoholism and drug addiction are diseases of emotions. The dependent person experiences a gamut of destructive feelings and emotions: anger, resentment, suffering, self-pity, anxiety and loneliness. Anger and resentment are predominant. These emotions cause anxiety, forcing the alcoholic and the addict to take chemically active substances to anesthetize negative feelings. Resentment from not splashed out anger - motivation for the use of alcohol or drugs. Loneliness gives rise to suffering and self-pity, which, in turn, causes anxiety and anxiety. The emotional state of the dependent person is like a swing, which then rises (after taking a reactive substance), then go down (withdrawal syndrome).

Recovering is a constant and progressive process. Many recovering alcoholics and drug addicts successfully continue their sober life without returning to the use of chemically active substances. Return to use, which includes relapse and disruption, is not something exceptional, putting an end to the possibility of further qualitative recovery. Relapse and disruption are manifestations of a chronic, incurable, progressive disease.

Despite the fact that diseases of alcoholism and drug addiction are incurable diseases, they have predictable symptoms and predictable treatment. Chemically active substances destroy the body, mind, feelings and spirit of a person. Recovering requires healing in each of these areas.


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What is Bromantane?

07 Aug 2018

In those not too distant years, bromantane was not among the drugs banned by the International Anti-Doping Committee. Since initially nobody knew about him except the Russians.

The computer during the doping tests recorded the presence in the blood of athletes of some unknown and, of course, an unpreserved drug. They did not pay attention to this: they could get a normal aspirin. But it was far from aspirin.

bromantane

BROMANTANE
Scientific name: 2-adamantyl-parabramyl-analysine.

WHAT DOPING GROUP APPLIES TO
To a group of so-called actoprotectors - drugs of different groups, which increase the body's defenses.

WHERE WAS CREATED
Bromantane was developed by Soviet military physicians as a means of increasing overall immunity, endurance of man. Including in the heat. According to some reports, it was created specifically for use in Afghanistan.

HOW WAS IT PROHIBITED
In preparation for the Olympics-96 in Atlanta, Bromantane was recommended by science to athletes of all federations and all countries. And a year before the Games, when the Anti-Doping Service of the IOC began to find an "unknown substance" in the urine of athletes (not only ours), Russian representatives presented the doctors all the necessary documentation for the Bromantane. There were no objections.

However, 15 days before the Olympics in Atlanta, Bromantane is suddenly added to the restricted list. It was found that the drug also has a psychostimulating effect. In addition, he disguises the use of steroids: all standard doping procedures that the IOC practiced turned out to be ineffective when bromantane was taken.

Whoever suffered from Bromantane
In Atlanta, sixteen Russian athletes fell under the "Bromantane" suspicion, of which seven were disqualified. Including two prize-winners - wrestler Zafar Guliyev and swimmer Andrey Korneev. The scandal was hushed up, arguments were found: the bromantane was banned on the very eve of the Games, and there was still no strong scientific evidence that he was a doping agent. The Russians appealed to sports arbitration and, strangely enough, won the case. Disqualification of athletes was abolished by the judiciary.

But the six-time Olympic champion skier Lyubov Egorova could not be defended. After winning the race at 5 kilometers at the World Championships-97 in Trondheim, she was "pumped" two years of disqualification - a fee for the use of bromantane, which was finally added to the list of banned stimulants.

The drama of Yegorova turned out to be instructive, the "bromantane" scandals stopped. The more surprising results (if they will not be refuted) of doping tests by Yegor Titov. After all, the use of such a well-known prohibited drug is, if you like, a bad tone. Egor himself could not have known this. But he did not take the fatal remedy on his own initiative?

Expert Opinion
In the hierarchy of terrible doping from international experts, Bromantane is in the top position. But not because he is very active and effective, but because he heard a lot about Bromantane. Mysterious military drug, and, apparently, because of him, the Russians are so good and perform in different sports. But there is certainly no medical data about some unique effectiveness of this drug. According to the latest information, it does not work. It's more of a legend than a drug. What does not prevent Bromantane from being such a scarecrow for anti-doping services.


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Hepatitis

06 Aug 2018

Viral hepatitis is a group of viral anthroponoses, i.e. diseases transmitted from person to person. They differ in the mechanism of transmission and in the features of development, but are combined by the similarity of clinical manifestations, as well as hepatotropic pathogens. For the first time hepatitis as an infectious disease, which causes jaundice and damaging the liver, was described by SP Botkin in 1888. For a long time viral hepatitis bore his name. Now Botkin's disease is sometimes called viral hepatitis A, which in the people has another name - "disease of dirty hands." In 1973, WHO decided to divide viral hepatitis B and A. And those that differed from them, identified in a separate group "neither A nor B hepatitis", of which later isolated hepatitis C and E. To date, there are 7 viruses, which cause the same types of hepatitis: HAV (A), HBV (B), HCV (C), HDV or delta virus (D), HEV (E), HFV (F), HGV (G). But since there are no reliable markers of the last two types of disease, now these two options are classified as "neither A nor E". For sure, this is not a complete list of pathogens, other varieties will be discovered.

Hepatitis. Heptral

Viral hepatitis is widespread on Earth and ranks second after the flu in terms of the number of affected people. According to statistics, about 300 million people are infected with the hepatitis B virus.

For all viral hepatitis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Cytolysis of hepatocytes, underlying the development of the disease and leading to a disruption of liver function.
- Cyclic flow:
- incubation period;
- pre-jaundiced;
- icteric;
- convalescent;
- residual phenomena.
- Leading clinical symptoms of hepatitis.
- Features of changes in biochemical parameters of blood.
- The natural involvement of other systems of organs in the process.
- The appearance of persistent immunity to the transferred form of hepatitis.

Symptoms of hepatitis
The clinical picture will depend on:

- type of hepatitis (for the virus-pathogen);
- duration: acute, chronic, protracted;
- the severity of clinical manifestations: manifest, subclinical, asymptomatic forms;
- flow pattern: cyclic, acyclic, recurrent;
- the severity of the process: light, heavy, moderate severity;
- presence of jaundice: icteric or jaundice;
- the nature of the pathological process in the liver: with the predominance of a cholestatic or cytolytic syndrome. And other factors.

The main signs of hepatitis are the presence of a virus in the blood, pain in the right upper quadrant, enlargement of the liver and spleen, increased transaminases and bilirubin in the blood, jaundice (with icteric forms), changes in urine and feces, symptoms of intoxication (fever, headache, arthralgia, malaise, weakness). (Heptral and Cyanocobalamin, layennec can cope with hepatitis).

The first signs of hepatitis can resemble the symptoms of the flu: a sharp increase in temperature, headache, joint pain, general weakness, decreased appetite. And then the clinic unfolds according to the type of disease and the form of the current. An early test that allows to diagnose viral hepatitis A is the detection of antibodies (immunoglobulins) against the hepatitis virus class M with the help of an enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of viral hepatitis B, a blood test for antigens and antibodies is made, blood testing for the presence of markers of delta-virus infection, etc., is performed to determine hepatitis D.

Treatment of hepatitis
The approach to the treatment of viral hepatitis should be comprehensive. The main rule is to prescribe as few drugs as possible. This is due to the possible violation of their metabolism in the affected liver. The complex of therapeutic measures includes:

- mandatory diet, in severe cases, parenteral nutrition;
- detoxification;
- antiviral drugs, in particular interferons, if necessary antibiotics;
- desensitizing, enterosorbents;
- hepatoprotectors, vascular drugs; (Heptral, layennec)
- symptomatic therapy; (Phenotropil)
- vitamins; (Cyanocobalamin, Ascorbic acid)
- psychotherapy and other methods of treatment.

Prevention of hepatitis
Preventive measures include keeping sanitary standards and hygienic requirements for preparing food and processing medical equipment, examining donor blood and its preparations, injecting with disposable syringes, using condoms for sexual intercourse, vaccination and more.

Prevention of hepatitis also includes the early detection of patients, if necessary their isolation, quarantine measures in the foci of hepatitis transmitted by airborne droplets, the introduction of immunoglobulin to people in contact with patients, the exclusion of those who have recovered from viral hepatitis from among donors, etc.


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What the junkie feels?

06 Aug 2018

At first, after taking the drug, the addict really experiences pleasure, called euphoria. He relaxes, all problems disappear, life seems pink. If a person experiences pain, it subsides (that is why drugs are used in medicine for anesthesia), if he was concerned, irritated, angry, becoming affable and cheerful.

What the junkie feels

After a few hours - a maximum of 12 - the action of the drug ends, and all problems are piling up with renewed vigor. If a person takes drugs for a long time, the time of euphoria shortens each time and eventually can reach several minutes. A few more hours the addict feels less tolerant, and then a painful "breaking" begins, what is this you already know. A drug addict takes drugs no longer for pleasure, but in order to avoid "breaking".

He lives like a squirrel in a wheel - the faster it runs, the faster the wheel turns, and the faster it needs to run so as not to fall. Similarly, a drug addict - to avoid "breaking", he has to take the drug more and more often. Gradually, the addict comes to complete exhaustion, stops eating and sleeping. He already curses the drug, he dreams of quitting, but he can not because he has terrible pains without the next dose.


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Insomnia

03 Aug 2018

Definition

Insomnia (insomnia) is a disorder associated with difficulties in initiating and / or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is a quantitative and / or qualitative disorder of sleep with a concomitant deterioration in overall well-being and quality of life.

Phenazepam. Insomnia

Causes
Stress, neurosis, mental, neurological, somatic diseases, the use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol abuse, toxic factors, endocrine-metabolic diseases, adverse external conditions (noise, humidity), shift work, jet lag, sleep hygiene. Causes of insomnia associated with the violation of the "sleep-wake" cycle, leading to a violation of melatonin secretion: psychophysiological factors (psycho-emotional and physical overstrain), endogenous factors of various diseases, exogenous factors (noise, time zone change).

Risk factors
Duration of sleep less than 5 hours, adverse heredity, difficulty breathing, overweight, circadian rhythm disorders, immaturity of the brain systems responsible for sleep and wakefulness regulation, stress, use of stimulants (caffeine, alcohol, tobacco) in children and adolescents, winter season.

Symptoms
Nocturnal symptoms:
- difficulty in falling asleep and / or sleeping;
- intermittent sleep (more than 3 awakenings per night);
- short duration of sleep (less than 6.5 hours), early awakening with the inability to fall asleep again;
- lack of a sense of freshness, recovery from sleep.

Daytime Symptoms:
- fatigue;
- drowsiness;
- increased excitability, irritability;
- anxiety.

Prevention and treatment
Prevention
Establish a daily schedule and observe the time of going to bed and waking up, waking up every day at the same time, regardless of when the sleep occurred, reduce the time spent in bed without sleep;

- avoid daytime sleep;
- increase the load in the afternoon, after lunch, and stop them 3-4 hours before going to bed;
- avoid taking foods containing caffeine and nicotine for 6 hours before going to bed;
- avoid excess fluid intake before going to bed;
- Ensure silence and comfortable temperature in the bedroom;
- remove the clock from the bedroom;
- use hypnotics only in rare cases.

Biologically active additives - Mystic, Yantavit, FET-X (chromium picolinate), Morpheus, etc.

Drug therapy
Anxiolytics - alprazolam (Alzolam, Zolomax, Neurol, Helex, Helex CP), aminophenylbutyric acid (Phenibut, Anvifen, Noofen), bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (Phenazepam, Tranquesipam, Phenorelaxan, Elzepam, Fezanef), diazepam (Sibazon, Relum, Seduxen), lorazepam Laurafen), medazepam (Mezapam), oxazepam (Nosepam, Tazepam), chlordiazepoxide (Elenium), and others.

Antidepressants - mirtazapine (Kaliksta, Mirzaten), etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like products - Biovital elixir, etc.

Homeopathic remedies - Valerianahel, Vernison, Passidorm, Primula / Onopordone Composite, Ginkgo Biloba, etc.

Neurotropic agents are glycine (Glycine Fort, Noopept), and others.

Correctors of cerebral circulation disorders - ginkgo bilobate leaf extract (Bilobil intens 120, Ginos, Tanakan, Memoplant, Bilobil forte), etc.

Macro- and trace elements - Beresz Plus drops, etc.

Neuroleptics - alimamazine tartrate (Teraldzhen), clozapine (Leponex, Clozasten, Azaleprol), levomepromazine (Tizerzin), chlorpromazine (Aminazine, Chlorpromazine hydrochloride), chlorprotixen (Chlorprothixen Zentiva, Truksal) and others.

Sedatives - Dormiplant, Dormiplant-Valerian, Persen Fort, Persen, valerian medicinal rhizome with roots (Valerian tincture, Valdispert), Leonurus grass, Barbowal, Valemidin, Valoserdin, Valium drops, Novo-Passit, Phytodesan No. 3 (sedative collection 3), Fito Novo-Sed, Fitorelaks, Phytodesan 2 (sedative collection 2), Lundyshev-Leonurus drops, Corvalol, Valocordin, balm of medicinal herb, peppermint leaves, etc.

Sleeping pills - doxylamine succinate (Valocordin-Doxylamine), zolpidem, zopiclone, midazolam (Midazolam-hameln), nitrazepam, phenobarbital, etc.


Someone from the Canada - just purchased the goods:
Irifrin eye drops 2.5% 5ml