Best deal of the week



Season of sunburn

20 Aug 2018

Even in the worst summer, sunny days are issued - and most will immediately try to use them in order to "getting tan" on the beach. So, in the pharmacies will be added to buyers asking for the means for sunburn. Or for the treatment of sunburn. However, one does not rule out the other ...

Season of sunburn

Dangerous rays
Both sunburn and sunburn have one and the same nature - this is the reaction of our body to ultraviolet (UV) rays. When we are in the sun for a relatively short time, ultraviolet also burns the skin, but not for long and shallow. In response, the skin begins to produce more dark pigment, absorbing UV radiation - melatonin. This is the tan: the more melatonin in the skin, the deeper its brown shade.

In order to get a "bronze" shade of the skin, you need to get a sufficiently large dose of UV rays. And the same dose can be sufficient for a large (if sunbathing the entire body) burn, and with a lesion area of more than 50% of the skin, many problems can even be caused by a slight burn injury. Therefore, doctors recommend to sunbathe little by little. Well, those who need a "quick" tan, can not do without special cosmetics.

Means for sunburn should solve at once some problems. On the one hand, they must protect the skin from UV radiation, on the other hand - to pass a sufficient amount of the same rays for tanning. In addition, the spectrum of this radiation is divided into different areas: long-wave (type A - UV-A, or UVA on foreign marking) almost do not burn the skin, but penetrate it deeper and increase the risk of tumors, including. such a dangerous cancer as melanoma. Type B (UV-B, UVB) is represented by relatively short waves, they are better retained by the upper layers of the skin. And it is this radiation that causes both sunburn and burns.

The UV-A and UV-B rays reach our skin at the same time. Substances that protect our skin from UV-B-rays, allow you to stay in the sun without a burn several times longer. However, for the same long time, we will get and several times the dose of dangerous UV-A radiation ... So the maximum protection is achieved by introducing into the cosmetics substances absorbing or reflecting both types of UV rays - this is denoted by UVA / UVB, UVA + UVB, etc. Cosmetics only with UVA protection will not save from sunburn, but will allow sunbathing with a minimal risk of other complications, but only with UVB - protect from burn, but not from dangerous long-term consequences.

According to the content in the skin of melatonin and the possibilities of its production, all mankind can be divided into 6 phototypes, which react differently to solar radiation.
The first phototype, the so-called. "Celtic" is extremely pale skin - melatonin is very small in it, the beach and solarium are contraindicated for such people, there will not be sunburn, only a burn!
The sixth phototype is people with dark brown skin color: Negroids, aborigines of Australia.
Most Europeans refer to the second or third phototypes - you can sunbathe, but carefully!

Figures and Pros
Buyers often ask protection "stronger", and those who use the means for sunburn for a long time, can directly ask: "And what about the SPF of this cream?"

SPF - Sun Protection Factor - the main indicator of the overall effectiveness of sunscreen cosmetics, the value on the package can be from 2 to 100. However, in the US and EU the highest values are indicated as SPF 50+, in some tropical countries (for example, in Australia ) - SPF 30+. The real protection level can be 52, and 60, and 80, but "solid" manufacturers do not indicate this. Why?

Because of the common misconception that the SPF shows how many times longer than its "normal rate" a person can stay in the sun: for example, if a person sunburnt in 15 minutes uses a cream with SPF 20, he can safely to spend in the sun 300 minutes (ie 5 hours) ... Another variant of delusions - the figures indicate the percentage of delayed UV rays.

In fact, both assumptions are not true. SPF is calculated by a complex formula, and means with its value from 2 to 5 delay about 65% of UV-B-rays. At SPF from 11 to 19, up to 95% of the radiation will be delayed, over 20% to 99% ... So there is not much point to look for a means with the value of this factor above 50 - they are still intended either for maximum protection against sunburn in difficult conditions, for example in the highlands, or for people with extremely sensitive skin. Tanning with such creams and gels will not work, but to get a heat stroke, hoping that you can lie for hours on the sun - easily. If you combine sunbathing with swimming, playing on sand, etc., the protective layer from the skin is gradually washed off and erased, and under the influence of UV rays the protection gradually weakens, loses its effectiveness.

Recommending this or that remedy, you should ask - on the beach or in the solarium the buyer is sunbathing. And to propose the appropriate - the conditions of irradiation in these cases are very different, so that with the "for the beach" in the solarium you can very quickly get burnt, and with suntan cream there will not be sunbathing.

When it's too late to defend yourself ...
With a slight sunburn - for example, when the hands are blushed and itch to the short-sleeved line - they rarely go to the pharmacy. But if the touch of clothing becomes painful, the skin acquires a bright red tint - the search for a means for first aid for burns begins.

Remember that a severe sunburn is a dangerous injury! If the patient's body temperature rose to 39 C or higher, severe swelling, the skin wrinkled and sagged, large blisters quickly formed (over 5 cm in diameter) or a face covered with small bubbles, dark circles, dry mouth, nausea, dizziness , a fainting condition, pain persists even without touching the skin - you need to call a doctor immediately!

With a severe burn, it is recommended immediately to take inside the NSAIDs - this will at least partially relieve the pain and reduce the severity of the inflammatory reaction with swelling, redness, etc. If there is a suspicion of photodermatitis (burned places noticeably swelled, allergy symptoms are observed) - you can use antihistamines and drugs of systemic action. However, the main treatment for sunburn is done by local means.

For first aid, sprays (in extreme cases - gels) with lidocaine, anesthetine, etc. are often recommended. These same external pain relievers will be useful in those cases when the victim is difficult to fall asleep due to pain and itching from touching the bed.

As an anti-inflammatory agent that promotes the regeneration of burned skin, it is possible to offer dexpanthenol in various preparations - Panthenol, D-panthenol, Bepanten, Panesol, and the like. In the first hours and days after the burn, sprays with dexpanthenol are best used - they painlessly lie on extremely sensitive skin, do not damage it and are well distributed over the affected surface, forming a protective layer. In a few days, when the sensitivity decreases, you can replace the spray with water-based cream or gel: they do not have to be rubbed into the skin, and they do not violate thermoregulation - unlike a film of ointments on a fat basis.

To treat blisters on the skin, peeling or scaly areas, it is best to use antiseptics containing chlorhexidine, miramistin, silver sulfadiazine - unlike previously used alcohol solutions, they do not dry or burn the skin, do not slow down the regeneration and effectively prevent infection of the burn. Do not puncture the blisters!

After the acute period has passed, the regeneration stage begins - for simplification and acceleration, gels containing deproteinized hemoderivate (Solcoseryl, Actovegin) or allantoin are usually used.

Remind the buyer who asked for funds for the treatment of sunburn, that at least during the first week you can not go out in the sun, so as not to provoke an exacerbation. And even when the burn heals, a new skin grows on the damaged and peeling place - you need to protect it from new burns. And in order not to miss the summer and the possibility of sunburn, it is better to use protective cosmetics - by choosing means with increased protection, designed for sensitive skin.


Colds in Pregnant Women

16 Aug 2018

With the onset of the cold season, we are increasingly reminded of the imminent approach of another flu epidemic. Journalists are waiting for another sensational pandemic, doctors are preparing to increase the flow of patients, and pharmacy employees are laying out popular anti-cold medications on the showcase and constantly responding to questions from customers about what can protect themselves from acute respiratory viral infection or how to heal if infection was not avoided . The worse the weather outside the window and below the thermometer, the more people who want to buy various antipyretic, antitussive and antiviral drugs - and, of course, there are many pregnant women among them, to the status and complaints of which the pharmacist should be especially attentive.

Colds at pregnacy

Cold and pregnancy: a dangerous combination
As you know, any infection during pregnancy is a very serious risk factor and the expectant mother should try to protect herself and her baby from her. However, avoiding infection during the seasonal epidemic is not so simple, most of the viruses that cause colds are highly contagious and can spread by airborne droplets. That is enough one trip in public transport or shopping, so that the immune system of a pregnant woman had to reflect a massive viral attack.

Given that the transferred ARI does not lead to the formation of a person's immunity, it is not surprising that the flu and ARI are in the lead in frequency and prevalence around the world. During pregnancy, the situation is further complicated by the fact that the immune system of the female body is not as active as in normal times. Especially the probability of infection for a future mother increases dramatically in the third trimester, when her body is most susceptible to any infections. Medical statistics show a rather alarming picture: from 55 to 82% of pregnant women suffer a cold, which often occurs quite heavily and is accompanied by serious complications.

Reduce the severity of the disease and prevent the development of complications will only help early diagnosis and timely adequate treatment.

Determine the onset of the common cold is simple, all of its symptoms are quite typical and well known. As a rule, from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first signs of the disease takes an average of about 1-2 days. At this time the woman can feel an incomprehensible weakness that does not pass even after rest, headache, discomfort in the nasopharynx and excessive sweating. If it is possible to "catch" this prodromal period and consult a doctor, then most likely the future mother will be prescribed antiviral treatment, which will help to avoid further development of the common cold. However, if a pregnant woman applies for antiviral drugs directly to the pharmacy, the pharmacist must dissuade her from such a purchase, or at least advise her before consulting the doctor.

Feverish syndrome - what to advise?

In most cases, the early period of the cold passes almost unnoticed and the sick turn to the doctor after the typical clinical picture of the flu or ARVI has been formed. As a rule, in the first days of the cold is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature and signs of severe intoxication - drowsiness, lethargy, headache and muscle pain. Especially high figures in the first days the temperature reaches at a flu (to 39-40 C) when it is very difficult to "knock down". Only after 2-3 days, the thermometer readings begin to gradually decrease and, under favorable conditions, finally normalize to the 5th-6th day of the disease. In some cases, there may be a secondary rise in temperature on the 2-3 day of the disease.

The increased temperature not only worsens the patient's well-being, but also has a very negative effect on the health of the baby's future, and therefore requires immediate treatment. Nevertheless, to normalize body temperature, physical methods should first of all be used: water wiping at room temperature, copious drinking, etc. Only in the case when the treatment did not help and the temperature continues to increase, you should resort to taking medications.

I must say that helping with the choice of antipyretic drugs - this is the main request from which colds turn to the pharmacy, tk. the assortment of preparations of this group today is huge and it is rather difficult to orientate the layman in it. The main thing that the pharmacist should pay attention to their customers is the effectiveness and safety of the drug they buy. According to international standards and WHO recommendations to date, the optimal ratio of benefit and risk is typical for drugs based on ibuprofen and paracetamol. But the intake of ibuprofen during pregnancy and lactation is not recommended, so paracetamol is recognized as the only safe for future mothers, which practically does not cause side effects during short-term use and has a good antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.

It should also be sure to remind the customers about the need to strictly follow the instructions to the drug and do not exceed the recommended single and daily dosages, because overdose develops serious toxic effects.

In addition, a woman should be warned that any antipyretics, which include acetylsalicylic acid, are contraindicated in pregnancy.

Possibilities of symptomatic treatment

By the end of the 2-3 day of the disease, intoxication and fever decrease slightly, but there are abundant mucous discharge from the nose and cough - first dry and then wet. At this stage of the disease, decongestants, antitussive drugs and mucolytics are most in demand.

The choice of funds for the treatment of the common cold during pregnancy is severely limited, because traditionally prescribed local vasoconstrictive drugs based on naphazoline, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine and other adrenomimetics are usually not recommended for use during pregnancy, tk. the study of their influence on fetal development was not carried out. The instructions to such drugs are usually written that "can only be used after a thorough assessment of the risk-benefit relationship for the mother and fetus." Therefore, the best advice a pregnant woman can get from a cold is various preparations based on vegetable oils with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action, as well as sprays and drops with sea water or saline solution for washing the nasal cavity. In addition, it is necessary to warn a woman from using a very popular home remedy for the common cold - aloe juice, which is contraindicated in pregnancy.

Treatment for a cough in a future mother also has a number of features. Thus, antitussive drugs of central action during pregnancy are practically not used because of the high risk of side effects. The tactics of treating dry cough involves the use of funds that stimulate the sputum and improve its withdrawal. But mucolytics should be prescribed as carefully as possible: various syrups and medicines based on plant extracts - ivy, thermopsis, licorice, althaea, etc. - should become the drugs of choice. Any dosage forms containing ethyl alcohol, codeine and other antitussive substances of narcotic effect can not be recommended.

More recently, a solution of drinking soda or furacilin has traditionally been recommended as an anti-inflammatory agent for rinsing the oropharynx. However, now they are trying to refuse such methods, sodium hydrogencarbonate can provoke a violation of acidity and an increase in the stomach volume, as well as other unpleasant phenomena, and the effectiveness of furacilin as an antimicrobial agent has long been in doubt. For a pregnant woman the optimal anti-inflammatory drug are sprays and solutions based on chlorhexidine, a sufficiently safe and highly effective substance.

And, of course, do not forget about the possibilities of traditional herbal medicine, because a modern pharmacy can offer a rich selection of ready-made anti-cold medications based on medicinal plants. Antipyretic teas, anti-inflammatory rinses with decoctions of chamomile and sage, as well as many other phytopreparations will greatly facilitate the course of the cold and accelerate recovery. It is only necessary to carefully monitor the fact that among the contraindications to their use there is no indication of a period of pregnancy.


WADA softened its position on Meldonium

15 Aug 2018

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) issued a special statement on April 14, according to which not all athletes with a positive breakdown into mills will be punished. WADA experts do not have accurate data on the withdrawal of the drug from the body and suggested that the drug could remain in the body of athletes after January 1, 2016, even if it was taken before the agency decided to include meldonium in the banned list. In turn, "Grindex" hopes for an open dialogue with WADA and will make every effort to ensure that the drug has been excluded from the list of doping.

Actovegin. Meldonium. Trental buy

Simple mathematics
Accredited WADA laboratories have begun studies that should clearly show what the timing of deducing Meldonium from the body. Already today the agency agrees that they can be long, up to several months. This is also indicated by the preliminary results of WADA research.

Academician of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science. chem. Sciences, prof. Ivars Kalvish, the founder of Mildronate, is a little annoyed in this occasion. "If the agency WADA read my work on what is happening with Meldonium in the body, it would find out that the drug is stored inside the cells of the myocardium. The substance accumulates and lingers in the body, "he said at a press conference in Moscow on April 18. According to him, after a course of treatment in the body, a person accumulates about 18-25 g.

"The elimination half-life means that if the drug is taken in a dose of 1 g, then the first half of this amount, that is, 500 mg, is excreted for a certain period, indicated in the instructions, depending on the organism from 3 to 9 hours. In the next 9 hours 250 mg, the next 9 hours - 125 mg, etc. are output. Therefore, you need 20-30 half-lives in order to deduce 1 g. Now calculate how much will be deduced 20 g. About 120 days ", - counts the Latvian academician.

The main battle
However, this is only a temporary retreat of WADA. And it concerns only those athletes who will be able to prove that they took Meldonium until September 16, 2015, when it became known that he had been included in the list of prohibited medicines for athletes. The agency does not say that it intends to review the decision to the full.

At the same time "Grindex" - the Latvian manufacturer Mildronate - conducts active correspondence with WADA. "The position of the company" Grindex "is extremely simple: Mildronate has never been created as a dope, - says the Chairman of the Board of JSC" Grindeks "Juris Bundulis. - Its pharmacological properties and indications for use do not correspond to any criterion by which a drug could be classified as doping. As for our relationship with WADA, for a long period of time, on the basis of scientific publications, we tried to convince experts that Mildronate should not be included in the list. Unfortunately, the last decision on the list for January 1, 2016 was an unpleasant surprise for us. "

But, despite the disappointment, the company decided to open dialogue with WADA experts. On April 13, a letter was sent to the agency saying: "As far as we know, WADA's public statements on the properties of meldonium, which served as the basis for its inclusion in the List of Prohibited Substances in 2016, could be based on no more than three publications. At the same time, the conclusions drawn in these publications are not sufficiently substantiated. "That is why Grindex provided an overview of the therapeutic use of the drug for consideration by the agency.

Intermediate solution
How WADA will respond to these studies is still unknown. As they say in "Grindex", the agency is not very willing to communicate with the manufacturer. However, Russian doctors believe that the use of the drug for athletes should be made possible at least for therapeutic use.

"Now beta-blockers are prohibited, but there are life-threatening conditions, in particular, a rhythm disturbance, in which they can not be used," recalls Assoc. Department of Sports Medicine, head. the Laboratory of Sports Cardiology of the Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Ph.D. honey. Sciences Anastasia Mikhailova. - There are also beta-stimulants, which are shown to athletes with bronchial asthma. Probably, it would be possible to allow the use of meldonium in certain circumstances. "

To the question whether the company will be satisfied with this decision, at least, answered that specialists should solve it, but once again stressed that for the moment there is no scientific research that meldonium increases efficiency. And if this is so, then it should not be on the list.

As far as Grindex is enough, it is not yet clear. As noted during the press conference head. Department of Therapy, Clinical Pharmacology and Emergency Medical Care of MGMSU, Doctor of Medicine. honey. Sciences, prof. Arkady Vertkin, athletes - the smallest group of drug users: "Athletes are much less than the army of patients with whom we deal every day. Patients after a heart attack, stroke, oncology, fractures, injuries, the so-called group of less mobile people. "

So, even if the "Grindex" can not persuade WADA to exclude the drug from the list of banned, then for meldonium life will not end. Yes, and Mr. Bundulis himself admits that the doping scandal is a new opportunity for the drug. According to him, the company receives many letters from the professional medical community of countries where the drug is not registered.



15 Aug 2018

Antidepressant: Buspirone (Buspiron)

Active substance: Buspirone
Buspirone struggles with vegetative and psychic manifestations of fear. In other words, it is an anxiolytic remedy. In addition, it has a significant antidepressant effect. Compared to classical drugs of this type, it does not give a sleeping pills effect, it does not relax the muscles. It can also be said that buspirone absorbed the qualities of both antidepressants and anxiolytics. Thus, the drug has a complex effect, which allows you to deal with several problems at once.


A significant advantage of the drug is that it does not cause the slightest addiction, and after discontinuation of its use, a person does not have an abstinence syndrome.

In clinical trials it was found that buspirone favorably affects the symptoms of social phobia, one of the most common types of anxiety disorders. So, 12 weeks of application of the drug was enough to make a marked improvement reached 2/3 of the patients.

Buspirone is ideally suited for complex therapy of depressive states with the concomitant use of SSRI antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). The drug not only enhances the overall antidepressant effect of such therapy, but also can prevent sexual dysfunction, which can occur as a side reaction to SSRIs.

Pharmacological action: The drug acts on a number of receptors of the brain (mainly on serotonin and dopamine receptors). The effect comes smoothly and is felt at the end of the first-second weeks of treatment. Peak effect is observed after 1 month of taking the drug.

Indications for use: Buspirone is used as a means to combat anxiety. First of all, it concerns neuroses accompanied by such unpleasant manifestations as insomnia, irritability, various somatic disorders, as well as feelings of danger, tension, anxiety and anxiety. In addition, the drug is used as a component of complex therapy for mild depressions, as well as for alcohol withdrawal (as an auxiliary therapy).

Contraindications: It should avoid taking buspirone during breastfeeding and pregnancy. The same applies to hypersensitivity, serious liver disease, kidney failure, epileptic seizures, myasthenia gravis and acute angina glaucoma. Finally, the use of this drug for people under the age of majority is prohibited.

Dosage and administration: The drug is taken orally. Start treatment with buspirone with a dosage of 15 mg / day for 3 doses. The effective dose, as a rule, is 20 - 30 mg, but go to it gradually, increasing the dosage by 5 mg every 2-3 days. The maximum daily dose is 60 mg.

Side effects: Buspirone is a safe drug in terms of lack of dependence, but can cause a number of adverse reactions of the body. This is dizziness, fatigue, nausea, headaches, tachycardia, a feeling of dry mouth, irritability, drowsiness or, conversely, arousal.


What is detoxification?

15 Aug 2018

Detoxication - destruction and neutralization of various toxic substances by chemical, physical or biological methods.

Detoxification is a natural or artificial removal of toxic substances from the body. Or a complex of artificial and natural measures to cleanse the body of toxins.

What is detoxification

Complex detoxification presupposes first of all an artificial stimulation of natural processes of cleansing the body, and methods of artificial purification that the body would never be able to use independently, in view of the lack of such opportunities and resources in it.

Toxic substances enter the body in the form of drugs or alcohol and gradually accumulate in it. The longer a person uses narcotic substances or alcohol, the more toxic substances accumulate in his body. In simple terms, detoxification is the removal of poisonous substances from the body, purification of the poisoned organism.

What is the purpose of detoxification?

Detoxification is needed in order to rid the body of harmful substances, withdraw them naturally, while replacing the substances removed from the body for new vitamins and minerals necessary for the body.

Detoxification is useful to everyone, but it should be done correctly, so as not to harm the body. Studies were carried out, during which it was found that detoxification presupposes certain norms of necessary vitamins and minerals, which must be taken only in the right proportions.

After all, if you use them unbalanced the body can be destroyed, and not restored. Therefore, detoxification is a very important program, which requires close attention of specialists in this field of knowledge. This is why before the program detoxification for the public, the most complex studies were conducted, after which, for about 50 years, people have achieved success and become freer and happier.

Detoxification for addicts
Detoxification is necessary for people dependent on something either because in the body of these people accumulated deposits of any drugs or alcohol, which prevents a person from getting rid of addiction. It was noticed that these deposits in the fatty tissue of a person from time to time can again fall into the blood of a person, and even years later again cause a state of euphoria or the need to take this or that drug. Therefore, an inevitable step for any dependent is detoxification.

Detoxification involves running, sweating in the sauna, and filling the body with the necessary vitamins and minerals (Heptral, cyanocobalamin, B1 etc) that are washed out on the program. Detoxification becomes a simple and natural process, if we start with only these components. Detoxification should not be difficult, and its purpose is very simple, to remove toxins and teach the body to independently in the process of life get rid of those that in the future accidentally fall.


Formation of drug abuse

14 Aug 2018

The use of narcotic drugs is due to the peculiarities of their action on humans, one of which is the ability to cause euphoria.

Formation of drug abuse

This euphoria is one of the signs of the state of narcotic intoxication (intoxication). Its nature, severity of subjective effects of pleasure, pleasure, imaginary improvement of physical and mental well-being are determined by various factors: the type of drug, the state and mood of the consumer, the environment in which it is located. The euphoria caused by opioid preparations is inherent in the sensations of somatic pleasure and the emotional background of rest, bliss. With euphoria caused by psychostimulants, a feeling of intellectual recovery, enlightenment prevails. The euphoria observed in narcotic intoxication is necessarily combined with a perceptual disorder, a change in thinking.

It should be emphasized that the degree of drug exposure is directly dependent on the dose taken, and is also related to previous experience of its consumption (the presence of tolerance to the drug). The nature of the euphoria caused by it also depends on the prescription of the drug. It is known that drug addicts with experience do not reach the euphoria they received at the beginning of anesthesia. As you get used to the drug, the intensity of euphoria decreases. Over time, the addict begins to take the drug not to evoke euphoria in its original concept, but only in order to remove the subjectively painful, uncomfortable state. Taking a drug does not make him particularly pleasant, but without him he can not do.

The ability of narcotic drugs to cause addiction (drug dependence) is explained by their pharmacological action on those areas of the brain, the irritation of which causes positive sensations. Narcotic substances and substances that cause substance abuse, activate zones of comfort, pleasure, reward, encouragement, positive reinforcement, and thereby strengthen emotionally positive reactions. Physiologists, assessing the significance of these zones for an animal, believe that its behavior is determined by the irritation of these zones and zones of the opposite sign (zones of punishment, zones of displeasure).

Nerve impulses coming along the conducting paths bring information to the brain about the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of a particular need. As a result, the animal chooses that tactic of behavior, which in the end provides an irritation of the positive zones. In humans, this system is certainly more difficult, since its needs and activities are largely due to social factors, but the principle of the system is similar.

Narcotic substances, activating pleasure zones, form a new need, a new desire - the need for the use of narcotic drugs. This new need begins to suppress will and mind.

Episodic use of intoxicating drugs is replaced by their regular reception. The initial effect of their intake diminishes, the protective reactions to its administration decrease and disappear - all these are symptoms of a change in the reactivity of the organism. He is already differently than before, reacting to the injecting drug. (A person from birth has a number of innate protective reactions, manifested by the ingress of toxic (poisonous) substances into the body. For example, in a person not accustomed to drinking alcohol, even a small amount of alcoholic drinks causes vomiting. Thus the body protects itself from foreign harmful substances. )

The same happens with the first acquaintance with drugs. For example, first when cannabis is taken or when sleeping pills are misused, there are profuse sweats, hiccups, drooling, pain in the eyes, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and then these symptoms are no longer noted even with deep fatal intoxication.

A healthy person can not drink wine, vodka, etc. for several days in a row; they become disgusted to him, and a patient with alcoholism drinks them daily. The same happens when taking intoxicating agents. Regular daily use of them indicates a changed response to these funds - about getting used to them. It manifests itself in increasing the tolerability of narcotic drugs, increasing tolerance. Tolerance is a state of adaptation, characterized by a weakening of the protective reaction to the initial dose of the intoxicating substance so that to increase the former degree of intoxicating effect, its increase is required. The forms of intoxication are also changing, but this happens somewhat later.

At the same time, phenomena of mental dependence arise and intensify, a condition in which a drug causes a sense of satisfaction and requires repeated or continuous administration to continue pleasure or prevent discomfort. Mental dependence manifests itself in constant thoughts about drugs, in raising the mood in anticipation of its reception, and vice versa, in irritability, dissatisfaction, depression in the absence of the usual means. If a healthy person has various pleasures, he can be in a state of mental comfort in a variety of situations, then the addict reaches it only under the influence of the drug.

The appearance of signs of physical dependence, which manifests itself in the intense physical disorders that occur when the drug is discontinued, is the next stage in the development of the disease. Such disorders (abstinence syndrome) are a complex of specific symptoms and signs of mental and physical properties that are characteristic of the action of each type of drug.

Relief comes with the introduction into the body of the same drug or other substance that has a similar pharmacological effect and belongs to the same type. When the appropriate dosage is observed, the physical dependence does not appear externally. It becomes a powerful factor in increasing mental dependence, which causes a person to continue taking the drug or resume its use even after trying to refrain from it.


Review of Psilocybes

14 Aug 2018

Currently, the genus psilocybe has about 20 species. At the same time, American and Asian species are poorly studied. Species of this genus are cosmopolitan and widely distributed in almost all continents. Fungi of the genus psilocybe are saprophytes. They settle on soil, dead branches and stems of plants, are found on sawdust, many live on sphagnum marshes, peat, manure. Occur in the forest on humus forest. A characteristic feature of many fungi is dwelling on boggy soil. Therefore they belong to the helophytic species.

Review of Psilocybes

The color of the bonnet is reddish, yellow or olive. The cap is dry or watery, depending on the habitat of the fungus. Plates accreted to the stem or slightly descending along it. The spores are brown-violet, ellipsoidal or grain-shaped. Bedspread is barely noticeable or completely absent. The foot is cartilaginous.

There are no edible mushrooms in this way. However, they have a peculiar application. In some manuscripts of the 16th - 17th centuries, in which the disappearing culture of the Aztecs is described, there is a mention of Indian ritual ceremonies, in connection with which mushrooms that caused hallucinations were used. The hallucinogenic properties of some fungi were known to the Maya priests in ancient Mexico, who used them in religious ceremonies. These mushrooms have been used in Central America for a very long time. The Indians consider them divine mushrooms. Found even stone images of mushrooms, revered by Indians as deities.

Of the fungi belonging to the genus psilocybe, a hallucinogenic substance called psilocybin was isolated. This is a 4-oxidimethyl-tryptamine phosphate ester (CH12O4N2P). Pharmacological tests have shown that one hundred psilocybin is not toxic. A dose of about 1 mg causes a person intoxicated within 20 to 30 minutes after ingestion. A dose of up to 4 mg causes a state of detachment from reality, and at higher doses (up to 12 mg) profound changes in the psyche occur, hallucinations occur. Currently, this substance is synthesized abroad and used to treat certain mental illnesses. Very interesting is the effect of psilocybin on patients suffering from memory loss. Almost 50% of patients have memories, revival, fear and restraint disappear. Patients remember what they have forgotten, and help doctors to better understand the causes of the disease. However, the substance of psilocybin becomes a very dangerous hallucinogenic drug if it is used not for medical purposes, without medical supervision.

To date, psilocybin has been found in some fungi from the genus Paneeolus (Panaeolus), Stropharia (Stropharia), Anellaria (Anellaria). To the hallucinogenic fungus is now attributed to about 25 species and 75% of them are members of the psilocybe family (Psilocybe), for example P. caerulescens, P. semilanceata, P. pelliculosa, P. cubensis.

In addition to psilocybin, hallucinogenic fungi also have another substance that also has a psychotropic effect: psilocin, close in structure to psilocybin. In the fungi of the genus stropharia and psilocybe, as well as in the genus Paneolus, indole derivatives (tryptamine, etc.), which have an anticoagulant effect on solutions of fibrinogen, have been found. Fungal preparations with this effect can be used in the treatment of thromboses.

The species growing on wet, swampy places and being there usual are the dark-brown psilocybe (P. atrobrunnea) with a bell-shaped watery cap of 3-5 cm in diameter. The plates, adhering to the foot, later lagging behind it, are rare, thick, brownish -series, with a white edge. Taste and smell of carbohydrates or flour. A mushroom grows among sphagnum mosses.

On the same peat bogs and boggy meadows, in forests among mosses is widespread psilotsibe moist (P. paupera). It is a small mushroom with an outstretched reddish-brown cap with a diameter of 1.5-3 cm, which has a more prominent, rounded tubercle of a darker color on top. The plates, attached to the stem, are grayish-violet. Leg is hollow inside, rusty-brown, above light, fibrous.

On the pastures and in the hummocks there is a heathlope psyche (P. ericaceae). The cap of this fungus is convex or campanulate, in the center depressed, 2-4 cm in diameter, brown or dark brown with a yellow hue, slightly mucous, with white flakes on the edge. The plates, attached to the stem, are wide, swollen, tapering to the ends and with a white edge. Their color is yellowish-brown, then almost black.

Psilocybe coprophilia (P. coprophila) - a typical coprophilic fungus, settling on cow dung, on pastures. The hat is outstretched, with a tubercle, 2-4 cm in diameter, reddish-brown, smooth, weakly lingual. Flesh white, thin. The plates are notorious, slightly protruding along the stem, very wide, frequent, bluish-gray, later darkening. Leg slightly thickened below, pale, powdery at the top.

In forests, pastures and along the outskirts of the roads, there is also a hallucinogenic fungus with a very characteristic structure - the psilocybe is semi-lanceolate (P. semilanceata). The hat is conical, then weakly prostrated, with a sharp tuber, 1-5 cm in diameter, yellowish-greenish, then darkening, brownish, with a peeling cut off in the form of mucous membranes. The plates are narrow, adherent to the stalk, frequent, at first light cream, and on maturation dark purple-violet.


Smoking Mixtures. Is it dangerous?

13 Aug 2018

Widespread recently, this kind of leisure, like smoking legal mixtures of herbs, which have a light psychotropic and hallucinogenic effect. Smoking mixtures (or as they are also called mixes) consist of extracts of plants and herbs. This species of plants is known to mankind for a long time, and is an entheogen, that is, they contain substances that have psychotropic effect. The composition of popular aromatic mixes includes such plants as red fly agaric, sage, dope, etc.

Smoking Mixtures

The smoking mixtures are divided into two groups. In the first group, mixes are composed, which consist of natural plants, the components of which are mixed together and create the so-called "effect of consumption". The second group includes smoking mixtures, the components of which are processed by chemical substances - synthetic cannabinoids, produced in laboratory conditions.

Examination of smoking mixtures found that the substances that make up such mixes have a hallucinogenic and psychotropic effect and contain toxic components that pose a potential danger to human life and health.

It is difficult to imagine, but the use of smoking mixtures can cause a different spectrum of negative mental effects: inability to concentrate, impaired perception, uncontrolled laughter, complete loss of contact with the outside world, lack of ability to navigate in space.

Local reactions resulting from the direct irritant effect of smoke on mucous membranes and irreversibly damaging effects on the nervous system are not the greatest evil. Systematic smoking mixes leads to irreversible destructive processes in the central nervous system: attention is reduced, memory is worsened, thinking activity slows down, and a tendency to depressions appears. The impact of smoking mixtures over time can permanently change a person's personality, lead to severe disability, turn him into a drug addict. Thus, an innocent hobby can become a serious problem. The main difficulty in treating the consequences of poisoning with smoking mixtures is that the patients do not have any drugs in their blood, and therefore it is very difficult to diagnose poisoning and to prescribe adequate treatment.

The problem of mass distribution and use of smoking mixtures that have a narcotic and psychotropic effect takes on alarming proportions. The purchase is quite affordable, any teenager can make an order through the Internet and in half an hour get the desired mixture - be it Salvia or Spice, Bombay, Goa Spirit, Ganesh, Brain Storm. Pricing policy is also attractive for young people, because this category of population is the most unprotected. The lack of information about the dangers of smoking mixtures also plays into the hands of dealers. There are new all kinds of smoking mixtures, under different names, which, in addition to prohibited substances, contain extremely hazardous substances for human health.

Recently, cases of people turning to medical institutions with poisonings namely smoking mixtures have become more frequent. Only a qualified specialist can determine the degree of poisoning and prescribe the necessary treatment. Think about whether the minute pleasure is a complex process of treatment and rehabilitation.


In search of Meldonium

13 Aug 2018

In Siberia, create a device for doping control

Meldonium. Mildronate buy worldwide

While in the sports world are continuing of meldonium scandals, Tomsk scientists bring to the market a new device for determining the express method of substance content in the body of athletes and in the dietary supplements. It is expected that the portable electrochemical analyzer will appear in free sale in the winter of this year and its application can become a legal method for research and doping control.

Standard electrodes
At the beginning of the year, researchers from the Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) micro-admixture laboratory became interested in doping scandals, which threatened the career of Maria Sharapova and other athletes. After discussing the problem with sports medicine experts, scientists decided to create a new method for determining Mildronate in the blood - convenient and inexpensive. By this time the laboratory already had experience in developing methods for determining a wide range of substances - cardioprotectors, vitamins, antibiotics, developed a method for express control of uric acid in the blood, and prepared several models of devices for their determination.

The most popular way to determine the meldonium in the athlete's blood is liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. According to the head of the laboratory Galina Slepchenko, this is a stationary method, which is used in large laboratories with the use of expensive imported equipment and consumables. "We proposed an alternative for more mass application. Our reagents are available, and therefore inexpensive: the electrodes that we use in the apparatus are standard and are suitable for most voltammetric devices, "says Olga Mezentseva, one of the method developers.

Now the technique passes a metrological appraisal, so that it can be entered in the register of measurement techniques. While it is not clear whether it will be an arbitration method or an additional one, however, Tomsk citizens do not doubt in the use of development. "The changes that we fix with the instrument depend on the concentration of Meldonium in the blood of a person. The signal is recorded with a high enough accuracy, the error is 5-10%. With metrological certification, this figure may increase to 20%, - says Galina Slepchenko. "Even if this happens, our reliable and fast method is useful for confirming the result."

Convert to Money
The device is planned to be placed on the basis of the partner of the laboratory - a small innovative enterprise Tomanalit, which has already produced more than a thousand devices for the determination of other substances. Scientists suggest that in the winter the analyzer will enter the market, and its price will be about 200 thousand rubles.

Member of the Commission of the Russian Paralympic Committee on Medicine and Anti-Doping, ex-head physician of the Continental Hockey League Boris Tarasov does not yet see the point of the emergence of an express method for determining the content of meldonia in the blood of athletes: "First, we must wait for official data on the rate of removal of Meldonium from the body professional athlete. Such studies are now conducted by WADA and FMBA. Secondly, meldonium at the moment simply can not be accepted, since it is included in the prohibited list of WADA. If it becomes clear in the fall that some athlete, after a monstrous scandal, takes meldonium, this, at least, means his full profavility, as well as the incompetence of the sports doctor who watches him. " If for Mildronate WADA and FMBA establish usual, as for most other drugs, the timing of excretion, there is no point in determining in the body the presence of only Meldonium, since the doping of WADA is the overwhelming majority of drugs, the expert believes.

In the opinion of Boris Tarasov, for a real counter to the spread in the sport of doping, absolutely different methods and approaches are needed, both from WADA and from the IOC. "It is necessary to completely change the WADA Code and the criteria for including medicines and methods in the banned list, which professionals in sports medicine have been talking about for many years. This is the only way to protect Russia and other countries from similar doping scandals. Otherwise, not Meldonium, so something else will come up, because the pharmacological guide is very large, "- sums up the expert.


Dysbacteriosis: how to restore balance

13 Aug 2018

Today they speak about this problem very often. At the doctor's reception, TV screen, Internet sites, magazine and newspaper pages - everywhere this word: "dysbacteriosis." This is a very strange violation, it is so often declared the main culprit of our health problems, that many have become very skeptical about the very fact of the existence of dysbiosis. And is there such a disease? And is it so serious, how does the ubiquitous advertisement broadcast it? Let's try to figure it out together.

And to begin with we will specify that the separate disease "dysbacteriosis" really does not exist. But thus a dysbacteriosis is quite serious medical problem which can become the reason of development (indirect or direct) the most different pathologies.

What is dysbiosis?
According to one of the definitions, a change in the quantitative and (or) qualitative composition of the bacterial flora is called a dysbacteriosis, caused by a violation of adaptive, protective and compensatory mechanisms.

Such a vague definition of this condition was received due to the fact that the experts still do not have a common opinion about what is dysbiosis. So, the concept of "dysbacteriosis" is absent in ICD-10 and other generally accepted classifications of diseases. That is, it is not considered an independent nosological unit, but rather a deviation from the norm of one of the indices of the internal environment of the organism. Nevertheless, none of the clinicians deny that the development of dysbacteriosis has a huge impact on the body as a whole and leads to a violation of its metabolic, biochemical and immunological balance.

About the emergence of dysbiosis it is customary to speak in the case when the basic microflora, which constitutes 90-95% of the total number of microorganisms in a healthy person, for whatever reasons begins to give way to a rapidly developing residual (conditionally pathogenic) flora, the number of which normally does not exceed 1% of the whole flora.

How and why does dysbacteriosis develop?

According to statistics, which leads the RAMS, at least 90% of the inhabitants of our country during their lifetime suffer from any manifestations of dysbiosis. This prevalence of this disorder is primarily due to the large number of risk factors that are capable of provoking an imbalance in microflora.

Here is just a short list of the main causes of dysbiosis:

- irrational use of antibiotics;
- deficiency in the daily diet of dietary fiber;
- excessive use of products that cause fermentation and putrefactive processes;
- prolonged and frequent stress;
- adverse environmental conditions;
- metabolic diseases;
- bad habits and addictions (drug addiction, alcoholism);
- violation of intestinal motility;
- decreased gastric secretion;
- acute and chronic infections;
- hypovitaminosis;
- violation of digestion and absorption processes.

The main symptoms of dysbiosis

Despite the fact that dysbiosis is not an independent disease, it is possible to identify the most common symptoms characteristic of this condition.

For example, it is believed that the appearance of conventionally pathogenic strains in the intestinal microflora is primarily manifested by irritable bowel syndrome. Also in patients with dysbacteriosis, even at early stages, various metabolic disturbances can be clearly traced (weight loss, dry skin, eye fatigue, deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins and calcium develops).

Disturbance of digestion in the small intestine leads to an intensification of putrefactive and fermenting processes and the emergence of persistent, non-dietary dyspepsia (flatulence, osmotic diarrhea, paroxysmal abdominal pain), and various allergic reactions.

Active multiplication of conditionally pathogenic flora can cause inflammatory processes in the intestinal mucosa (duodenitis, enteritis, colitis, etc.) and functional disorders in all parts of the digestive system.

The change in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora inevitably triggers a chain of pathological processes. Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms begin to multiply actively, which is accompanied by an increased release of bacterial toxins that enter the bloodstream and have a systemic effect on the state of the whole organism. In addition, some digestive enzymes are partially destroyed by the action of bacteria and bile acid transformation takes place, as a result of which digestion and absorption of nutrients are disrupted.

Depending on the degree of expression of the nature of the prevailing flora, it is customary to allocate several degrees of dysbiosis:

I degree - a violation of appetite, unstable stool, flatulence, uneven staining of feces;

II degree - a feeling of overfilling of the stomach and intestines after eating, belching, heartburn, flatulence, migraine pains in the abdomen, unstable stools, skin allergic reactions, symptoms of hypovitaminosis;

III degree - symptoms of gastrointestinal dyspepsia become even more pronounced and frequent, signs of trophic disorders appear;

IV degree - signs of systemic intoxication, violations in the work of all organs and systems, general weakening of the body, pathological impurities in the feces.

Bacterial vaginosis

No less serious problem than intestinal dysbiosis, is a common gynecological pathology, such as bacterial vaginosis - i.e. violation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora of the vagina.

Normal genital microflora plays a huge role in maintaining the reproductive health of women. The main representatives of the "useful" flora in the vagina, as well as in the intestines, are lacto- and bifidobacteria. They produce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, which form an acidic environment and prevent the propagation of opportunistic pathogens and the penetration of infection from the outside.

Violation of the balance of the microflora of the vagina creates favorable conditions for the development of fungal, bacterial or mixed infection. Chronic inflammatory process of internal genital organs leads to permanent damage to the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, it disrupts its protective mechanisms and the ability to regenerate, thereby increasing the risk of developing precancerous and malignant diseases. In addition, a direct relationship between vaginal dysbacteriosis and infertility, as well as an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, has been found.

Symptoms of vaginal dysbacteriosis are nonspecific, and in a number of cases the disease proceeds secretly and is only detected by chance, with a routine examination by a gynecologist. Most often, patients complain of copious prolonged discharge with an unpleasant odor. If the itching, burning and irritation of the mucosa are added, then it is about attaching any infection and developing the inflammatory process.

General principles of treatment of dysbiosis

Treatment of dysbiosis includes 5 consecutive stages:

1. Correction of external risk factors

It is necessary to normalize the diet, to review the qualitative composition of the diet (supplementing the diet with vitamins and microelements, increasing the intake of dietary fiber and pectin to create the optimal habitat for microflora), and to monitor the quality of drinking water.

2. Treatment of functional disorders and chronic diseases

Even the most effective therapy of dysbacteriosis will give only a short-term effect if conditions for repeated relapse persist.

3. Suppression of excess conditionally pathogenic microflora

To prescribe drugs (antibiotics), it is necessary to determine the severity of the dysbacteriosis and the spectrum of the microflora sown. In most cases, antibiotic therapy is prescribed only after an intestinal infection has been identified and confirmed.

4. Reception of pre- and probiotics taking into account the peculiarities of the patient's condition
To correct the imbalance of microflora, pre- and probiotics are very widely used today. Probiotics include preparations containing living microorganisms that help restore the microbial composition of the intestine (or vagina). First of all, they include lacto- and bifidobacteria. Also used as probiotics are preparations containing streptococci, non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and clostridia, fungi Saccharomyces boulardii. Prebiotics are agents containing substances that create optimal conditions for the growth and reproduction of beneficial microflora. Prebiotics are most often used food fibers (drugs and dietary supplements) and carbohydrate complexes: fructo-oligosaccharides and galactooligosaccharides.

5. Fixing and maintaining the achieved therapeutic effect

To this end, the general strengthening non-drug methods are used: correct mode of work and rest, rejection of bad habits, prevention of stress and strengthening of immunity, dietary restrictions, supplementation of multivitamins and periodic maintenance courses for prebiotics.

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