According to the World Health Organization, more than a billion people on the planet are overweight. In Western Europe, 10-20% of men and 20-25% of women are overweight or obese. According to various estimates, in Russia more than 60% of the adult population of the country has a body weight exceeding the physiological norm; every fourth Russian is obese. The economic costs of treating obesity and its complications are very high - in the developed countries of the world they make up 8-10% of total health care costs.
For reasons that contribute to weight gain, you can include genetic predisposition; excessive consumption of food containing fats; hypodynamia; endocrinological disorders (dysfunctions of the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, pancreas, etc.), the systematic use of certain drugs - antipsychotic drugs (clozapine), tricyclic antidepressants; lithium preparations; anticonvulsants (carbamazepine); sugar-reducing drugs (sulfanylurea derivatives, thiazolidinediones), corticosteroid drugs, hormonal contraceptives, antihistamines, and others.
It is known that obesity significantly reduces the duration of human life and increases the likelihood of developing a number of serious diseases.
On the background of obesity most often develop diseases of the cardiovascular system (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, etc.). Obese people are also at increased risk of various cancers - colon cancer, endometrium, prostate, gallbladder, etc. Obesity is often combined with the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea, which significantly reduces life expectancy and can cause sudden death. Obesity is regarded as a factor contributing to the progression of chronic kidney disease, is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis and thromboembolism, especially if there are other predisposing factors (fracture of the proximal femur, large surgical operations, prolonged air travel).
At present, the following drugs for long-term therapy of obesity are registered in Russia:
- orlistat (Xenical) - the therapeutic effect is due to its ability to bind lipases in the gastrointestinal tract, which blocks the hydrolysis of edible fat (triglycerides) to absorbed free fatty acids and monoacylglycerols, preventing their entry into the systemic circulation;
- sibutramine (Meridia) - accelerates the onset of satiety, contributing to a reduction in the amount of food consumed, increases energy consumption of the body, normalizes lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
Effective in the treatment of obesity can be used products of natural origin.
1. Activators of metabolism and lipolysis
Red capsicum, the main component of which is the alkaloid capsaicin, causes an increase in the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine in the body, resulting in a significant activation of lipolysis and fat mobilization from adipose tissue. Capsaicin significantly increases the activity of one of the main enzymes of lipid metabolism - hepatic lipoprotein lipase and thereby reduces the concentration of triglycerides in the blood plasma. In addition, capsaicin is one of the most powerful stimulants of heat exchange processes in the body due to the expansion of the vessels of the skin and increased sweating. This process is accompanied by an acceleration of the basic metabolism and an increase in the daily energy costs of the organism, which are covered by fat resources.
The xanthines of guarana activate the effect of adrenaline and norepinephrine on fat tissue and lipolysis processes.
L-carnitine is an activator of oxidation of fatty acids in adipose tissue with the formation of free energy. It stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids by transporting them through the membrane to the interior of the mitochondria, thereby reducing the accumulation of fat in tissues and objectively reducing weight. Lipotropic factors - methionine, betaine, inositol, choline - are the key factors that determine the efficiency of fatty acid metabolism in the body, fat-mobilizing factors that promote rapid lipid cleavage.
Lipotropic substances are necessary for the metabolism in the body of triglycerides, phospholipids and transport forms of lipids, during which lipid compounds easily assimilated by the body tissues are formed. With a lack of lipotropic factors, the exchange of edible fats slows down sharply, as a result of which excess fatty acids are deposited in the form of fat deposits, while the liver suffers the most. With additional intake of lipotropic substances into the body, they actively bind to fatty acids, forming phospholipids, in which fats can be absorbed by the body, and serve as a source of energy and a building material for cell membranes.
Caffeine-containing plants (green tea, cola) stimulate the main metabolism and, in the first place, activate the processes of fat metabolism. In green tea, caffeine is in a bound form (with tannins), which provides for its softer and prolonged action in comparison with synthetic analogues.
Fucus as a source of bioavailable iodine contributes to a significant activation of the thyroid function, which is reduced in most people who are overweight. Disruption of the thyroid gland leads to a decrease in the intensity of basal metabolism and slows down lipolysis. Replenishment of iodine deficiency can intensify the metabolism processes primarily of fats, stabilize the exchange of simple carbohydrates.
2. Micronutrients preventing accumulation and growth of fat
Garcinia Cambodian has the ability to inhibit the formation of fatty acids in the body. The biologically active substance of Garcinia extract of Cambodian - hydroxycitrate - reduces the formation of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver. In addition, hydroxycitrate leads to activation of gluconeogenesis, incl. due to the reverse synthesis of glucose from fatty acids.
Chromium, especially in the form of organic compounds, is the most important factor in maintaining normal tolerance (sensitivity of tissues) in the body to glucose. Normalization of insulin levels and tissue sensitivity to insulin provides not only normalization of blood glucose levels, but also normalization of lipid metabolism due to reduction of fat and low density lipoprotein. All this leads to weight loss and increased content of high-density lipoproteins. Chromium also helps build muscle tissue and form elastic muscles.
B vitamins are indispensable cofactors of carbohydrate metabolism, which contribute to limiting the growth of fat. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is needed for burning calories, vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) speeds up the metabolism, and vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin) promotes good digestion and absorption of food.
3. Micronutrients, which reduce the absorption of fats in the intestine
Chitosan has a unique ability to bind fats in the intestine and to withdraw unchanged from the body to half of the lipids that have entered the body.
Dietary fibers, which are stimulants of intestinal peristalsis, and thereby significantly reduce the effectiveness of assimilation of individual components of food, incl. fats and carbohydrates. In addition, dietary fibers are sorbents and are able to adsorb bile acids and cholesterol, accelerate their excretion from the body. However, it must be remembered that a decrease in fat absorption is accompanied by a decrease in the intake of fat-soluble vitamins into the blood. Therefore, in order to avoid violations related to their deficiency, dietary supplements along with dietary fiber should be supplemented with vitamins A, E, etc.
4. Micronutrients regulating increased appetite
Regulation of appetite is currently the main method of correcting excess weight. Hydroxycitrate and its structural analogues, contained in Garcinia Cambodian, have an anorexigenic effect, i.e. can inhibit increased appetite. Also, dietary fibers from algae (sea cabbage, spirulina, bubbly fucus, etc.) due to the ability to swell when in contact with a large amount of water in the stomach irritate the baroreceptors and suppress the feeling of hunger. Hoodia Gordoniya reduces appetite and cravings for regular "snacks".
5. Herbal preparations that correct the secretory functions of the digestive tract - the secretion of bile, gastric juice and digestive enzymes
Cholagogue funds contribute to the normalization of disorders in obesity motor biliary tract, which provides a reduction in stagnation of bile and the risk of stone formation in the biliary tract. In addition, the use of natural bile stimulants and bile excretion (artichoke, dandelion, sorrel yellow, gentian yellow, corn stigmas, ginger, black pepper, peppermint, rosehip) in combination with dietary fiber provides the sorption of bile acids and their decay products, and promotes the activation of metabolism and the excretion of cholesterol from the body.
The use of plant digestive enzymes (papain, bromelain, betaine) improves digestion, lowers cholesterol.
6. Vegetable diuretics
When excess weight is often observed, a violation of water-salt metabolism and the retention of fluid and sodium in the tissues of the body, formed during the decay of fats. The use of diuretics, such as bearberry, birch, juniper, horsetail, cowberry, ginger, green tea not only normalizes the parameters of water-salt metabolism, but also greatly facilitates the achievement of effective weight loss.
7. Replenishment of deficiency of vitamins and minerals
The lack of vitamins and microelements, which occurs with low-calorie diets or fasting, can cause metabolic disorders. It is known that micronutrients (for example, vitamins B6, B12, B2, E, C, A, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin, selenium, potassium, etc.) participate in intracellular metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acids, steroid compounds and amino acids. A consequence of this deficit may be weight gain. Therefore, it is necessary to include these micronutrients in the complex weight loss program.
In the domestic pharmacy market, products of natural origin, recommended for obesity and its complications, are represented by drugs (but not many), and numerous dietary supplements.
With obesity, you can recommend the following drugs: Hofitol, Dr. Theiss New figure. And the following supplements: Atlant-IVA, Garcilin, Guarana-Yabloko, DIA-beta, Doctor Theiss Nova Figure (chewable tablets with inulin), Live drop, Ideal, Normoflorin-B biocomplex, Normoflorin-L biocomplex, Slim code, Slenderness, Slenderness Plus, Super System-Six, Turboslim day, Turboslim night, FITODIURETIC WITH KALIEM Diets formula, CHOLESTERIN BALANCE Life formula, CITRIMAX Plus Diets formula, etc.