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Herniated disc: dangerous, but curable

31 Jul 2018

According to different researchers, in adulthood, osteochondrosis disturbs from 50% to 85% of the world population, and there is a distinct tendency to "rejuvenate" this disease. The reason is simple and obvious: a sedentary lifestyle with an incorrect posture and an insufficiently developed muscular corset. For a long time, changes in the spine can develop imperceptibly, but at one not the perfect moment a person incorrectly undertakes to lift the heaviness, turns in an inclination to reach something, just drives along a bad road for a long time - with inevitable jerks and vibration - and then suddenly the back "Shoots" ... Very often, such a sudden painful attack becomes the first symptom of a severe and, alas, very common complication of the spine osteochondrosis - a herniated intervertebral disc.

Actovegin. Herniated disc

What happens to the disks
The intervertebral disc, contrary to a fairly common belief, is by no means a single "piece" of cartilaginous tissue, rather freely inserted between the vertebrae. Sometimes you can hear about the dislocation of the disc, which results in the damage to the nerves, and usually it is the imaginary appearance of the whole cartilage from its place: just insert the disc in place - and everything will pass ... Alas, it's not so simple.

Each intervertebral disc consists of 2 parts - a fibrous ring, a dense cartilaginous membrane, and a pulpous core, a jelly-like disk content. The core serves as a shock absorber for vertical loads and shocks, the fibrous ring supports the shape of the disc and serves as a "hinge" in the intervertebral joint. When the load along the vertebra is compressed, the height of the disc may decrease by 1-2 mm, with spinal distension or at rest - it increases by 3-5 mm. When you move, there is a constant change in the shape and size of the discs - normal, physiological protrusions with flexion and extension of the spine, not overlapping the spinal canal and not squeezing nerves.

However, with age, the condition of the disc tissues changes: the core becomes denser, the shell is less elastic, prone to cracking and bundle formation under load, and it returns worse to the original form after changing the load. In this case, prolonged sitting without movement contributes to the flattening of the discs: the muscular corset in this case is relaxed, and the weight of our body gradually squeezes the spine. If you sit all the time with an ideal flat, straight back, it's easier to avoid dangerous consequences, but who among us is able to sit for hours on end, "like a count swallowing"? And after all, any imbalance of posture immediately creates an uneven load on the intervertebral discs, they begin to shrink in one place, in the other - to protrude more ... If this condition is fixed - a small bulge appears on the disk, directed towards the least load. Usually it comes out either backwards or slightly to the side - because in a relaxed state we sit, slightly bent forward, and the front side of the discs works on the compression. And behind, behind the vertebrae, we just have a spinal canal, along the edges of which spines of large nerves leave the spinal cord. So even a small protrusion - the protrusion - of the intervertebral disc already creates the risk of injuries, accompanied by pain and impaired nerve functions.

Dangerous protrusion
However, usually a protrusion of up to 3 mm does not cause any painful sensations, a person may simply not notice it, such a change in the shape of the disc is detected only when the spine is examined. But the next stage of the development of a hernia - entrusion, or prolapse of the disc - is the rupture of the fibrous ring with the release of the core contents into the spinal canal. Prolapse can be partial - when the nucleus extends no more than 10 mm - or full, when the protrusion is 10-16 mm, and the fibrous ring is destroyed. Already with partial prolapse, dull, moderate pain in the back begins, and with complete pain it becomes strong, it prevents to live and work normally. The last stage of hernia development is sequestration, with the contents of the nucleus being separated from the remains of the disc and falling into the spinal canal, where it can move relatively freely, squeezing the roots of the spinal nerves and causing excruciating pain, as well as paresis or paralysis of the extremities.

Most often (in 90% of cases) the hernia is formed in the lumbar spine. This is due to the fact that it is the lower part of the lumbar region and the joint with the sacrum that take the greatest loads - and when walking, and when lifting weights, and when tilting or turning. Much less often - in 8% of cases - intervertebral hernias are formed in the cervical region, and only 2% falls on the thoracic department. Hernia in the thoracic region reports a permanent pain on the spot, especially in the most familiar sitting position. Hernia in the cervical region can be manifested by headaches, unexpected jumps in blood pressure, dizziness, pain in the hands or shoulders, numbness in the fingers. But the most typical picture is associated with protrusion in the lumbar region. Not too much pain in the lower back, which arose after an awkward movement, a rise in gravity, etc., few worries, despite the fact that something "crunched" in the back. Then within a day, pain and weakness spread along the leg, less often both. Depending on the point of protrusion, numbness and loss of sensation may be observed. Attacks of pain both in the back and in the leg are constantly repeated, intensifying with movements, especially those associated with the tension of the muscles of the back and abdomen - coughing, sneezing, straining in the toilet, etc.

The most correct position in such cases - lying (strict bed rest), preferably on the back, with slightly raised legs: you can put a pillow, a folded blanket. And it is necessary to call a doctor to determine the exact cause of the pain.

How to find and how to treat?
To accurately determine the location and size of the hernia without special examination, one can not do without: consultation of a surgeon, a neurologist, a radiography of the spine; if possible, you need to make a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the affected area and the entire vertebral column. Such a comprehensive examination allows you to exclude the possibility of nerve damage and the appearance of pain for various reasons - for example, because of radiculitis, bony growths on the vertebrae, displacement of the vertebrae, etc. The accuracy of the diagnosis in the treatment of intervertebral hernia is very important, because the error can lead to such complications as paralysis of the lower limbs and impaired functions of the pelvic organs.

At small (up to 5 mm for lumbar vertebrae) protrusions it is quite possible outpatient treatment with the use of physiotherapy exercises and procedures of spinal traction. In the early stages, when the fibrous ring has not yet been destroyed, the development of the hernia can be stopped and even reversed, the body has the opportunity for self-healing. But the larger the size of the hernia - the more difficult it is to make, the more difficult will be the treatment, and in case of a large prolapse and especially sequestering, the patient's hernia needs to be placed in a hospital. If the symptoms of compression of the spinal cord develop, an immediate operation is required to remove the hernia!

In 90% of cases the hernia is formed in the lumbar spine

However, in most cases, treatment begins with the elimination of the most disturbing symptom - pain, which can make the patient's life unbearable. In addition, an important task is to remove the inflammation that occurs in response to trauma, as well as improve nutrition and blood supply to damaged tissues. Usually, first of all, NSAIDs - diclofenac, ibuprofen, indomethacin, etc., are prescribed, both inside and outside. At the same time, various anti-inflammatory and analgesic ointments, gels, etc. alone do not apply - only in combination with tablets or injections. Another feature of the use of external means with intervertebral hernia - they should be applied carefully, without trying to massage the sore spot. With severe pain, blockade with solutions of novocaine, lidocaine and the like can be prescribed. To improve nutrition and blood supply, reduce inflammation and accelerate recovery, pentoxifylline and Actovegin may be prescribed. In addition, with the reduction of pain (in the subacute period), electrophoresis and phonophoresis with various drugs, magnetotherapy, etc. are prescribed.

Approximately one month after the beginning of hernia treatment, a recovery period may begin. The dosage of medicines decreases, more attention is paid to physiotherapy, therapeutic massage, special gymnastics complexes. During this period, pain usually passes completely, but this does not mean that the disease can be forgotten. The recovery period takes up to six months, and if the patient violates the medical prescriptions, the hernia may well "return". So the general recommendation for convalescents is: do not sit for long periods without moving, do not sleep on too soft, corroded beds and mattresses, protect your back from twisting movements and lifting weights. In general, any physical load in this period is better to perform by wearing a special soft corset, fixing the belt, and with the neck hernia - a soft fixing collar. If there are such in your pharmacy - do not forget to offer them to patients who get funds from back pain.


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Modern antidepressants

30 Jul 2018

Antidepressants - a group of psychotropic drugs that affect depressive affect. For the first time, the use of antidepressants (iproniazide, a class of MAO inhibitors and imipramine, a class of tricyclic antidepressants, a monoamine-type reuptake inhibitor of mixed type) was recorded in 1957.

Modern antidepressants

Pharmacological effects of antidepressants are carried out at the level of synapses. The two main ways of their work are the blockade of the decay of the mediators and their re-uptake by the presynaptic membrane; and in both cases there is an increase in the concentration of mediators (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine) in the synaptic cleft and, as a consequence, their longer and higher functional activity. In recent years, a number of drugs have been shown to act directly on the postsynaptic membrane receptors, in particular, the sensitivity of receptors and their blockade. The real pharmacological action of antidepressants is much broader, however, as a rule, their side effects are associated with it.

With each form of pharmacological activity of antidepressants, certain clinical effects (including side effects) are associated. Note that the actual antidepressant effect is manifested only in four of the ten mechanisms of action of antidepressants.

The blockade of norepinephrine reuptake (1) is accompanied by a decrease in psychomotor inhibition, an improvement in mood, tremor, tachycardia, an erection disorder; blockade of reuptake of serotonin (2) - correction of low mood, decreased vital anguish, decreased phobic symptoms, mild analgesic effect, decreased anxiety (in therapeutic doses), appetite, craving for alcohol, tobacco, and other substances that cause dependence , aggressive behavior, it provokes nausea, headaches, tremors, dysarthria; blockade of dopamine reuptake (3) is manifested by psychomotor activation, increased hallucinatory and delirious activity (if any); blockade of histamine (H1) receptors (4) is accompanied by sedation, drowsiness, lowering of arterial pressure; blockade of muscarinic receptors (5) is accompanied by double vision, dry mouth, tachycardia, constipation, urinary retention; blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors (6) causes dizziness, orthostatic collapse, sedation, drowsiness, priapism; blockade of dopamine receptors (7) leads to a decrease in psychotic symptoms, a violation of libido and erection in men, extrapyramidal disorders; blockade of serotonin receptors (8) leads to a decrease in anxiety (anxiolytic effect), reduces the manifestation of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, reduces depressive symptoms, improves sleep quality, lowers blood pressure; inhibition of MAO type A (deamination of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine) (9) leads to an activating effect, an antidepressant effect, accompanied by an increase in anxiety, insomnia, hypertension, tyramine reactions (they are caused by intolerance to beans, cheese, coffee, smoked products, beer, red wine); inhibition of MAO type B (deamination of beta-phenylethylamine, benzylamine, dopamine) (10) associated hemodynamic disorders, hypotensive effect, anti-Parkinsonic effect.

At present, it is customary to classify antidepressants according to their pharmacological action. This is due primarily to the nature of their therapeutic effect, depending primarily on the mechanism of influence on the mediator exchange, and not on the chemical nature of the active substance. Today, the clinic uses drugs from four groups.

Group 1. The blockers of presynaptic capture of monoamines (here and below the international names). A. Noradrenalin - Desipramine, Amoxaline, Nortriptyline, Dibenzipine, etc. B. Serotonin - Citaloprim, Fluoxetine, Zimelidin, Trazodone, etc. V. Dopamine - Diclofensin, Bupropion, etc. G. Mixed action (A + B) - Amitriptyline, Clomipramine, Doxepin, and others.

Group 2. Blockers of pathways of metabolic destruction of monoamines (MAO inhibitors - enzyme monoamine oxidase). A. Irreversible actions, non-selective (inhibit MAO by types A and B) - Iproniazide, Nialamide, Isocarboxazide, etc. B. Reversible action (MAO inhibitory, selectively type A) - Pyrazidol, Mok Lobemide, Tetrindol, Befloxaton, etc. In Reversible action (inhibit MAO, indiscriminately, in types A and B) - Caroxazone, Indopan, Sidnofen, etc.

Group 3. Stimulators of receptors of the postsynaptic membrane. A. Noradrenergic - Johimbin, Clonidine, Salbutamol, etc. B. Serotonergic - L-tryptophan, Buspiron, etc. B. Dopaminergic - Levodopa, Bromricrytin, amphetamines, etc. G. GABAergic - Alprozalam, Clonazepam, Carbamazepine and others.

Group 4. Drugs with different mechanisms of action. A. Blockers of serotonin receptors - Ritanserin, Azafen, Tianeptin, etc. B. Holinolitics - Biperidin, Orfenadrin. B. Nootropics - Indeloxazine, Exifon, etc. G. Blockers of dopaminergic receptors (Thymoneuroleptics) - Risperidone, Chloroprotexen, Flupentixol, Pimozid, etc. D. Hormones - endorphins, estrogens, androgens, oxytocin, vasopressin and many others E. With an unknown mechanism actions - lithium salts, calcium channel blockers, metapramine and many others.

Perhaps this classification will not seem very familiar, but it is extremely convenient for predicting the main and side effects of the drug. In addition to proper antidepressants, this classification includes substances that have timoanaleptic and psychostimulating properties, which by chemical classification are very far from antidepressants.

The chemical classification of antidepressants relies on the number of hydrocarbon heterocycles in their structure. Isolate: monocyclic (1) - fluoxetine, bicyclic (2) - trazodone, paroxetine, sertraline, tricyclic (3) - amitriptyline, imipramine, tianeptine, tetracyclic (4) - pyrlinod, Mianserin, and MAO inhibitors (5).

The main guarantee for the success of antidepressant treatment is proper diagnosis. Any depression is a complex of phenomena requiring psychopharmacological, psychotherapeutic and somatic treatment. Antidepressants differ significantly in the effectiveness of action for depression neurotic and psychotic levels. At appointment take into account sedative and stimulating properties of preparations, and also specific selective activity of each of them. Antidepressants are successfully used to treat anxiety, including panic disorders, with somatic pathology, including chronic pain, somatization disorders, alcoholism and drug addiction, phobic disorders. There are recommended doses and intervals of admission, but often practicing specialists with success appoint different doses and frequency of admission. Often antidepressants are used in combination with other drugs, they can enter into complex (and not always predictable) interactions with them, which significantly changes the nature of their action. It should be noted that for most antidepressants a deferred effect for 2-3 weeks is characteristic, which is caused by the peculiarities of accumulation of mediators.

Below, we briefly describe the antidepressants most often used in practice. You will find detailed information on the product on the leaflet. We brought the most common brand names and international ones.

Azone (Trazodone) is a selective inhibitor of presynaptic (reverse) capture of serotonin, produced by Orion, Finland. Used for a wide range of depressions. Contraindicated in pregnancy. Incompatible with MAO inhibitors. Strengthens the effect of alcohol. Side effects - drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, hypotension.

Alprox (Orion, Finland), Xanax (Pharmacia & Upjohn, USA), Neurole (Lechiva, Czech Republic) (Alprazolam) is a stimulator of GABAergic receptors of the postsynaptic membrane, used for neurotic depressions accompanied by anxiety, insomnia, somatization, with panic disorders. Contraindicated in pregnancy, children, with pathology of the thyroid gland. Side effects - headache, drowsiness, dyspepsia, dysarthria, coordination disorders, decreased libido in men and women, addiction.

Amitriline (Lek, Slovenia), Amitriptyline (Polfa, Poland, Slovakofarma, Slovakia, Weimer pharma, Germany) (Amitriptyline) is a tricyclic antidepressant, a blocker of presynaptic capture of monoamines of mixed type, is effective in psychotic and neurotic depressions, endogenous and exogenous, age (also used to treat enuresis). Contraindicated in glaucoma, epilepsy, impassability of the intestine. With caution in pregnancy. Not compatible with MAO inhibitors. Side effects - dryness of mucous membranes, visual impairment, psychotic symptoms, collapse, allergic reactions, constipation, gynecomastia, decreased libido in men, galactorrhea in women.

Aurorix (Roche, Switzerland) (Moclobemide) is an MAO inhibitor of reversible action, type A. It is shown in depression of various etiologies, especially atypical (masked) depressions. Contraindicated in children. Side effects - anxiety, sleep disorders, headache, visual impairment, skin reactions, dyspepsia.

Deprex (Lechiva, Czech Republic), Portal (Lek, Slovenia), Prozac (Lilly, USA), Fluoxonil (Orion, Finland), Fluoxetine (Nycomed, Norway) (Fluoxetine) is a selective inhibitor of presynaptic seizure of serotonin. It is indicated for depression of various genesis, eating disorders. Contraindicated in diseases of the kidneys, prostate adenoma, glaucoma, epilepsy. Not compatible with MAO inhibitors and lithium salts. Side effects - nausea, headache, dyspepsia, sleep disorders.

Doxepin (Polfa, Poland) (Doxepin) - a tricyclic antidepressant, an inhibitor of presynaptic seizure of mixed action, is shown mainly with neurotic depressions, especially accompanied by severe anxiety. Contraindicated in glaucoma, prostate adenoma, not recommended for children. Incompatible with MAO inhibitors, alcohol, lithium salts, barbiturates, morphine and its derivatives (toxic effect). Side effects - headache, insomnia, dyspeptic phenomena, tremor, skin rash.

Zoloft (Pfizer, USA) (Sertralin) is a selective inhibitor of presynaptic seizure of serotonin. It is indicated for neurotic depressions accompanied by anxiety, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders. Incompatible with MAO inhibitors. Side effects - dyspeptic phenomena, including diarrhea, insomnia or drowsiness, erectile dysfunction and ejaculation.

Coaxil (Servier, France) (Tianeptin) is a stimulant of serotonin reuptake. It is shown in cases of depression of different etiology and character, with somatization disorders, during abstinence with alcoholism. Contraindicated in children. Incompatible with MAO inhibitors. Side effects - decreased appetite, indigestion, headache, insomnia, nightmares, decreased reaction speed, pain in the heart, muscle pains, laryngospasm.

Lerivon (Organon, Holland) Miansan (Zorka, Yugoslavia) (Mianserin) is a tetracyclic antidepressant, a blocker of presynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors. It is used for all types of depression. Incompatible with MAO inhibitors. Side effects - drowsiness, gynecomastia, impaired blood composition.

Melipramine (Egis, Hungary) (Imipramine) is a tricyclic antidepressant, a monoamine-type reuptake inhibitor of mixed type, shown in endogenous depression: manic-depressive psychosis, used to treat enuresis. Contraindicated in ischemic heart disease, epilepsy, glaucoma, prostate adenoma, pregnancy, in early childhood. Incompatible with alcohol, MAO inhibitors. Side effects - headaches, fainting, visual impairment, epileptic seizures, psychotic symptoms, tremor, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction, gynecomastia, allergic reactions.

Remeron (Organon, Holland) (Mirtazapine) is a blocker of presynaptic alpha-adrenergic receptors. It is indicated for depressions of different genesis. Not compatible with MAO inhibitors. Side effects - drowsiness, inhibition, increased appetite, cramps, tremor, oppression hemopoiesis, edema, dyspepsia, headaches.

Fevarin (Pharmacia & Upjohn, USA) (Fluvoxamine) is a selective inhibitor of presynaptic seizure of serotonin. It is indicated for depression of various genesis. Contraindicated in convulsions, not recommended for children. It is not compatible with MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants. Side effects - nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, agitation, dyspepsia, erectile dysfunction and ejaculation, decreased appetite.

The appointment of antidepressants is the prerogative of a psychiatrist. Do not try to apply the medication yourself!


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Dangerous antidepressants

30 Jul 2018

Over the past 10 years, about 30 people were killed and 62 injured as a result of shooting at schools in developed Western states. Among the most widely known are the shooting in March 2005 at Red Lake School of Indian Reserve Jeff Wace, who took Prozac antidepressant, the shooting at Columbus School, Colorado, Eric Harris, who took the antidepressant Luvox, and the killings in Springfield, Oregon, by Kip Kinkel , who also took Prozac.

Dangerous antidepressants

Fluoxetine (Fluoxetine)
INN / analogue: Fluoxetine / (Prozac)

Investigations of psychiatric scams

Over the past 16 years, around the world, the Civil Rights Commissions have been asking the drug regulators to look into the face of the fact that psychiatrists hide from the public the ability of drugs to cause suicidal or violent behavior in patients. Over time, this fact began to be recognized by the researchers themselves.

David Healy, director of the Department of North Wales of Psychological Medicine at the University of Cardiff, published a report on the study of Paksil antidepressant in the journal Public Library of Science-Medicine. Healy found that this substance several times increases the risk of suicide of the patient. In his opinion, other antidepressants, such as Prozac, Selex and Zoloft, create the same risk of violence or suicide: "We have gathered compelling evidence that drugs can induce people to violence, and that means that there will be more cases of violence”, - the researcher confirms.

Zoloft ™ (Zoloft) - Sertraline
Manufacturer: Pfizer

What is justified by such risky medical measures? According to some experts in the field of conventional medicine, nothing. "If the psychiatrist claims that you have depression caused by a lack of serotonin in the body's tissues, ask for an appropriate blood test and observe the psychiatrist's reaction," says anatomy professor Jonathan Leo, "the number of people who have come to believe that scientists have demonstrated a depressed serotonin level in depressive people, is an excellent proof of the effectiveness of marketing."

From the western colleagues who are intensively promoting the medication treatment of depression, Russian psychiatrists are not lagging behind. "No healthy person can avoid depression at least once in his life," Tatyana Dmitrieva, director of the Serbsky Institute, complains in an interview, "medicine can cure, there are effective antidepressant drugs." The trouble is that in another - one-third of the world's population they are not available. most antidepressants are on the list of vital drugs that must necessarily be in the pharmacy, in psychiatric institutions, to be released on preferential terms. Should, but ... These are very expensive medicines.

Paxil - Paroxetine

Psychiatric profit

The cost of sophisticated introduction of the "treatment" of depression with new substances into the mass consciousness of psychiatric propaganda amounted to at least $ 70 million over the past decade. What for? But why. "Useful natural substances are scorned by them because you can not patent a natural product, and patented, unnatural compounds bring an indescribable profit, for example, Prozac contains 20 mg of a patented active ingredient." One thousand Prozac capsules costs $ 247, while the cost of an active, patented the ingredient is 11 cents, which brings a profit of 224973%, "says the well-known physician Julian Whitaker.

Trade name of the drug: Neurrol (Neurol)
International Nonproprietary Name: Alprazolam

Xanax (Alprazolam): 1 mg of this particularly lucrative antidepressant is sold at $ 136.79 per 100 pills The patented artificial active substance costs 2.4 cents, that is, xanax generates a profit of 569958% .In the international scale it is about 80 billion dollars a year from psychotropic drugs. Now let's divide it. This is more than 6 billion dollars a month. This is 200 million dollars a day or more than 832 thousand dollars hourly. There are thousands of psychiatrists who provide sales of products of images. There are thousands of psychiatrists who provide sales of drugs with the invention of fictitious mental disorders, i.e. diagnoses, scientific no more than determining the future with the help of fortune telling. Psychiatrists are nothing more than drug dealers masquerading as health workers, "Whitaker said.

In the light of the above data on the predisposition to violence caused by psychotropic substances, the situation looks even more disgusting. It is worth recalling that the group of leading psychiatrists of the country tried to lobby the legalization in Russia of treatment of another fictitious state - child hyperactivity - with drugs pharmacologically identical to cocaine - I tried to guess, not for a pleasant smile. Among the substances suggested for the "treatment" of disobedient school children, there was a remedy for depression - tomoxetine - which was renamed "atomoxetine" and was suggested as a "modern safe remedy" for the treatment of childhood hyperactivity.

The receipt of the treatment for children since the age of 6 was registered by Roszdravnadzor after a number of human rights organizations provided evidence to the authorities and journalists: psychiatrists knew about the ability of atomoxetine to cause suicidal tendencies and violence. They knew, but hid it from the registration authorities of a number of states, including Russia.

It is not surprising that it was in those countries where psychiatrists succeeded in propagating mass "treatment" of their fictitious diagnoses, that the cases of "inexplicable, incomprehensible violence" became something ordinary. For each such case, psychiatrists readily offer the society the solution - to hospitalize and treat the "killer".

The society readily agrees without going into details. So the country enters a vicious circle, when in a week - like today's US - there are three school shootings.

Federal experts in the US in the course of the investigation concluded that the use of adolescent antidepressants of the latest generation leads to an increase in the number of suicides among patients in this age group. American and British doctors have already received a recommendation not to prescribe these drugs to under-age patients.

These investigations seriously threaten the business of the largest Western pharmaceutical companies.

Experts from the US Food and Drug Administration have found that millions of prescriptions for prescribing antidepressants are prescribed to minors. Until now, adolescents were allowed to take only one "Prozac" (the company Eli Lilly). But formally, the rules did not forbid doctors to prescribe to children and other similar drugs.

Now it became clear that there is a definite connection between taking antidepressants and increasing the risk of suicidal behavior in adolescents taking the drug. The developers of such drugs themselves admitted that taking these medications has side effects, indicating in indications for use the need for constant monitoring of the patient "because of the risk of suicide."

The experts' apprehensions intensified after they received research materials on the effects of taking Paksil (GlaxoSmithKline) by young patients. After that, the US federal authorities demanded that any four pharmaceutical companies - the largest producers of antidepressants Eli Lilly, Wyeth (the drug Efferor), GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer (Zoloft) publish any, even closed, results of the study of the consequences of taking these drugs by children and adolescents.

The annual turnover of the US market for drugs treating mental disorders is estimated at $ 49 billion, of which antidepressants occupy about 17 billion. Although the warning has been sent to only four companies, experts at the London Center for World Market Research believe that the investigation and subsequent developments The new restrictions will definitely hit the business of other, smaller participants in the American market of antidepressants - Forest Laboratories (Bristol-Myers Squibb (Serzon), Selexa), Akzo Nobel ("Remeron") and Solvay ("Luvox").

In the US, antidepressants are a familiar companion for home health-care kits and handbags. In Russia, not the use of drugs to combat stress and depression. Russians are more used to fighting depression with well-known "folk" means. Fooled by psychiatric propaganda still go to a psychologist, but they do not have the right to prescribe such drugs. And Russian psychiatrists prefer to prescribe more effective tranquilizers.

As told in the Center for Marketing Research "Pharmexpert", the dynamic development of the market of antidepressants in Russia is hindered by the prescription nature of their use. The vast majority of sales of antidepressants are accounted for by health organizations. Sales of drugs on the market are growing weak, despite the marketing efforts of foreign companies. In total, the share of imported antidepressants accounts for up to 85% of the market with a volume of 15.5 million dollars.


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Red lichen

30 Jul 2018

Red flat lichen is a chronic inflammatory disease, which is characterized by the appearance on the mucous membranes and skin of itching rashes. Sometimes the disease affects the nails. According to statistics, red lichen planus among all dermatological diseases in adults is up to 2.5%. And among diseases of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity - about 35%. The number of patients is increasing year by year.

Actovegin. Phenazepam. Red lichen

Red flat lichen is found in both men and women. And men are sick more often at a young age, while women - after 50 years.

There is evidence that in 10-12% of cases, red flat lichen is reborn into a tumor disease.

Causes of red flat lichen: mental trauma, viruses or pathogens, heredity, intoxication (some medications), impaired immune system.

With the flow of red flat lichen can be acute (up to 1 month), subacute (up to 6 months), chronic (from 6 months to several years).

Symptoms of red lichen:
- itching rash;
- mild ailment, weakness, nervous overexcitation;
- irritability, insomnia.

The basis of therapy are drugs that reduce the activity of the immune system, drugs that improve the nutrition of tissues and accelerate their recovery, agents that reduce itching, improve sleep, normalize the work of the nervous system.

Main medicines for treatment

Immunosuppressants: Cyclosporine, Consupren, Panimun Bioral, Ecoral, Sandimmun Neoral, Cyclosporin HEXAL, chloroquine, Delagil, hydroxychloroquine, Immard, Plakvenil, tacrolimus Protopic, etc.

Glucocorticoids: Prednisolone, Medopred, Prednisolone ointment 0.5%, Solu-Decortin H25, Flumethasone, Lorinden, Triamcinolone, Kenalog, Pollortolone, Betamethasone, Acriderm, Beloderm, Celestoderm-B, Celeston, mometasone, Gistan-N, Nazonex, Uniderm, Elokom, Diprosalik, Belosalik lotion, etc.

Synthetic interferons and interphenogens: Oxodihydroacridinilacetate sodium, Neovir, Neovir coated tablets, 0.125 g (soluble in the intestine), sodium ribonucleate, Ridostin, interferon alfa-2b, Allokin-alpha, etc.

Antihistamines: Cetirizine, Zirtek, Parlazin, Cetrin, Clemastin, Rivtagil, Tavegil, chloropyramine, Suprastin, loratadine, Claritin, Lotharen, mebhydroline, Diazolin, dimethindene, Fenistil and others.

Anxiolytics: Bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine, Phenazepam, Phenorelaxane, Elzepam, Medazepam, Mezapam, Rudothel, and others.

Additional medicines
Antiaggregants: Pentoxifylline, Agapurin, Pentohexal, Trenpental Trental, Xanthinal Nicotinate, Complinine, Eikonal, etc.

Antiseptics and disinfectants: tar birch, etc.

Biological supplements: OMEGA PREMIUM Life formula, Pumpkin. Oil for food, etc.

Vitamins: Ascorbic acid, Vitamin E, retinol, riboflavin, thiamine, etc.

Dermatotropin funds: Acitretin, Neotigazone, Pimecrolimus, Elidel, Oxoralen, and others.

Regenerants and reparants: Solcoseryl, Actovegin, sea buckthorn oil, Aloe liniment, etc.


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Calm, only calm!

30 Jul 2018

Sedative medications (Latin sedativo - "soothing") are a group of drugs of plant and synthetic origin that cause calming or reducing emotional stress without a hypnotic effect. However, at the same time, they facilitate the onset of natural sleep and deepen it.

Corvalol. Sedative medications

In the retail market of sedatives, more than 40 medicines are produced by more than 140 corporations. The greatest demand for drugs in the form of oral drops, tablets and tinctures.

Top 5 most popular drugs in both value and in-kind led Corvalol (more than 30 manufacturers). The second place in the rating in terms of value is Novo-Passit (Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd), III - Valerkordin (Krewel Meuselbach GmbH), IV - TM Persen (Novartis). Closes the top five leaders Valeriana extract (more than 10 producers).


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At the footsteps of Meldonium

30 Jul 2018

110 positive samples: who is to blame and what would be

Buy Mildronate

Scandal associated with the use of Russian athletes banned Meldonium, overgrown with new details. Each of the caught adheres to a certain tactic of behavior: one publicly repents, the other declares the fact of throws the drug, the third explains the use of Mildronate disease, and finally the latest version - a secret conspiracy against the Russian team. However, experts said unequivocally: that Meldonium was included in the list of banned drugs, sports doctors knew long before the official announcement of this fact. The fatal miscalculation is that everyone blindly trusted the instructions, which indicated the timing of removal of the substance from the body. They were too far from reality.

The habit of using Meldonium

The drug Mildronate firmly entered the sports of domestic medicine in the period 1988-1993. The peculiarity of its reception consisted in a rather long cyclicity - from 21 to 42 days 3-4 times a year. But until now it is very difficult to talk about its effectiveness or inefficiency. This was discussed during the meeting of the debating club of the First Moscow State Medical University Sechenov said the deputy. head of the sports medicine organization of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) Tatyana Pushkina. She stressed once again that the doctors of the sports team of the Russian Federation were repeatedly informed about the introduction of Meldonium into the list of prohibited preparations. Do not deny this and the doctor of the men's soccer team Eduard Bezuglov: "Everyone knew about this, even my cat."

In addition, as it turned out, WADA made a request for an expert evaluation of the inclusion of Meldonium in the black list. At least, the presence of such an appeal was confirmed by the member of the Medical Committee of the International Paralympic Committee, Guzel Idrisova. "Back in June, WADA asked to give expert assessment to the drugs listed, including Meldonium. We expressed doubts about the need for this, said that it is accepted by our athletes, but does not give them any sports advantages, "she said. But it should be taken into account that this is the opinion of a separate committee, whether Russia's position has been officially presented in WADA, is still unclear.

Child without an eye
The opinion of experts participating in the meeting of the club, who is to blame for what happened, is unequivocal: athletes. According to representatives of the FMBA, the issuance of Mildronate to the team doctors ended in mid-October. But the organization can only be responsible for full-time medical workers. If an athlete resorted to the services of a personal doctor - this is no longer a problem for FMBA. "The WADA Code clearly states that the athlete himself is responsible," Eduard Bezuglov reminded, saying that he never appointed Mildronate to his charges.

White crow

Perhaps the most interesting fact of this story - meldonium is included in the most severe class of banned substances S4. Its "neighbors" - for example, hormonal drugs, which are used to increase muscle mass. The peculiarity of Mildronate is that there is no absolute evidence base for its effectiveness. "It was not possible to get data on the fact that meldonium improves sports performance," - said the head. Department of Sports Medicine and Medical Rehabilitation of the First Moscow State Medical University Sechenov Evgeniy Achkasov. When asked why, then the athletes took it, and even so cyclically and often, the professor of the Department of Nervous Diseases of the Medical Faculty of the First Moscow State Medical University. THEM. Sechenov Vladimir Zakharov replied: "When we say that the effectiveness of a given drug is not absolutely proved, it does not mean that it does not work."

Stuck in the blood
The devil, as you know, lies in the details. In the box with Mildronate, of course, there is an instruction in which the terms of complete elimination of the substance from the body are written in black and white. Based on these data, by simple mathematical calculations, it is likely that doctors or the athletes themselves were confident that they have enough time to submit doping tests. However, WADA dug very deeply, much deeper than the clinicians 30 years ago. That is why the results of the tests turned out to be paradoxical.

"Now anyone you ask, whether using Mildronate, will answer: no. The brush is ready to be chopped off. But in fact, he did it yesterday or even now in his pocket is the medicine. Many doctors, opening the annotation, sincerely believed that in 3-4 days everything would come out. So let the tales not tell, "Eduard Bezuglov categorically noted.

At the moment, FMBA initiated a study of Meldonium with the aim, first, to obtain more reliable data on the real time of drug withdrawal, and second, to prove to WADA that its use did not affect sports results. Then there is the hope that the Meldonium will be excluded from the list of doping drugs. According to Andrei Sereda, director of the Federal Scientific Center for Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of Russia, the primary study conducted by the agency showed that the withdrawal period may be about six months. And maybe more. In the near future FMBA promises to publish data for the month. But even now experts say that the rate of excretion affects the sex and even the nationality of a person.

What will end this story is unclear. To date, there is only a statement of fact: 110 positive doping tests at meldonium. The screening continues. On what sanctions will be applied against Russian athletes, WADA does not hurry to make a statement.


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Tablets for memory

27 Jul 2018

This review examines the dynamics of pharmacy sales of drugs registered in the WHO classifier N06B, "Psychostimulants, agents used for attention deficit disorder, and nootropic drugs." In this group, both medicines obtained by the chemical synthesis method and preparations from animal raw materials and plant origin are presented. The volume of pharmacy sales of N06B drugs for 9 months was $ 203 million, or 40 million packs.

Phenotropil Tablets for memory

The drugs of the group are in stable demand; their pharmacy sales are not subject to seasonal fluctuations. The share of nootropics and psychostimulants is more than 2% in the total volume of pharmacy sales in value terms (they are only ahead of such groups as analgesics, antipyretics, immunomodulators, NSAIDs and anticongestants). Nootropics are usually used for long courses, so pharmacies have the opportunity to purchase loyal customers in the face of consumers of this group.

In the group of nootropics and psychostimulants, more than a third of sold drugs in value terms - domestic production (in the total pharmacy sales, the share of Russian products is one-fourth). It's like traditional preparations Piracetam, Vinpocetine, Caffeine - sodium benzoate, and innovative products Cortexin, Phentotropil, Semax. In physical terms, the ratio of sales volumes is even more biased towards domestic drugs because of their greater price affordability compared to imports.

The share of drugs in the price category over $ 70 made up almost 50% of the total pharmacy sales in the analyzed period. In this price category came the drugs Cogitum, Encephabol, Noben, Semax. As a result of the increase in the price, a new Strattera drug entered this category, sales of which began in 2007. Sales of psychostimulants and nootropics are cheaper than $ 25. This category includes generic generics, which are in greater demand in hospital purchases, where the price of preparations is decisive, rather than in the commercial retail sector, where the consumer trusts branded drugs more.

Pharmacy sales of N06B drugs from hospital purchases are significantly different and structure by form of release. If in the commercial retail sector drugs predominate in the forms of release for internal use - tablets and capsules, in the hospital sector the traditional for the hospital forms of injection - injection and infusion ones prevail. Currently, the drugs of the group are actively used in the provision of emergency care, as well as in the rehabilitation period.

In the rating of manufacturers of psychostimulants and nootropics, the Gedeon Richter Corporation is the leader, with Cavinton (99%) dominant in sales. Among the domestic producers, the "Valenta" is leading, having a balanced portfolio of products of the analyzed group (Phentropil, Pantocalcin, Vinpocetin, Pantogam, Pyracetam, etc.). Pharmacy sales of "Valenta" grow at the highest rates, therefore this manufacturer has the opportunity to significantly increase its share of the presence in this sector of the pharmaceutical market.

The traditional sales leader among the group's drugs is Cavinton (17.53%), which has a lot of indications for use. Not inferior to the position and the founder of the group Nootropil with a market share of 7%. The increase in sales is led by the domestic drug Phentropil ("Valenta", market share - 8%, sales increase - 55%). Of the drugs not included in TOP10 during the period under review, but having all the prerequisites for replenishing the rating table in the near future, Bilobil, a herbal preparation based on ginkgo biloba, attracts attention.

The pace of life of a modern person is growing every year in a geometric progression; the amount of information that needs to be processed also increases, and the load on the nervous system and the brain. As a consequence, the need for drugs that without side effects help people cope with the daily workload will only grow. The general aging of the population also contributes to the positive dynamics of sales of nootropics: in fact, older people are the main consumers of these drugs.

TOP 10 nootropics
1) Cavinton
2) Cerebrolysin
3) Tanakan
4) Cortexin
5) Phenotropil
6) Nootropil
7) Fezam
8) Pyracetam
9) Pantogam
10 Vinpocetine


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Radiculitis

26 Jul 2018

Lumbosacral sciatica, or radiculopathy - is one of the most common causes of back pain. Radiculopathy underlies the development of pain syndrome, characterized by intense pain, accompanied by a restriction of mobility and determines the high incidence of incapacity. Pain caused by radiculopathy is experienced by 3-5% of people at one or another age. However, in men, sciatica occurs more often at the age of 40-50 years, and in women - at 50-60 years.

Ketanov. Radiculitis.

Risk factors for the development of radiculopathy:
- occupation by heavy physical labor;
- smoking;
- heredity.

Causes of lumbosacral radiculopathy:
- degenerative-dystrophic changes in intervertebral discs (eg, herniated intervertebral disc);
- tumors;
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the spine;
- congenital anomalies;
- endocrine and metabolic disorders.

Symptoms of sciatica:
- pain in the back (shooting or piercing), which can reach the foot, sometimes to the knee, sometimes to - the middle of the shin;
- weakness in the leg or foot;
- loss of temperature, vibration and pain sensitivity.

Consequences of sciatica:
- weakness and saggy foot;
- loss of leg muscle mass;
- numbness and hyposeusia of the perineum;
- violation of the pelvic organs - delay or incontinence of urination, incontinence of stool.

General medicines:
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs of oxycam: Matarin plus, piroxicam, Tenikam, Tilkotil, Tobitil and others.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations of pyrazolones: Pentafuphene, Piralgin, Sedal-M, Analgin, and others.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations of propionic acid derivatives: Dexalgin, Dexalgin 25, Brufen SR, Dolgit, Ketonal, Ketoprofen Organica, Febrofide, Flamax forte, Nalgezin Fort, Dip Rilif, Ibuprofen, Ibusan, Bystrumgel, Fastum gel, Flexen, Naprios,

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs derivatives of salicylic acid: Bom-Benge et al.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory preparations acetic acid derivatives: Voltaren, Voltaren Emulgel, Klinoril, diclofenac, Naklofen, Rapten Duo, Ketanov, Ketorol, ketorolac, Dicloran plus, Eftimetacin, etc.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs Fenamates: Revmon Gel, etc.

Non-narcotic analgesics, including non-steroidal and other anti-inflammatory drugs: Nektrim Active, Citralgin, Nyz, Nimulid, Deep Heath, Arthro-Active balm oil warming, Gumizol, Thermo-rheumont, Nifluril, Cathadolon Fort, Alorom and others.

m-, n-holinomimetics, incl. anticholinesterase drugs: Nivalin, Aksamon, and others.

Local irritating agents: Apizartron, Badyaga, Perkamf, Pepper tincture, Provinenol, Forapin E, Espol, Ungapiven, Kapsikam, Nayatoks, Efkamon, Pepper plaster, Viprosal B, Betalgon, Bethanicomylon and others.

Glucocorticosteroids: Ambien et al.

Additional medicines

Angioprotectors and correctors of microcirculation: Aescin, Reparil-gel H, etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like drugs: Pyridoxalphosphate, Milgamma compositum, Compligam B, Milgamma, Thiamine chloride, cyanocobalamin, Neurobionum, Benfolipen, Neuromultivitis, Endur-B, etc.

Dermatotropin funds: Dimexid and others.

Homeopathic remedies: Radiculosan, Revma-gel, etc.

Correctors of bone and cartilage tissue metabolism: Vitreous humor, etc.

Means that affect the neuromuscular transmission: Myolastan, Sirdalud, and others.

Other drugs: medical plaster DORSAPLAST, etc.


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Frost - white nose

26 Jul 2018

It's so difficult to stay at home on New Year's Eve! Someone goes to the square to the city tree, someone goes to ride on the hill, someone just walks around the guests ... And yet not everyone sees in time how the fingers, ears, edges of the cheekbones, the tip of the nose, whiten and lose sensitivity . Meanwhile, this is the first sign of the beginning of frostbite - and at this stage, competent first aid is needed.

frostbite. Actovegin

What can I freeze?
Frostbite (or frostbite - this term is considered by many to be more correct, but it is too ambiguous in the current colloquial speech ...) - this is a skin lesion under the influence of low temperatures. In some ways, it is similar to a burn and also refers to thermal injuries - but if the direct effect of high temperature on living tissues is of primary importance in burns, the mechanism of frostbite development is different. As you know, a person is warm-blooded, so even in cold weather our skin is "warmed" from the inside by the heat of our body, the frost and wind in this case damage (air) only the epidermis - the uppermost layer in contact with cold air. In deeper layers, the network of blood vessels plays the role of a heating system - the blood constantly enters the skin, gives it some of its heat and leaves to "warm up" in other parts of the body. If a person is dressed for the weather and comfortable, his face and hands are noticeably cool.

However, frostbite can also be something that is closed by clothing and especially shoes - even in winter boots or boots, the toes and feet as a whole may suffer, everyone knows well what "icy" and whitened they can be. Do not save and warm, thick socks, which can be worn even polar boots. Moreover - sometimes the thickness of socks is superfluous and harmful. The shoes become tight, the fingers lose mobility, the foot is tightly compressed - and the circulation of blood in the capillaries begins. The heating system "turns off", the legs gradually cool, the vessels from the cold narrow even more, insufficient blood supply and disruption of innervation lead to oxygen starvation of tissues, and this threatens them with necrosis...

Do not rub the frosted area with snow, coarse woolen cloth, etc. - at the same time, microtraumas, cracks and scratches are formed through which an infection can enter the weakened skin.

The same happens in open areas of the skin under the influence of frost, especially with the wind: the blood vessels contract from the cold, the circulation is disturbed - this is evident by the way the skin turns pale and white. This is the first stage of frostbite - the easiest, without deep lesions of the skin and especially lying below the tissues.

It should be noted that it is possible to frostbite even at an air temperature above zero - up to + 8 ° Ń. Closely and wet clothes and shoes (lost their heat-protective properties), prolonged immobility, general weakening of the body, alcoholic intoxication (with its expansion after blood vessels contraction), strong wind, high humidity - the more such predisposing factors, the more "warm "There may be conditions in which a person can frostbite hands, feet and face.

Down in degrees ...
At the first degree of frostbite, impaired blood circulation leads to a feeling of numbness and tingling, whitening of the skin, with warming alternating red and crimson color and swelling, burning, sometimes very painful. If the frostbite place was heated quickly and correctly, the damaged tissues are restored within a week, after peeling of the frozen epidermis and the growth of a new layer. However, tenderness in the cold can last much longer.

More severe frostbite is similar in appearance to a burn: on the 2nd degree the affected skin is covered with bubbles with transparent contents, itch and it hurts, the healing may take up to 2 weeks. Prolonged exposure to cold leads to the third degree of frostbite - deep necrosis, the blisters become bloody, the skin darkens and flakes in the affected areas, scars form during healing (which takes more than a month). The heaviest, IV degree is the dying not only of the skin, but also of the underlying tissues, the skin completely loses sensitivity, the affected area swells from the swelling and turns black.

Particular danger is the transfer of decay products from dying tissues throughout the body - this leads to general intoxication and worsening of the condition of the victim. In such cases, sometimes you have to resort to surgery and excise the affected areas, and sometimes amputated frostbitten fingers, feet or brushes.

How to help?
The very first help that can be given to a person who has been frostbitten is to tell him what is happening: because of loss of skin sensitivity a person may not notice signs of frostbite. So if someone from the people who have met in the cold on the street or who went behind the shopping in the pharmacy turned white ears, the tip of the nose, the corners of the cheekbones, pay attention and advise what to do!

With frostbite of the I degree it is quite possible to cope independently, and it will pass with minimal consequences. It is necessary to warm the affected area, and even better - and the injured. Take him to a warm room, pour hot tea. Frozen skin should be warmed with warm hands - while only light massage is allowed, but not vigorous rubbing! With a cold lesion, the walls of the vessels become brittle, easily damaged. Do not rub the frosted area with snow, coarse woolen cloth, etc. - at the same time, microtraumas, cracks and scratches are formed through which an infection can enter the weakened skin. But a sterile cotton-gauze dressing or a warming compress will be quite appropriate, as well as a tablet of NSAIDs, which reduces pain, swelling, etc.

Heating baths with frostbite and hypothermia should not be hot - they will increase the severity of the lesion. If it is necessary to warm the victim in water, the temperature should be increased gradually from room temperature (24 ° C) to body temperature or slightly higher (37-38 ° C).

It is not recommended to warm up the injured limbs in the heater, the heating battery, especially at the open fire: the sensitivity of the frost-bitten tissues is reduced, and a person may not notice how he will get another thermal trauma - a burn.

Rubbing alcohol solutions, fat-based ointments, oils is sometimes permissible at I degree of frostbite, but the problem is that it is not immediately and not always possible to determine more severe degrees when such drugs are contraindicated. It is best to postpone the local preparations before the onset of skin peeling. She will come a few days after the injury. And then you may need moisturizing and nourishing creams, or even better - water based gels. There are ointments and balms, specially designed for the treatment of frostbite, but they are not always recommended to apply immediately - you must first carefully read the instructions! And, of course, it is unacceptable to use special "winter" cosmetics, not intended for treatment, but for the prevention of frostbite - it should be applied to healthy, not damaged skin.

If the frostbitten person warms up not at home, but at work, at a party, in an accidental warm place (for example, in a drugstore) and then must go out again to frost, you need to protect the affected area from the cold air and advise you to call a taxi: they do not save on health, but re-cooling of the newly "saved" area can lead to more severe tissue damage.

In some cases, instead of a taxi, you need to call an ambulance. The sites of frostbite of the 2nd degree should be processed by professionals in aseptic conditions, and the heavier ones require immediate hospitalization and specialized medical care. Deep cold tissue lesions, including necrosis, may not appear immediately, so if there is severe frost, prolonged hypothermia, a rapid (already frosty) bubble formation, one must suspect a heavier degree of frostbite than it seems at first glance!


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Viral infections: what's in the arsenal?

26 Jul 2018

What medicines are most in demand at the end of winter - early spring? Of course, the whole arsenal of anti-cold means: there is a seasonal epidemic of flu and ARVI, so that - cough, runny nose, headache ... Alas, most of the drugs prescribed and bought "from cold" are struggling with these symptoms, and not with the very cause of the disease is viruses. And what do we have with the minority, i.e. with antiviral drugs?

Viral infections

How to defeat the infection?
The first "line of defense" in the fight against viral infections is vaccination today.

If the infection is caused by bacteria, everything is simple enough: most microbes are susceptible to certain antibiotics, you just need to pick the right one and apply it correctly, without disturbance and with constant monitoring. With viruses, everything is much more complicated: they are insensitive to antibiotics, special antiviral substances often act only on certain types (and even individual strains) of the causative agents of the "cold", and those because of their high variability can quickly adapt to the active substance, to react to it. Therefore, in the prevention, and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections or influenza, there are no single universal tools - at least a few, but which will definitely fit anyone and cope with any virus.

The first "line of defense" in the fight against viral infections today is vaccination: experts predict the spread of viruses of certain strains, based on this forecast, a vaccine is created - and even if doctors have not guessed the strains, many vaccinated people are less likely to develop influenza, Immunity is already ready to face the virus. Unfortunately, not all are vaccinated, and vaccination itself comes only from the flu. From adenoviruses, PC viruses and many other pathogens of acute respiratory viral infection, which can give the majority of cases of "colds" during a seasonal epidemic, this vaccination does not help. And, of course, vaccination works only as a preventive, prophylactic measure and only for a healthy organism - if the first symptoms appear, it is too late and even harmful to plant. Both for prophylaxis and for treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, preparations of interferon - a specific protein (more precisely, a group of proteins), produced by our body in response to the penetration of viruses into it, are widely used. The action of interferons is indiscriminate, so they show activity against most viruses (and strains) that cause influenza and ARVI, but do not destroy the viruses themselves, but activate the immune system, increasing the resistance of cells and suppressing the multiplication of pathogens in them. In addition to preparations containing interferons themselves, inductors that enhance the synthesis of these proteins by the body are also used-such drugs are referred to as immunostimulants.

However, in severe forms of the disease, our immune system can not cope with the "invasion" of viruses even after taking stimulants, and in this case, drugs that directly suppress the development of the pathogen are needed - etiotropic antiviral agents.

All viruses are different ...
Antiviral drugs are not so few, but not all of them will act on the viruses that cause ARVI. For example, acyclovir, effective for fighting the causative agents of herpes, chicken pox, shingles, will be virtually useless against influenza viruses: it acts on DNA-containing viruses, and influenza causes RNA-containing. And even for drugs intended for the treatment of influenza, the effectiveness against very common pathogens ARVI, for example respiratory syncytial (PC) virus or adenoviruses, may be insufficient or not observed at all. Therefore, when selling such drugs, it is advisable to check with the buyer whether the diagnosis was "influenza" by a specialist or, as we often do, the patient with an easy cold decided that he "zippipoval", and is going to undergo treatment independently ...

And even against influenza viruses, the effectiveness of different drugs can be different - depending on whether it is a virus, A or B, sometimes even from a specific strain. Moreover, many antiviral drugs have quite pronounced side effects, so without an accurate definition of the pathogen and the appointment of a doctor, it is better not to take them: they can act less on a "cold" than on the patient's body!

Umifenovir acts on influenza A and B viruses, is used to treat rotavirus infections and is low-toxic, relatively safe (it is not prescribed only to pregnant women, children under 3 years of age and in cases of hypersensitivity to the drug).

It reduces the duration of an acute period of the disease and reduces symptoms of intoxication. It should not be an independent and unique means of "flu" (as well as other antiviral drugs) - complex treatment is necessary, in which this drug will be only one of the prescribed medicines.

Oseltamivir is intended for the treatment of influenza A and B, but it is ineffective for ARVI caused by other diseases, and even for the treatment of influenza B it is necessary to achieve a higher concentration than when fighting the influenza A virus - so this drug can be considered highly specialized, "influenza ". Specialists prescribe it only in severe cases confirmed by laboratory tests of influenza, as a preventive drug this drug is not prescribed at all, and in mild cases, possible harm may outweigh the benefit. The fact is that this remedy is considered toxic (it is especially noticeable when treating for a long time on the kidneys and nervous system) and can cause undesirable side effects from insomnia to coughing, headache and nausea - i.e. with improper application or individual intolerance itself can cause symptoms similar to influenza and ARVI! In this regard, mass purchases that began a few years ago on the recommendation of the WHO, are currently suspended by several countries, the application is limited and additional studies are conducted on the efficacy and safety of the drug. In addition, more strains resistant to oseltamivir have recently been detected.

Rimantadine is a part of various drugs and has been used for the prevention and treatment of influenza since the 1960s. A great clinical experience of its use has been accumulated, many studies have been carried out, but such a long application has led to the formation of a significant number of strains resistant to this substance. In addition, rimantadine is effective only against influenza A viruses - it does not affect other pathogens of influenza and SARS. Its effect (if the strain is sensitive to the drug) is quite effective, there is a noticeable relief of symptoms and a reduction in the total time of the disease, but for such successful treatment, precise diagnosis is necessary with isolation of the pathogen and its test for resistance to rimantadine, but independent use against "cold" can and have no effect on the course of the disease. Long-term experience with rimantadine has allowed us to identify numerous contraindications-not only pregnancy and children under 7 years old, but also many chronic liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases: for elderly patients with hypertension, it is not recommended because of the danger of development hemorrhagic stroke.

SARS, influenza, even with a light current are fraught with sudden complications, affecting a variety of systems and organs, so do not try to "move on your feet" viral infection and even more so you can not self-medicate in severe cases.

Vitaglutam, or imidazolylethanamide pentanedioic acid, is recommended for the treatment of a wide variety of viral diseases: influenza A and B of any strains, adenovirus infections, parainfluenza, infections caused by the PC virus. In addition to antiviral action, it also has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. However, as with many other drugs, radical and rapid cure after its administration is not expected - the period of fever is shortened, the symptoms of intoxication and catarrhal symptoms decrease, the overall duration of the disease may decrease and the probability of complications after the illness may decrease.

The merits of this drug include low toxicity - of the expressed side effects only occasionally, in cases of individual intolerance, allergic reactions are noted. But still it is not recommended for pregnant women, nursing mothers and children under the age of 18, and the dosage and duration of treatment, like other antiviral drugs, should be determined by the attending physician.

What else?
Of course, in this short review, it is simply impossible to cover the entire market of the funds offered to combat viral "colds" - hundreds of names of preparations of the most diverse groups. Someone prefers homeopathic remedies, some - vegetative immunomodulators, many choose complex anti-catarrhal drugs - their action is mostly symptomatic, but in light cases and it is enough to ease your well-being, and then the body copes with the viruses on its own ...

However, it should be remembered that the "usual" ARVI, and especially the flu, even with a light course are fraught with sudden complications, affecting a variety of systems and organs, so in any case, do not try to "move your leg" virus infection and even more so engage in self-medication in severe cases: if effective antiviral drugs are required, only a doctor should prescribe them after the diagnosis has been clarified and all contraindications taken into account!


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