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Smoking is a narcotic addiction

08 Sep 2018

At present, there is no longer any doubt that tar of tobacco smoke provokes cancer, especially lung cancer. It is also known that tobacco tar is not the only life-threatening substance inhaled in the process of smoking.

Until recently, in tobacco smoke, there were 500, then 1000 components. According to modern data, the number of these components is 4720, including the most poisonous - about 200.

Stop smoking. Tabex buy

These thousands of chemicals are presented in tobacco smoke in the form of particles (tar, nicotine, benzpyrene, etc.) and gases (carbon monoxide, ammonium, dimethylnitrosoamine, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, etc.). Most of these substances have pronounced irritant properties, and about 60 are known or suspected carcinogens.

If the habit of tobacco, and especially the chemical dependence on it, arises from the influence of nicotine on the brain, the cause of most serious illnesses (often fatal) are tobacco tar, paralyzing purification processes in the lungs, reducing immunity, causing cancer and other diseases lungs.

Nicotine is one of the strongest poisons of plant origin. Birds perish if they bring a glass rod moistened with nicotine to their beaks; the rabbit dies from 1/4 drop, the dog - from 4. For the person a fatal dose - 2 - 3 drops; it's about 20 to 25 cigarettes. The smoker does not die because this dose of nicotine is introduced gradually (within 24 hours), but not in one step, and also as a result of partial neutralization of the poison with formaldehyde of tobacco tar.

It should be noted that smoking exists in two completely different clinical varieties: in the form of a habit of smoking and in the form of tobacco dependence. In the second variant (let's call it "thirst"), the smoker has a pathological, painful attraction to tobacco, and in the first one it does not form. Due to the fact that the outward signs of addiction to tobacco among all smokers are the same (regularity of smoking, a gradual increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, attracted to the smell of tobacco smoke), the difference between the two types of smokers can be established only when they try to quit smoking. Those who smoke only by force of habit, can become non-smoking completely painless, without any medical assistance and eventually forget that they were fooling. And those who have developed a tobacco dependence, at all desire can not quit smoking forever, even if the first days without tobacco they pass relatively safely. Sometimes, after a long break (several months and even years), they relapse. This means that smoking left a deep imprint in the mechanisms of memory, thinking, mood and metabolic processes of the body.

According to available data, 100 regularly smoking only seven smoke resulting habits remaining 93 patients - they become carriers of tobacco dependence, for which (as for any other type of addiction) characterized by craving to smoke, and on the thinking level, mental level processes.

It should be noted that severe somatic, bodily disorders affect equally both those who smoke by habit, and nicotine-dependent. These diseases do not appear immediately, they are as if deployed in time, and this often prevents the relationship between disease and smoking.

What is nicotine - the culprit of the formation of tobacco dependence?
Alkaloid nicotine (C10H14O2) in chemically pure form is a clear colorless oily liquid with a pungent taste and boiling point 246 C (730.5 mm Hg. V.), Well soluble in water, alcohol and other solvents. In the air it easily resists. Contained in tobacco (up to 2%) and some other plants.
Nicotine - an extremely strong poison, not inferior to the toxicity of hydrocyanic acid. In small doses, it acts excitantly on the nervous system, in large doses it causes paralysis: stopping breathing, stopping the work of the heart. Multiple absorption of nicotine with frequent smoking forms nicotinism - chronic poisoning, as a result of which memory and working capacity decrease, there is a constant cough with phlegm. One of the devastating effects of nicotine poisoning is also such signs: trembling of the hands, uncertain walk, the person throws something in the heat, then in the cold, the heart while it will happen as a hammer, then freezes.

Nicotine is the main component of tobacco smoke causing destructive changes in the spinal cord, inflammation of the lumbosacral plexus. Due to its effect on the adrenal glands, after each cigarette smoked, the number of circulating corticosteroids, as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine, involved in the regulation of the most important physiological functions of the body, significantly increases in comparison with the norm. Adrenaline, in particular, narrows the blood vessels, resulting in increased blood pressure. Nicotine increases the minute stroke volume of the heart and the rate of contraction of the myocardium. Attacks like coronary vessels of an inveterate smoker, as a rule, are narrowed and do not deliver myocardium with the necessary portions of oxygen, oxygen starvation of the heart muscle (coronary heart disease) occurs. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that less oxygen is supplied to other organs and tissues. After all, a part of hemoglobin, instead of transferring oxygen to them, attaches the carbon monoxide contained in the smoke of the cigarette.

The main metabolite of nicotine is cotinine, which, by its toxic properties, is close to its predecessor. In the blood serum of a person who smokes 10 cigarettes a day, 137.7 μg / l of cotinine is found; when smoking 20 cigarettes, its amount increases to 302 μg / l.

To learn about other, no less insidious components of tobacco smoke, consider them in order.

So, the cigarette was lit and the smoker began to breathe the smoke of burning tobacco. And its pollution and 384 thousand times exceeds the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the substances contained in it. Inhalation of tobacco smoke is more than 4 times more harmful than breathing the exhaust gases of a car directly from the exhaust pipe. In a perfectly clean atmosphere, the human body at the moment of smoking is exposed to the same toxic effects as if it were in case of air pollution at 1100 MAC (hygienic norms should not exceed 1 MAC). Such air pollution in industrial centers does not occur. In other words, for smokers, environmental problems practically do not exist. For them, the costs of cleaning up industrial gases are a waste of money, because they "have enough" of those poisons that they inhale with smoke; exhale, they are not more than 10% of the components of smoke absorbed during the inhaling, the rest remain in the body!

But let's go along the path of destructive following of tobacco smoke in the body. The mouth and nasopharynx are the first to contact him. Tobacco smoldering in a cigarette has a temperature of about 300 C. At the smoke which has passed through a layer of tobacco packing and got to the mouth, the temperature drops to 50 - 60 . To smoke through the nasopharynx into the lungs, the smoker, opening his mouth, inhales fresh air, the temperature of which is 35-40 C below the temperature of the smoke there. Only due to a multiple temperature drop on the tooth enamel cracks are formed - the "entrance gate" for infection. Hot smoke, in addition, contributes to the expansion of capillary vessels of the mucous cheeks, palate, gums and causes its chronic irritation, which can lead to an inflammatory process, and then to the development of leukoplakia, a precursor of cancer. The salivary glands of the oral cavity react to tobacco smoke. This leads to increased salivation, which the smoker has to either spit or swallow along with the poisonous components dissolved in it - aniline, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carcinogens. Getting on the mucous membrane of the stomach, these toxic compounds cause pain in the stomach, loss of appetite, alternating constipation and diarrhea, the development of gastritis. They can cause ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, stomach cancer.

No less harmful is the effect of tobacco smoke from the oral cavity through the vocal cords to the mucous membranes of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoli. Dissolving in the moisture of mucous membranes, ammonia of tobacco smoke turns into ammonia, which causes increased secretion of mucus, which is why smokers suffer from chronic bronchitis.

The tar of tobacco smoke settles on the walls of the airways, accumulates in the pulmonary alveoli and also stands out when coughing in the form of gray sputum. The lungs are dirty brown. Their resistance to various infectious diseases, in particular tuberculosis, is declining. According to J. Petit and other French scientists, out of 100 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, which began in adulthood, 25 account for smokers. The vital capacity of their lungs is 300-400 ml less than that of non-smokers. The presence of carcinogenic substances and radioactive compounds in tobacco smoke (as will be discussed in detail below) causes the highest level of lung cancer in smokers.

A number of studies have shown that the increase in lung cancer diseases increases in direct proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked. Those. who smoke a lot, this risk increases by 15-30 times compared with non-smokers. It has also been proven that the risk of the disease is exacerbated by factors such as smoke inhalation when smoking cigarettes, smoking from an early age, holding the cigarette in your mouth between puffs, igniting a cigarette that is not smoked. And, as already noted, the use of alcohol increases the harmful effect of smoking on the respiratory system. Active smokers develop extensive metaplastic changes in the bronchi, considered oncologists as precancerous. Those who quit smoking experienced the reverse development of metaplastic cells, which indicates the reversibility of precancerous changes.

It is estimated that smoking cessation and industrial countries lead to a reduction in the incidence of cancer by almost 40%. One of the main components of tobacco smoke - carbon monoxide - flows through the airways to the alveoli, where carbon dioxide is exchanged, not so much oxygen is enriched as carbon monoxide. Having combined with hemoglobin, it forms carboxyhemoglobin - a dummy molecule, unable to carry the cells of the body the oxygen they need. The average content of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood of smokers is 4.3%, in non-smokers - 0.93%. That's why a person who smoked a few cigarettes in a row or was in a smoke-filled room, kneading oxygen starvation, manifested in headaches, dizziness, nausea, pale skin.

Cyanic acid is another component of tobacco smoke that reduces the ability of body cells to utilize oxygen. Together with nicotine, ammonia, essential oils and methyl alcohol, prussic acid helps to reduce visual acuity, deterioration of color perception, smell, dullness of taste. (Tabex can help to stop smoking).

On this list of disasters, in which tobacco smoke is guilty, does not end. It also includes atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, infertility, allergic diseases. Nicotine and tar entering the blood during smoking are one of the causes of the disease with obliterating endarteritis followed by spontaneous gangrene of the extremities, which arises from the severe narrowing of the peripheral vessels until the closure of their lumens with the necrosis of tissues devoid of blood supply. Manifestations of endarteritis: rapid fatigue of the legs, cramps, intermittent claudication, when a person can only go a few steps, and then one or both legs show numbness and unbearable pain. When you stop after a few minutes, the pain passes, but when you try to go on, it resumes. The vessels of the legs (and sometimes of the hands) are in a state of spasm with such a disease and are able to provide limbs with blood only in a state of complete rest, i. without any physical exertion. Movement increases metabolism in working muscles, and because of lack of oxygen and the accumulation of metabolic products, severe pain occurs. At the second stage of the disease, spasm increases, it also manifests itself in a state of rest. Fingers, starting with a large one, are always cold and blue. There are sores. Since the vessels do not provide for metabolism in the muscles even at rest, the foot, and then the entire limb, can become dead. At the same time the patient experiences unbearable unbearable pains. In severe cases, inevitable surgical intervention (plastic vessels, limb amputation).

Sometimes people think: where in the streets are there so many young people - legless and armless in camouflage uniforms? Not all of them are from the trenches of Afghanistan or Chechnya, not there they lost hands-feet, although this loss occurred just because of the "trench disease" - gangrene. During hard military times, she really got sick in the trenches from hypothermia in conditions of high humidity. And now it often suffers intensively smoking people, especially bums and vagabonds, whose lodging is served by ditches, gateways, cellars.


Allergic conjunctivitis

04 Sep 2018

Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory reaction of the conjunctiva to the effect of allergens, characterized by hyperemia and edema of the lining of the eyelids, edema and itching of the eyelids, the formation of follicles or papillae on the conjunctiva, sometimes accompanying corneal damage with visual impairment. Allergic conjunctivitis occupies a significant place in the group of diseases united by the common name "red eye syndrome", they affect about 15% of the population on average, but conjunctivitis occurs more often among children.

Actovegin. Allergic conjunctivitis

The most common forms of allergic conjunctivitis are:
- pollinous conjunctivitis, which is usually a seasonal disease and is caused by pollen during the flowering of grasses, cereals, trees;
- spring conjunctivitis (spring catarrh), observed with increased sensitivity to the action of the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum;
- drug allergy usually develops with prolonged use of eye drops to treat any eye disease (cataracts, glaucoma, iridocyclitis, etc.), but sometimes after a single application of eye medicinal forms;
- large-capillary conjunctivitis occurs as a result of prolonged contact of the upper eyelid with a foreign body - contact lenses (hard and soft), ocular prostheses, surgical sutures after cataract extraction, etc.

In the therapy of allergic conjunctivitis, several groups of drugs are used. Antiallergic - antihistamines LS azelastine, Allergodil, Allertec, Levokabastin (does not have sedative effect), etc., stabilizers of fat cells membranes Alomid, Allergokrom, Lecrolin, KromoGEXAL, Hi-Krom, etc .; glucocorticosteroids Dexapos, Oftan Dexamethasone, Garazon, Sofrax, and others.

In addition to the basis of therapy, with allergic conjunctivitis apply:

Anti-convoestants: Alergoftal, Afrin, nafazolin, Vizin, Sanorin, Nafkon-A and others.
Antiseptics and disinfectants: Ophthalmol, etc.

Vitamins: Riboflavin, Retinol palmitate, etc.

NSAIDs: indole derivatives - indomethacin, sulindac; derivatives of pyrazolone - phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, azaprase, ketorolac; derivatives of propionic acid - ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen; derivatives of anthranilic acid - mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid.

Wound healing preparations: Actovegin (eye gel 20%), Taufon, etc.

Homeopathic medicines: Allergies, Mucosa compositum (appointed by a doctor).

Dietary supplements: Artromax, Neovitel - bioactive complex with Echinacea, etc.


Two sides of Meldonium

03 Sep 2018

After the scandal with Russian athletes, sales of Mildronate grew at times.

The doping scandal is becoming a decisive event for athletes, not all of whom are able to return to their careers after the shame, and for the country whose sports cordons were weakened on the eve of international competitions, and even for banned drugs. After reports that in early March in the samples of Russian athletes found illegal Meldonium, sales of the drug for a short time increased by different data in more than two or even ten times. Not so long ago, the product was associated with the consumer with another scandal, negatively affecting its sales. Now we can not doubt that the schedule of sales of the drug will again go up.

Meldonium buy. Mildronate buy

Sharp takeoff
Sales of Mildronate (INN meldonium) in tablets in a dosage of 250 mg from February 15 to March 15 this year. increased by 80% compared to December 2015, at a dosage of 500 mg - by 120-130%, said commercial director of the pharmaceutical company "Mizar-N" Arthur Belenko. "December was chosen as a comparison point as the month that demonstrates the maximum orders. Ampulated Mildronate showed no growth, "he said.

Spent Scheme
The expectation of sales growth is based on the similar experience of the pharma market. In 2006, Russian biathlete Olga Pyleva, who won a silver medal in the individual race at the Olympics in Turin, Italy, was deprived of the award and disqualified for two years for using Phentropil, the original Russian design. The drug was listed as banned after the representative of the Olympic Committee told WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) that Russian athletes take it as doping. The career of the sportswoman crashed, the product produced by JSC "Valenta Pharmaceutics", on the contrary, has survived the heyday, demonstrating a significant increase in sales. The reason for this is associated with the popularization of its doping properties.

Mildronate and Phenotropil

The scandal with Mildronate began in a similar way. The US Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) received information that athletes from Eastern Europe use it as doping - it is only spread in this region. Since October 2014 Meldonium has been included in the list of drugs for which WADA monitors. At the end of the same year, according to the results of tests of urine samples in 2.2% of samples, a drug was found, all of them belonged to athletes from Eastern Europe.

In early March, meldonium was found in dope-samples of figure skaters Ekaterina Bobrova, skater Pavel Kulizhnikov, short track-players Semyon Elistratov and Ekaterina Konstantinova, rider Eduard Vorganov, volleyball player Alexander Markin, biathlete Eduard Latypov, rugby players Alena and Alexei Mikhaltsov. Tennis player Maria Sharapova voluntarily confessed to using Mildronate. Given the political situation of the past few years, the scale of the scandal has turned out to be much more serious than with Phentropil. However, experts are not ready to predict Mildronate the same success of sales, primarily because the properties of the drugs are completely different.

Not Phentropropyl

Phenotropil, as experts say, is a "serious drug", which is indicated in diseases of the central nervous system, intoxication, neurotic states, depression, psycho-organic syndromes, and due to the psychostimulating effect and increased endurance, it is able to influence physical achievements. "Mildronate is used as a second-line drug in cardiology and neurology, it improves the quality of life by reducing symptoms," explained Mehman Mammadov, head of the Laboratory of Assessment and Correction of Cardiovascular Risk. The drug increases the endurance of the body, but does not stimulate, he stressed. The manufacturer of Mildronate - the concern Grindeks (Latvia) - also insists that meldoniy can not improve sports results. Minister of Sports Vitaly Mutko and did call Mildronate "worthless". Nevertheless, from January 1, 2016, the substance is listed as prohibited WADA in both competitive and out-of-competition periods.

Phenotropil and Mildronate

The fact that the purpose of testing doping samples were representatives of Russia, is no longer surprising. The ability to deprive the country's strongest athletes of the right to participate in international competitions is probably one of the types of sanctions that allow the US to strike at the image of the country. But how did the drug whose doping properties unanimously reject the experts got into the "black" list? "It was noticed that the athletes used the substance to improve performance," WADA spokesman Ben Nichols replied to the "FV" request. However, evidence has not been submitted so far, although the Anti-Doping Code states that a substance or method is considered for inclusion on the list in the presence of medical or other scientific evidence, a pharmacological effect or experience indicating that they, or in combination with other substances or methods can improve athletic performance. According to the representatives of Grindeks, the replies to the inquiries about the justifications of the committee's decision have not yet been received.

Who is guilty
How did it happen that the athletes continued to take the drug that was suspected by WADA from the autumn of 2014? "On September 16, 2015, the executive committee of the World Anti-Doping Agency approved a prohibited list of substances and methods in 2016. In the fall of 2015, the Federal Medical and Biological Agency brought this information to the doctors of the national teams, the leaders of the subordinate organizations of FMBA of Russia were informed," in the department. On December 17, 2015, the head of the Ministry of Sports of the Russian Federation signed an order No. 1194 "On approving lists of substances and (or) methods prohibited for use in sports". Now, FMBA conducts an internal audit, the reasons for the emergence of positive doping tests. Athletes, in turn, took a position from frank confession and statements that the medication was completed long before January 1 of this year, to suspicion that the Meldonium was planted by him.

Lines of fate
Until now, the name "Mildronate" was clearly associated with a loud trial, stretching for several years. In 2009, after applying a solution of ampoules with the inscription "Mildronate" in 23 patients, adverse reactions were identified, two women were killed. As it turned out later, Listeron appeared in ampoules, which possesses other pharmacological properties. Five employees of Sotex were prosecuted (in 2008, JSC Grindeks concluded an agreement with the company on the production of 20% of Mildronate in the Russian market with injections). After all the vicissitudes, when the materials of the case were transferred from one court to another, and the judges could not determine the severity of the punishment, the defendants were released from responsibility in connection with the expiry of the limitation period.

Thanks to the doping scandal, Mildronate, previously associated with the consumer with a danger, has now acquired in his eyes the properties of a product that helps to discover new resources of the body. "It turned out very powerful advertising Mildronate. Now much depends on how the situation will develop. After all, the information is spread that the drug is addictive. Then the demand will fall, "said commercial director of the pharmacy chain" Kalina Farm "Artem Vardanyan.

Anyway, now the hype around Mildronate, Grindex's statements about its intention to fight for the exclusion of its product from the "black" list play into the hands of the drug and its manufacturer. As they say, in PR there is no superfluous.


Medicines for the protection of the liver

31 Aug 2018

Every day, every hour, every minute, the human body is exposed to the action of many factors that damage it, external and internal. But a complex and multilevel protection system is capable for the time being to make these impacts practically invisible and almost not dangerous for humans. Almost - because nothing in the body does not pass without a trace. Viral or bacterial attacks, inhaled air toxins, dyes and preservatives in food, overeating and alcoholic libations all affect the health, even if it does not affect well-being. Because all this increases the load on the liver, which cleanses blood from all sorts of decomposition products. And it is quite possible - will affect in the future. Because if the liver suffers, the whole body suffers.

Heptral. hepatoprotectors. B12

The liver is the largest internal organ. Its weight is about 2% of the body weight in adults (an average of 1.2-1.5 kg) and about 5% in children. In the body, this most massive organ performs several important functions: purification of blood from toxic substances, secretion and secretion of bile, synthesis of various biologically active substances and maintenance of the energy balance of the body. Its damage entails a variety of various disorders and, as a result, diseases of other organs and systems. Metabolic disorders, various allergic reactions, dysfunctions of the digestive system, a decrease in antimicrobial protection, weakness, lethargy, chronic fatigue - all this may be a consequence of damage to the liver and its cells.

Mechanisms of liver damage
Various natural substances, synthetic chemical compounds used in the food industry, as well as most medicines, can cause chemical damage to the liver - it is the liver cells that neutralize both natural toxins and synthetic xenobiotics.

At present, specialists identify 5 main mechanisms of chemical damage to the liver:
- damage to the plasma membrane of liver cells - hepatocytes;
- disturbances in the function of mitochondria, which lead to a decrease in ATP in the cell and its subsequent death;
- violation of intracellular ion homeostasis - an increase in the concentration of sodium and calcium ions and a decrease in potassium ions; this further leads to damage to the cytoplasmic membrane and / or disruption of mitochondrial functions and, as a consequence, to the death of hepatocytes;
- activation of substances degradation enzymes (proteinase, nuclease, phospholipase, etc.), which leads - to damage to cellular and mitochondrial membranes, followed by cell death;
- the action of free radicals.

In addition to chemical damage to the liver, there are other mechanisms that cause the death of liver cells. Not the least role in these processes is the activity of the immune system, designed to normally protect the body from the penetration of foreign agents and destroy them. Sometimes, immune reactions directly or indirectly lead to liver damage. The functioning of killer lymphocytes, hyperproduction of cytokines, autoantibodies that occur with allergies, and some other immune responses in a number of cases can cause hepatocyte death, dysfunction and liver diseases. And, of course, among the causes that cause liver disruption, we can not fail to mention hepatitis viruses that directly affect liver cells.

Treatment of liver diseases
When it comes to the pathology of the liver, there are two main areas of treatment. This is primarily etiotropic therapy - the fight against the cause of the disease. In clinical practice, this suppression of a pathogenic agent in viral hepatitis (with the parenteral mechanism of infection). The second area of complex treatment is the impact on various links of pathogenesis with the help of pharmacological agents. Pathogenetic therapy may include the following groups of drugs:

- vitamins, amino acids, peptides and other agents that positively influence the processes of tissue metabolism;
- adsorbents, antidotes, which reduce the load on the liver due to its detoxification activity;
- drugs that help metabolize xenobiotic substances (inhibitors and inducers of microsomal systems);
- immunomodulators;
- antiviral and antimicrobial agents;
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- cholagogue;
- antioxidants;
- hepatoprotectors.

Hepatoprotectors - a special group of drugs
Despite such an abundance of liver damaging factors, there is one surprising property in the liver that inspires optimism: the ability to regenerate with the restoration of lost functions. It is on the maintenance and stimulation of this ability that the action of a special group of drugs - hepatoprotectors is mainly directed. In addition, their task is to increase the resistance of the liver to the action of damaging factors, to stop and prevent further destruction of the liver by suppressing fibrogenesis (replacing the hepatic tissue with fibrous tissue).

The arsenal of modern hepatoprotectors is quite wide. They differ in origin (natural and synthetic), chemical structure, mechanism of action, etc. There is no unified classification system for such funds, however, it is a common practice to divide hepatoprotective agents into the following groups:

- preparations of vegetable origin;
- preparations of animal origin;
- preparations containing essential phospholipids (EFL);
- amino acids or their derivatives;
- vitamins-antioxidants and vitamin-like compounds;
- preparations of different groups.

Plant hepatoprotectors. The most in demand at the moment are herbal preparations. More than half of all hepatoprotectors sold today are herbal remedies.

Milk thistle, as well as preparations based on its bioflavonoids, have proven themselves in the protection of the liver. The main substance thistle spotty - silibinin (in complex with other isomers makes silymarin) - has a membrane-protective, antioxidant and metabolic effects. Thanks to its action, the resistance of the cell membrane increases, the concentration of intracellular calcium decreases and the calcium-dependent activation of phospholipases decreases. In addition, there is evidence that silybinin is able to block the transport systems of certain toxins (in particular the toxins of pale toadstool) and to bind the radicals. In addition, silibinin stimulates the synthesis of proteins and accelerates the regeneration of damaged hepatocytes, slows liver fibrosis in cirrhosis. However, patients with cholestasis should be careful - in some cases, silibinin increases cholestasis. It is not recommended to use milk thistle preparations with long courses.

Also popular are the preparations based on the extract of another hepatoprotective plant - artichoke. Artichoke increases the antitoxic function of the liver, lowers cholesterol in the blood with cholesterolemia, and has choleretic action.

Licorice root, as well as preparations based on glycyrrhizin (an aqueous extract of licorice root), has antioxidant properties, reduces the activity of liver enzymes and reduces the severity of liver fibrosis. However, because of the possibility of developing hypokalemia as a side effect of glycyrrhizin treatment, the administration of licorice root preparations as hepatoprotectors requires careful additional examination and constant monitoring of the doctor.

The hepatoprotective effect is also exerted by biologically active substances contained in the pumpkin seed oil. Preparations based on them have membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory, choleretic properties. In addition, pumpkin seeds slow down the development of connective tissue and accelerate the regeneration of liver cells.

Hepatoprotectors of animal origin. These preparations are hydrolysates of liver extract of cattle or isolated hepatocytes obtained as a result of freeze drying of animal liver cells. Such drugs have a reparative effect, but their appointment requires mandatory testing for individual sensitivity.

Preparations containing essential phospholipids. The second most prevalent group of drugs for the protection of the liver. It accounts for about 16% of all hepatoprotectors. Essential phospholipids restore cell membranes of liver cells and promote their regeneration. The molecules of the esterial phospholipids are embedded in the phospholipid structure of the damaged hepatocytes, thereby restoring the barrier function of the lipid layer. In addition, essential phospholipids inhibit lipid peroxidation. Although in some cases they may themselves be involved in this process.

Amino acids and their derivatives. Ademethionine (adenosylmethionine) plays an important role in the synthesis of phospholipids and other substances necessary for the normal functioning of liver cells and regeneration processes. Its use promotes the removal of free radicals and other harmful metabolites from hepatocytes. Effective as a means of accompanying potentially hepatotoxic drugs. In addition, ademetionine has an antifibrotic effect. And, finally, this is the only drug that can not only protect the liver, but also have an antidepressant effect (on the 5th-7th day of admission). This property of ademetionine is successfully used in the treatment of patients with alcoholic liver damage, and the drug simultaneously acts as an antidepressant and hepatoprotector. Ademetionine is also recommended for use in pregnant patients with cholestasis as a means of resolving steroid cholestasis. The undoubted advantage of this drug is the possibility of its use in almost all hepatic pathologies without the risk of side effects.

Preparations based on amino acids ornithine and aspartate are involved in regulating the metabolism in hepatic cells and are used as a hepatoprotector for hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

Vitamins and vitamin-like compounds. To preserve the health of the liver, vitamins E and C are required, which have antioxidant activity, lipoic (alpha-lipoic) acid has proved to be particularly useful as a hepatoprotector. It acts as an antioxidant, has immunomodulating activity, helps slow down the development of liver fibrosis and even its regression.

Preparations of different groups. Ursodeoxycholic acid contributes to the removal of toxic substances from the liver, prevents the toxic effect of hydrophobic bile acids on the membranes of liver cells, inhibits the production of immunoglobulins that contribute to the destruction of the liver, has an antioxidant effect.

Today, in the pharmaceutical market of the country, more than 1,000 names of hepatoprotective drugs are presented, and their number continues to grow. And this is not surprising, because according to WHO data, for the last several decades in Russia, as well as in the whole world, there is a clear tendency to an increase in the number of liver diseases. And this means that drugs that support the liver, helping it cope with its functions, will be increasingly in demand. After all, the fairness of the expression: "The disease is easier to prevent than treat" is particularly evident when one of the main defenders of our body itself needs protection.


Syndrome of impaired digestion. How to treat?

30 Aug 2018

Syndrome of impaired digestion (maldigestia) is a complex of intestinal symptoms caused by insufficient digestion of nutrients. Maldigestia can be gastrogenic, pancreatic and enterogenic.


Classification, etiology and pathogenesis
Disturbances in digestion are more or less characteristic of all gastroenterological diseases, in which the production of digestive enzymes and bile acids decreases.
Syndrome of impaired digestion

1. Insufficiency of the cavitary digestion:
- pancreatogenic insufficiency of digestion;
- deficiency of bile acids;
- gastrogenic insufficiency of digestion.

2. Lack of membrane digestion:
- disruption of adsorption of pancreatic enzymes;
- deficiency of intestinal enzymes.

Disturbances in digestion can be associated with insufficiency of cavitary and membrane hydrolysis of food proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The most severe violations of cavitary digestion are observed in diseases of the pancreas with exocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic insufficiency develops as a result of a decrease in functioning pancreatic tissue in patients with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

The external secretory function of the pancreas is disrupted with a decrease in the secretion of pancreosimin, secretin and enterokinase in the mucosa of the duodenum when it is atrophy. In addition, the activity of enterokinase and pancreatic enzymes in the cavity of the small intestine decreases with the pH shifting in the lumen of the small intestine to the acid side. Intestinal digestion is also disturbed in the absence of sufficient bile acids necessary for digestion of fat (cirrhosis of the liver, mechanical jaundice, ileal resection, excessive growth of microbes in the small intestine).
The inadequacy of membrane digestion occurs when the intestinal enzymes themselves are deficient and the adsorption of pancreatic enzymes decreases on the membrane of the brush border of the enterocytes.

Patients complain of bloating, excessive gas formation, sensation of transfusion and rumbling in the abdomen. In more severe cases, there is polyphecal, steatorrhea, diarrhea and weight loss. Nevertheless, trophic disorders (dry skin, dullness and brittle nails and hair, cracks in the corners of the lips and in the tongue, etc.) with the syndrome of impaired digestion practically do not develop. This is the fundamental difference between the syndrome of maldigestia and the syndrome of impaired absorption.

In patients with chronic pancreatitis with severe impairment of the exocrine function of the pancreas, the volume of the stool increases, and the content of fat, muscle fibers and starch is increased. In diseases of the liver and bile ducts, accompanied by a deficiency of bile acids, digestion of fats is also disrupted and more or less pronounced steatorrhea appears. The cause of maldigestia in patients with secretory gastric insufficiency or after operations on it is excessive bacterial growth in the upper parts of the small intestine and a violation of contact between the chyme and digestive juices.

The inadequacy of membrane digestion is clinically manifested by poor tolerance of nutrients containing those oligomers whose digestion is impaired. Food intolerance, caused by a lack of membrane digestion, develops only when there is a deficit of intestinal (membrane) enzymes. Most often it is a deficiency of intestinal carbohydrases and poor tolerance of lactose (milk sugar), trehalose (disaccharide contained in mushrooms), sucrose and other disaccharides.

In patients with atrophy of the small intestine mucosa, violations of the membrane digestion are combined with impaired absorption.

Diagnosis, differential diagnosis
A simplest method of laboratory evaluation of the effectiveness of digestive processes is a coprological study. Disorders of digestion are accompanied by an increase in the daily volume of feces, the appearance in it of a large number of muscle fibers, corks of starch, drops of fat. One of the early symptoms of a violation of digestion of nutrients is steatorrhea. The feces become greasy, shiny, and sticky. At a microscopic examination, droplets of fat are visible. A more accurate representation of the degree of steatorrhea can be obtained by examining the fat content in the daily amount of stool according to the Van de Camera method. With pancreatic insufficiency, the amount of undigested fat, mostly neutral, exceeds 5-7 g.

In patients with insufficient digestion and absorption, favorable conditions are created for the reproduction of microbial flora in the upper parts of the small intestine. This is facilitated by the slow utilization of chyme, motor disorders and decreased production of lysozyme by enterocytes. Therefore, an important method of diagnosing maldigestia is to determine the amount and composition of microbes in intestinal juice.

A characteristic symptom of the failure of membrane digestion is the intolerance of food products, for example milk, sugar, fungi and other carbohydrates containing disaccharides. Unlike maldigestii of any origin for malabsorption syndrome, the main clinical symptoms are trophic disorders, not so much quantitative (weight loss) as qualitative ones. These include changes in the skin and its appendages, signs of a deficiency in the body of microelements, vitamins and other biologically active substances. Differential diagnostics is assisted by histological and histochemical studies of the small intestine mucosa.

In the complex therapy of intestinal digestion disorders, dietary nutrition plays a leading role, the characteristics of which depend on the underlying disease and the severity of intestinal disorders. Food should be mechanically sparing, contain an increased amount of protein (100-150 g) and carbohydrates (400-500 g), a reduced amount of fat (30-40 g). Excluded from the diet are hard-to-digest fats, raw vegetables and fruits. If milk, sugar, mushrooms or starch is poorly tolerated, an appropriate individual - elimination diet - is prescribed.

Medicamental therapy should be aimed at improving intestinal digestion, suppressing pathogenic microflora and regulating motor function.

With pancreatogenic steatorrhea, a good therapeutic effect is provided by the enzymes of the pancreas Creon, Mezim Forte and others.

In hepatogenic steatorrhea, preparations containing components of bile besides enzymes (Penzinorm forte, Digestal, Festal, Enzistal, etc.) are recommended. The effectiveness of substitution treatment with enzyme preparations is determined primarily by the choice of the optimal dose.

Of the regulators of motor activity are most effective in digestion disorders of Dicetel and Duspatalin.

In patients with impaired digestion, dysbiosis almost always develops.

Treatment of dysbacteriosis should be carried out taking into account the characteristics of the underlying disease. It includes:

- application of intestinal antiseptics in order to eliminate excess bacterial colonization of the intestine -with a conditionally pathogenic microflora;
- restoration of normal microbial flora of the intestines with the help of probiotics;
- enterosorbents;
- stimulation of the organism's reactivity.

Intestinal antiseptics
These drugs have a less harmful effect on symbiotic microbial flora than antibiotics. These include Intetriks, Ersefuril, Nitroxoline, Furazolidon, etc. Antibacterials are prescribed for 10-14 days. The use of an antibiotic is justified as a backup.

Probiotics were most widely used: Linex, Bifidumbacterin, Probiophore. The course of treatment should last 1-2 months.

This group of drugs does not inhibit the normal intestinal microflora. Their disadvantage is the indiscriminate sorption of opportunistic pathogenic microflora and its toxins. Preparations are prescribed by short courses from 5 to 10 days. Enterosorbents are used only as a monotherapy; can inactivate the action of other drugs. These include: Filtrum, Lactofiltrum (1 tablet 3-4 times a day), Enterosgel (1 tbsp., Dissolving in 1/4 cup water, 3 times a day).

Stimulants of body reactivity
To improve the reactivity of the weakened patients, it is advisable to apply Gepon, Timalin, Timogen, Immunal, Immunophane and other immunostimulating agents. The course of treatment should last for an average of 4 weeks. At the same time prescribe vitamins.


Abstinence / Breaking

29 Aug 2018

Abstinence (withdrawal syndrome, breakage, demolition, withdrawal symptoms, withdrawal pangs, cold Turkey) means a marked deterioration in the state of health when the amount of the drug taken is reduced or if the consumption is completely stopped. At this time, the addict's behavior is restless. He does not leave stress, irritability, although for her there is no reason, he is nervous.

Abstinence. Breaking. Phenotropil. Phenazepam

He really needs drugs, so he tries to leave the house under any excuse or "sits down" on the phone. At the same time, the conversation from the side seems incomprehensible, says some riddles like: "Well, how is it?", "Everything is ready?", Etc.

Drug addicts with little experience, who do not have severe physical dependence, can tolerate breaking on their legs. Parents think that the child is sick, and indeed, the picture of opiate withdrawal in a mild form resembles ARI or upset stomach.

Looks like a withdrawal syndrome like this - Sharply widening pupils, there are lethargy, chills, intense sweating, mood is reduced. A young man is wrapped in warm clothes, turns on the heater even if the apartment is warm. He suffers from a runny nose, and sometimes sneezes. He experiences nausea, and then vomiting may begin, the stomach hurts (Phenotropil can help with it).

At this time, drug addicts almost do not sleep at night, they can not lie either. The relief comes not less than in 4-5 days (we shall repeat, at beginning narcomaniacs), and more often these torments last longer. Therefore, a person does not stand up, and if on the third day the illness suddenly passes, then it is pinned and therefore feels well.

For some novice drug addicts, these symptoms are not always present during the break-up, but in any case, the ailments are seen with the naked eye.

A drug addict who uses a dope for a long period, skipping the time of taking the next dose, experiences a more painful condition during withdrawal. The heaviest flu, accompanied by food poisoning, can not compare with what the patient feels at this time. In addition, strong pains in the joints are added, and besides this, there is often also a tremor - a "knock-out", when the whole body trembles.

Insomnia among the "trainees" is more prolonged, and drug addicts, knowing what awaits them, try to get any money for the next dose: transfer the fragility to dry above their strength (Phenazepam can cope with this). Moreover, they know that flour can immediately disappear, if you take a dose, but it is available, sold, as they say, around the corner.

All types of drugs, regardless of the way they are introduced into the body, necessarily damage the nervous system, including the brain, the immune system, the liver, the heart, the lungs. People who regularly use the potion, there is, in addition to physical, a psychic addiction, and this alone can not cope with this disaster.


Does your back ache? There is a solution!

28 Aug 2018

Back pain is one of those unpleasant problems with which, by experience, sooner or later, almost every person has to meet. Osteochondrosis and radiculitis, unusual physical activity, micro-trauma and hypothermia - all this can cause an attack of acute or aching pain. And this happens, as a rule, suddenly and at the most inopportune moment, and therefore it is so important that there is always a drug in the home medicine cabinet that will help solve the "painful problem".

Does your back ache

Local non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
In most cases, the mechanism of development of back pain is the same: stretching, compression or inflammatory tissue damage triggers a chain of specific biochemical reactions accompanied by the release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, histamine, leukotrienes, etc.). They irritate the pain receptors, increase the permeability of small vessels and expand them, provoking an inflammatory process in the affected tissues. And to cope with the pain, a drug is needed that can effectively suppress this mechanism. Most often, the choice in this situation falls on local forms of NSAIDs (gels, ointments, creams), which are considered the most suitable for the ratio of efficiency and safety option for self-use at home.

The pronounced analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect with less risk of developing systemic side effects characteristic of tableted NSAIDs is what determines the choice of doctors in favor of local NSAIDs. Such drugs are now prescribed for the treatment of chronic joint and spinal diseases as an addition to systemic therapy, and are also recommended as a first aid for domestic and sports injuries - bruises, sprains, muscle strain, etc. But in patients, the use of these remedies is very often disappointing because of inefficiencies that do not justify expectations. In many respects this is due not so much to the properties of the preparations themselves, as to their incorrect application. First, many patients do not follow the recommendations for dosage and use an insufficient amount of the drug (1-2 cm gel instead of the recommended 5-6 cm). Well, and secondly, it must be remembered that external preparations, unlike injection forms, are not intended for immediate suppression of acute pain. Indication for the appointment of gels and creams on the basis of NSAIDs is a aching pain in chronic diseases and small injuries.

Quick solution of a painful issue
Bystrumgel, a gel form of ketoprofen (2.5%), successfully copes with this task, which, thanks to the small size of the molecule and the hydrophilic base of the preparation, is able to penetrate deeply into inflamed tissues. In this case, the release of ketoprofen from the gel and absorption through the skin occurs gradually, due to which the therapeutic effect of Bystrumgel persists for a long time.

The advantages of Bystrumgel include not only a quick and pronounced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect, but also a favorable safety profile. The drug selectively accumulates in the focus of inflammation and surrounding tissues (muscles, fatty tissue, ligaments, joint tissues) and practically does not enter the systemic bloodstream, which avoids the characteristic gastropartic effect of NSAIDs and other systemic side effects. In addition, unlike many other NSAIDs, ketoprofen does not have a destructive effect on the cartilaginous tissue of the joint. It is especially worth noting that even with prolonged use, Bystrumgel is well tolerated and does not lose its effectiveness, so it can be used by a wide range of patients with aching pain as a reliable remedy with a powerful analgesic composition.

Bystrumgel will be a successful addition to both the home and road first aid kit - so that the means for solving "painful problems" with joints is always at hand. But it is necessary to remind pharmacists that, in order to obtain the maximum therapeutic effect, it is very important to follow the recommended application frequency and dosage in the instructions.


Mildronate - Physicians have found a way to withstand high loads

27 Aug 2018

At present, stress and stress-provoking conditions, in particular increased mental and physical stress, are recognized as independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which today are the leading cause of death worldwide (more than 30% annually). Our country is not an exception. Various manifestations of cardiovascular diseases are the main reason for patients to go to outpatient clinics in Russia.

Medonium Mildronate. Cardionate

"Every day we are faced with a colossal army of patients who need help in maintaining the cardiovascular system in good condition", - shares practical experience. Department of Therapy, Clinical Pharmacology and Emergency Medical Care of the Moscow State Medical-Stomatological University, MD, Professor A.L. Vertkin.

According to experts, metabolic drugs containing meldonium can help people cope with increased mental and physical stress, and also resist the risk of CVD.

One of the most noticeable preparations of this group is Mildronate (meldonium). It provides protection and energy supply for various cells of the cardiovascular system.

In conditions of increased load, mills are optimizing energy metabolism, eliminating the accumulation of toxic metabolic products in cells, protecting them from damage; has also a tonic effect. As a result of its application, the body's resistance to stresses increases and the ability to quickly restore energy reserves.

The drug has a stimulating effect on the central nervous system - increases physical activity and physical endurance. Due to these properties, Mildronate is also used to enhance physical and mental performance. He helps patients to recover, and healthy - do not get sick. Athletes with his help cope with great physical, and students, office employees, managers - with mental stress, which generally reduces the risk of CVD.

Currently, the preparation Mildronate capsules 250 mg is supplied to the Russian market in a new package, which is associated with the receipt of this form of the drug over-the-counter status. To restore reduced performance at mental and physical overloads Mildronate should take 2 capsules 250 mg per day in the morning. Duration of admission - 10-14 days, if necessary, treatment can be repeated after 2-3 weeks. In the package - 40 capsules of 250 mg, which allows for a full course of therapy.


Brain, nervous system and alcohol ...

24 Aug 2018

There is no such organ in the human body that would not break down from any doses of alcohol. But most of all the brain suffers. If the concentration of alcohol in the blood is taken as 1, it will be 1.45 in the liver, 1.50 in the cerebrospinal fluid, and 1.75 in the brain. It is there that this poison has the property of accumulating. After taking a mug of beer, a glass of wine, 100 grams of vodka - the alcohol contained in them is absorbed into the blood, with blood flowing to the brain and the person begins the process of intensive destruction of its bark.

Brain, nervous system and alcohol. Phenylpiracetam alcohol

The human brain consists of 15 billion nerve cells (neurons). Each cell nourishes its microcapillary with blood. This microcapillary is so thin that for normal nutrition of a given neuron, the erythrocytes can only squeeze into one row. And when the alcoholic glueing of red blood cells approaches the base of the microcapillary, it clogs it, it takes 7-9 minutes - and the next cell of the human brain irretrievably dies.

Due to the fact that oxygen stops coming to the cells of the brain, hypoxia begins, that is, oxygen starvation (oxygen deficiency Meldonium and Phenylpiracetam can help in this case). It is hypoxia and is perceived by man as a supposedly innocuous state of intoxication. And this leads to numbness, and then death of the brain areas. All this is subjectively perceived by the drunk as "relaxation", "freedom" from the outside world, similar to the euphoria of being released from prison after a long sitting. In fact, just a part of the brain is artificially cut off from the perception of often "unpleasant" information from outside.

After each so-called "moderate" binge, a new cemetery of the dead nerve cells (neurons) appears in the person's head. And when the pathologists open the skull of any so-called "moderately drinking" person, they all see the same picture - a "wrinkled brain", smaller in volume, the entire surface of the cortex of which is in microns, microvias, attacks of structures.

It is in the brain that the greatest changes are found at autopsy. The dura mater is tense, the soft membranes are swollen, full-blooded. The brain is swollen, the vessels are dilated, many small cysts 1-2 mm in diameter. These small cysts were formed in places of hemorrhages and necrosis (necrosis) of parts of the brain substance.

Here is how the Kiev pathologist describes the brain of a "merry fellow" and "joker", which, according to the friends, drank "moderately" and "culturally": "Changes in the frontal lobes of the brain are visible even without a microscope, the gyrus is smoothed, atrophied, and numerous small hemorrhages. Under the microscope are visible voids, filled with serous fluid. The cortex of the brain resembles the earth, after bombs have been dropped on it - all in funnels. Here each binge has left its mark. "

Similar changes in the brain occur in people whose deaths do not necessarily stem from reasons associated with drinking alcohol.

A more subtle study of the brain of a deceased person from acute alcohol intoxication shows that changes in the protoplasm and nucleus, as pronounced as in poisoning by other strong poisons, have occurred in the nerve cells. In this case, the cells of the cerebral cortex are much more affected than the subcortical parts, that is, alcohol acts more strongly on cells of higher centers than lower cells. In the brain marked by a strong blood overflow, often with a rupture of blood vessels in the meninges and on the surface of the brain convolutions.

In cases of non-fatal acute alcohol poisoning, the same processes occur in the brain and in the nerve cells of the cortex. Perception of the victim is difficult and slows down, attention and memory are broken. Due to these changes, as well as the constant influence on the person of the alcoholic and drinkable climate, profound changes in his character and mentality begin.

In addition to the gradual destruction of individual aspects of the mental and mental side of the brain, alcohol increasingly leads to a complete deactivation of normal brain function. Personality changes, the processes of its degradation begin. If at this time do not stop drinking, the full restoration of moral qualities can never happen.

With the reception of even larger doses, a serious disruption of the functions of the entire central nervous system occurs involving the dorsal and medulla oblongata. Deep anesthesia and coma are developing. When taking a dose equal to 7.8 g of alcohol per kilogram of weight, which is approximately equal to 1-1.25 liters of vodka, death occurs for an adult person. For children, the lethal dose is 4-5 times less, based on kilogram weight.

In the experiments of Academician Pavlov, it was established that after taking small doses of alcohol, the reflexes disappear and are restored only for 8-12 days. But reflexes are lower forms of brain function. Alcohol acts primarily on its higher forms. Experiments on educated people proved that after receiving so-called "moderate" doses, that is, 25-40 g of alcohol, the higher brain functions are restored only for 12-20 days. Thus, if you drink alcohol more than once every two weeks, the brain can not get rid of the narcotic poison and all the time will be in a poisoned state. In the case of continuous exposure to alcohol on the brain, the harm caused to him will be unquestionable.

How does alcohol work? First of all, it has narcotic properties: they get used to it very quickly, and there is a need for repeated receptions, the more alcoholic "drinks" are taken, more often and in larger doses; As consumption is used to obtain the same effect, an increasing dose is required each time.

How does this drug in various doses affect the mental and mental activity of the brain?

Specially conducted experiments and observations on a person who drank an average dose, that is, one-and-a-half glasses of vodka, found that in all cases without exception alcohol acts the same way, namely: slows down and hinders mental processes, motor acts at first speeds up, and then slows down. At the same time, the most complex mental processes suffer the most, and the simplest mental functions last longer, especially those that are associated with motor representations.

The paralysis of the centers of psychic dispensations primarily affects the processes that we call judgment and criticism. With the weakening of their beginnings, feelings that are not tempered and not restrained by criticism begin to predominate. Observations show that drunkards do not become smarter, and if they think otherwise, it depends on the beginning of the weakening of their brain's higher activity: as criticism weakens, self-confidence grows. Live gestures, gestures and restless boasting of their strength are also a consequence of the paralysis of consciousness and will that has begun: correct, sensible barriers have been removed that keep a sober person from useless movements and reckless, absurd waste of power.

In numerous experiments conducted by the largest specialists in this field, it became clear that in all cases without exception under the influence of alcohol the simplest mental functions (perceptions) are violated and slowed down not so much as more complex (associations). These last suffer in a double direction: first, their education is slowed down and weakened, and, secondly, their quality significantly changes: the lowest forms of associations, namely motor associations or mechanically memorized ones, most easily arise in the mind, often without the slightest attitudes towards the cause and, once appearing, stubbornly hold out, swam again and again, but completely inopportunely. In this respect, such persistent associations resemble a purely pathological phenomenon, seen with neurasthenia and severe psychosis.

As for motor acts, they accelerate, but this acceleration depends on the relaxation of the brake impulses, and they immediately notice inaccurate work, namely, the phenomenon of premature reaction.

With repeated intake of alcohol, the damage to higher centers of brain activity lasts from 8 to 20 days. If alcohol is consumed for a long time, then the work of these centers is not restored.

On the basis of scientific evidence, it is proved that first and foremost the latest, most recent achievements, obtained by mental stress, say, over the last week, a month, are lost, and the person returns to the level of mental development that he had a week or a month ago after taking alcohol.

If alcohol poisoning occurs frequently, the subject remains immobile mentally, and thinking is normal and patterned. In the future, weakening of older, stronger, stronger associations and weakening of perceptions. As a result, mental processes are narrowed, losing their freshness and originality.

Numerous animal experiments conducted by Ivan Petrovich Pavlov have shown that after relatively small doses of alcohol, the conditioned reflexes are extinguished in the dog and restored only after six days. Experiments of later years confirm the negative effect of alcohol on the nervous system. The typist, who had been given twenty-five grams of vodka before the start of the work, made mistakes fifteen to twenty percent more than always. The drivers of cars passed forbidding signs, the shooter could not exactly hit the target.


Choosing antidepressant

23 Aug 2018

Antidepressants are different in the mechanism of action and the effects produced. The question is, the choice of the drug should be correct, and the treatment performed should be done according to the rules. No medicine, unfortunately, is a panacea, and even more so if it is intended for the treatment of some kind of mental illness. Either way, the medicines prescribed by the doctors are effective. Now a few words about why the doctor prescribes to you this or that antidepressant.

antidepressant fluoxetine

The first thing that determines the choice of an antidepressant is because of the severity of depression: the stronger the depression, the stronger it is to choose an antidepressant. Accordingly, if the depression is very severe, then the treatment will be carried out using large doses of MAO inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants, or maybe even electroshock. If the manifestations of depression are small, then in this case, sometimes plant antidepressants containing hypericin (these are preparations of St. John's wort) are sufficient. The remaining antidepressants are located in the middle of this conditional line - from health to severe illness.

Concerning antidepressants of the "middle group", it should be said that most of them belong to a new generation of antidepressants, and most importantly their difference from each other in which neurotransmitters they affect. Some of these antidepressants affect only the state of affairs with serotonin, and some provide support for several neurotransmitters, for example, serotonin and norepinephrine. Accordingly, the selection of an antidepressant is performed by a physician taking into account all the symptoms of the disease (somewhere it is enough to affect only the state of affairs with serotonin, and somewhere it is necessary to influence another neurotransmitter), this is the second feature of the appointment of antidepressants.

The third thing that doctors mean when prescribing an antidepressant is its stimulating, or sedative, effect. The fact is that some antidepressants, in addition to the actually antidepressant effect, reduce the intensity of internal tension and anxiety; while others, on the contrary, struggle with apathy, lethargy and passivity. However, many new antidepressants have a so-called balanced effect, that is, they reduce anxiety and increase a person's activity.

Most antidepressants, except for plant, are sold in pharmacies only on prescriptions. And this is not someone's whim, this is a completely justified and absolutely correct decision. The right appointment of an antidepressant can be performed only by a doctor in the course of a direct conversation with a patient to whom he prescribes this antidepressant. There are a lot of nuances and subtleties that the doctor should take into account. And use an antidepressant according to the formula: "I know that it helped my grandmother" - is mistaken, although, unfortunately, occurs often enough.

The fourth, which sometimes misleads the non-specialists is the name of the antidepressant. The fact is that the same antidepressant can be produced by different pharmaceutical companies and therefore have different names. Take for example - fluoxetine, which is the most popular antidepressant in America and Europe (it accounts for almost 40% of sales of antidepressants in the world). In the Russian market, fluoxetine is represented by almost two dozen pharmaceutical companies, both Russian and foreign. Consequently, the same substance is sold in pharmacies with almost twenty different names.

How do you figure out exactly what to buy, because a doctor most often writes simply "fluoxetine" without specifying a company name? It remains to be guided by the ratio of "price / quality". Russian and Indian drugs, for example, are often cheaper than Western analogues, but, unfortunately, they differ in a large number of side effects and are not always as effective. On the contrary, Western companies tend to present to the Russian market, as a rule, more expensive, but also higher-quality medicines.

Treatment of depression, in a good way, is a specialist - a doctor-psychotherapist. However, there is a list of drugs that provide a good therapeutic effect for mild and moderate depression, and those that are sold in pharmacies without prescriptions. These are herbal antidepressants, produced on the basis of St. John's wort, the medicinal properties of which have been known to mankind for a long time. Modern research has proven the effectiveness of one of the components of St. John's Wort - Hypericine - in the treatment of depression. The best concentration of this substance was achieved in the preparation with the spoken name "Negrustin" (manufactured by the German firm "Hexal"). In one tablet of nerustine, the same amount of desired hypericin is concentrated, as in six to eight circles of strongly brewed St. John's wort; the amount of other active substances in it, on the contrary, is reduced. This allows "Negrustin" to be an effective antidepressant without side effects - it does not cause drowsiness or addiction (the only thing - do not sunbathe during treatment with this drug, in order to avoid skin reactions).

"Negrustin" not only defeats depression, but also reduces anxiety, improves the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, effectively copes with the syndrome of chronic fatigue and improves sleep. It allows women to reduce the severity of premenstrual syndrome and climacteric disorders. The standardized treatment regimen for "Neurustin" is as follows: the first two weeks it should be taken one capsule twice a day, and then one capsule for a month and a half or two months. If after a month of therapy you did not feel a tangible effect (and no drug is a panacea), then, of course, you can not do without the additional advice of a psychotherapist.

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