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Fenotropil

18 Jul 2018

Nootropic preparation.

Preparation: FENOTROPIL
The active substance of the drug: non appropriate
Encoding ATX: N06BX Nootropic drug

Fenotropil racetam

Pharmacological action of Fenotropil
Fenotropil - Nootropic preparation. By the mechanism of action is a neuromodulator, it acts on the majority of neurotransmitter systems of the brain. Has a pronounced antiamnestic effect, activates the integrative activity of the brain, promotes memory consolidation, improves concentration and mental activity, facilitates learning processes, accelerates the transfer of information between the cerebral hemispheres, increases the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia and toxic effects, has anticonvulsant action and anxiolytic activity , regulates the processes of activation and inhibition of the central nervous system, improves mood.

Fenotropil has a positive effect on the metabolic processes and blood circulation of the brain, stimulates redox processes, increases the energy potential of the body through the utilization of glucose, improves regional blood flow in the ischemic areas of the brain. Increases the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain.

Does not affect the level of GABA, does not bind to GABAA- and GABAB receptors, does not have a significant effect on spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the brain.

Fenotropil has no effect on respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Has a weakly diuretic effect. Possesses anorexigenic activity in course use.

Fenotropil has a moderately activating effect on motor reactions, improves physical performance, has a pronounced antagonism with respect to the catalepsy effect of neuroleptics, reduces the severity of the hypnotics of ethanol and hexenal.
Psycho-stimulating effect of phenothropylate predominates in the ideator sphere. Moderate psychoactivating effect of the drug is combined with anxiolytic activity. Fenotropil improves mood, analgesic effect, raising the threshold of pain sensitivity.

Fenotropil has an adaptogenic effect, increasing the body's resistance to stress in conditions of increased mental and physical loads, fatigue, hypokinesia and immobilization, at low temperatures.

Against the background of the use of Fenotropil noted improvement in vision (increased acuity, brightness and fields of vision).

Fenotropil improves the blood supply of the lower extremities.

Fenotropil stimulates the production of antibodies in response to antigen administration, which indicates its immunostimulatory properties, but at the same time does not cause immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions and does not change the allergic skin inflammatory reaction caused by the introduction of a foreign protein.

In the course of the use of Fenotropil, drug dependence and tolerance do not develop. When the drug was withdrawn, there was no development of withdrawal syndrome.

The action of Fenotropil appears after a single dose, which is important when using the drug in extreme conditions.

Fenotropil - Indications for use:
- Diseases of the central nervous system of various genesis, especially diseases of vascular genesis or associated with impaired metabolic processes in the brain and intoxication (in particular, in posttraumatic states and chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency), accompanied by impaired intellectual and mnestic functions, decreased motor activity;

- neurotic states, manifested by lethargy, increased exhaustion, decreased psychomotor activity, impaired attention, memory impairment;

- Violations of learning processes;

- Depression of mild and moderate severity;

- psycho-organic syndromes, manifested by intellectual-mnestic disorders and apatiko-abulic symptoms, as well as flaccid states in schizophrenia;

- convulsive conditions;

- obesity (alimentary-constitutional genesis);

- Prevention of hypoxia, increased resistance to stress;

- correction of the functional state of the organism in extreme conditions of professional activity with the purpose of preventing the development of fatigue and increasing mental and physical performance;

- correction of daily biorhythm, regulation of the cycle "sleep-wakefulness";

- chronic alcoholism (in order to reduce the symptoms of asthenia, depression, intellectual-mnestic disorders).

Fenotropil Dosage and route of administration.
Dosage is set individually.

The average single dose is 100-200 mg, the average daily dose is 200-300 mg. The maximum daily dose is 750 mg. Multiplicity of admission - 1-2 times / day.

A daily dose of more than 100 mg is recommended to be divided into 2 divided doses. Duration of treatment - from 2 weeks to 3 months. The average course of treatment is 30 days. If necessary, appoint a second course of treatment in a month.

To improve performance, 100-200 mg 1 time / day in the morning for 2 weeks (for athletes - for 3 days).
In case of alimentary-constitutional obesity, 100-200 mg 1 time / day in the morning for 30-60 days.

Fenotropil is taken orally after a meal.

It is not recommended to take Fenotropil after 15 hours.

Special instructions for the use of Fenotropil.
Caution should be given to the drug Fenotropil to patients with severe organic lesions of the liver and kidneys, severe course of arterial hypertension, with severe atherosclerosis; patients with panic attacks, acute psychotic conditions accompanied by psychomotor agitation (as possible aggravation of anxiety, panic, hallucinations and delusions); patients prone to allergic reactions to nootropic drugs of the pyrrolidone group.

It should be borne in mind that with excessive psychoemotional exhaustion on the background of chronic stress and fatigue, chronic insomnia, a single dose of Fenotropil in the first day can cause a sharp need for sleep. Such patients in outpatient settings are advised to start taking the drug on non-working days.

Use in Pediatrics
Fentotropil is not recommended for children due to the lack of clinical data on the use of the drug in children.


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Actovegin - unique drug

18 Jul 2018

One of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide is cerebrovascular pathology (up to 50 percent of all cardiovascular pathologies). Effective treatment and diagnosis of pathology is the foundation for the treatment of major diseases in geriatrics. Metabolic changes in nerve cells have long been the goal of targeted pharmacological effects.

aktovegin buy

Actovegin is the most commonly used medication of this type. It is connected with the concept of neurometabolic pharmacotherapy. Different areas of medicine use Actovegin with success - therapy, neurology, endocrinology, surgery. Such a huge success of Actovegin is the result of a special mechanism of action.


Let's try to understand the features of the mechanism of action of Actovegin.
A practicing physician of clinical neurology has an extensive selection of medications for neurotransmitter and vasotropic action that can successfully solve problems of correction of neurotransmitter imbalance and regulation of cerebral blood flow. Nevertheless, the third most important part of the strategy of treating central nervous system diseases - neurometabolism - is a problematic link.

Actovegin is popular not only in the field of neurology, but also in all clinical practice due to its three main merits:
a) high efficiency;
c) a wide range of pharmacological effects;
(c) Security.
The basic mechanism of action of the drug Actovegin is to improve aerobic metabolism due to improved supply and consumption of glucose. This helps to activate the formation of ATP and establish an energy metabolism in hypoxia, as well as normalize the metabolism and action of the cell.

All this is due to the following features of the action of Actovegin:
Actovegin improves the use of oxygen by neurons, and also promotes the formation of adenosine triphosphate.
Actovegin helps the formation of the most important neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - acetylcholine.
Actovegin improves the flow of glucose through the blood-brain barrier.

Actovegin is a kind of comprehensive bioenergy stabilizer of cellular metabolism. This is what distinguishes Actovegin from other nootropic and vasotropic drugs, which affect only a certain component energy supply of the cell or several components, rather than the whole process.

Actovegin is also a powerful antioxidant, acting as a result of the start of the main enzyme of the internal antioxidant system.

Actovegin promotes intracellular transport of glucose, acting like insulin, but without affecting the receptors of the pancreas, which is important in the presence of insulin resistance. At the same time, according to the force of action, Actovegin is weaker than insulin only twice.
Actovegin inhibits the progress of angiopathy in diabetics of the first type, and also increases the intensity of lipolysis.

Actovegin improves the adaptation of neurons, increases transport and oxygen consumption not only by neurons, but also by cells of various body systems.

Actovegin affects the cells of the myocardium and liver.

Thus, Actovegin is a unique drug that has found application in clinical practice, primarily in neurology (discalcular encephalopathy, vascular dementia, stroke, alcoholic neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy, radiculitis, vertebral hernia and osteochondrosis, craniocerebral trauma, brain injuries).

Actovegin also has a preventive effect, which helps prevent the occurrence of metabolic disorders characterized by cognitive and psycho-emotional symptoms.
The use of Actovegin helps in the successful treatment.

Actovegin is a safe drug, side effects have not been observed, allergic reactions are exceptions (in most cases, when the original is not used, but a fake), and that is important:
Actovegin is compatible with many drugs.

Actovegin is used in therapy not only for adults (including pregnant women), but also for the treatment of children.

Actovegin is also used in veterinary medicine. Apply Actovegin and in sports.

Actovegin is available both in a solution for intravenous infusions, and in injections, tablets, in the form of a gel, cream and ointment.

Actovegin is one of the most progressive pharmacological drugs used in various fields of medicine: in endocrinology, neurology, cardiology, gynecology, gastroenterology (here), rheumatology and dermatology, etc ..

Sometimes readers in their letters ask whether Actovegin can provoke dementia. Very authoritative authors of scientific research completely refute such unsubstantiated rumors.

I would like to stop here on what issue: on the issue of actovegin's effectiveness. Does Actovegin help?

Actovegin and Evidence-Based Medicine
You will meet on the Internet many articles on the lack of evidence base for Actovegin, ie. it is a question of that there are no studies of the efficacy and safety of Actovegin.

And it's all written about a drug that is very well known to doctors.

Yes, the exact mechanism of action of Actovegin is still unclear and has not been fully understood.

However, it would be unfair not to notice that a number of experiments on the mechanism of Actovegin have been carried out in recent years and a number of effects of this drug have been accurately established (insulin-like activity, neuroprotective properties ...).

Experimental experiments have shown that in Actovegin, extraordinary opportunities exist for the therapy of pathologies, which are accompanied by ischemia, hypoxia and oxidative stress.

Today, Actovegin is widely used in the complex therapy of encephalopathies, in the treatment of patients after a stroke and patients with diabetes mellitus (in the case of diabetic polyneuropathy - a frequent and extremely dangerous complication of diabetes, often resulting in gangrene of the extremities).

Actovegin is used in practice for more than thirty years: longer than the term "evidence-based medicine" itself.

If you follow the fact that there is no evidence base for Actovegin, then there may be a situation where the possibilities for treatment as a whole will be reduced, because a lot of drugs can be added to the list of drugs that did not pass "independent studies on GCP rules".

Here is what an authoritative specialist writes about this (Kulikov A.Yu., Associate Professor of the Department of Drug Supply Organization ...): "40% of medicines on the Russian market ... have no evidence base." However, this does not mean that such a sin is not found among a number of foreign manufacturers.

Archie Cochran and his colleagues have done a great job in the last decade: around the world today - a dozen Cochran centers. They made a significant contribution to what is today called "evidence-based medicine."

We hope that further study of Actovegin will be continued:
Today there are more than two dozen countries where this drug has found application.


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Buy Phenylpiracetam

17 Jul 2018

Buy Phenylpiracetam is one of the most effective nootropic drugs available on the market today. This is a relatively new nootropic drug from the family of pyracetam derivatives, which is a modification of the original preparation Piracetam. The difference between Buy Phenylpiracetam and pyracetam is that its activity is 30-60 times higher, it has neuroprotective properties and increases physical efficiency. For all these reasons, phenylpira - cetam is increasingly becoming the drug of choice among nootropics.

buy phenylpiracetam

Phenylpyracetam (RS) -2- (2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) -acetamide), also known as Carphedon or Fentropil, was developed in Russia in 1983. It was created as a nootropic remedy, and also as a means to increase physical endurance. Buy Phenylpiracetam was synthesized from Piracetam by adding a phenyl group to the substance. Buy Phenylpiracetam has long been popular in the east, and only recently has become popular in the west. Its effects are described as increasing concentration of attention, as well as improving memory and learning. There is a stimulation and improvement of locomotor activity, which increases physical efficiency. For this reason, Buy Phenylpiracetam has been included in the list of banned drugs by many sports organizations, including the Olympic Committee.

The structure of phenylpiracetam is a pyracetam with a phenyl group attached to it. This feature significantly increases its bioavailability and increases the efficiency 30-60 times compared to piracetam. The addition of a phenyl group affects these properties in two ways:

High efficiency and more pronounced effects are achieved due to the ability of the molecule to penetrate more easily through the blood-brain barrier.

Stimulant effects are more pronounced due to their similarity to phenylethylamines, such as Adderol. In comparison with other pyracetamines, phenylpiracetam is quite effective and has high bioavailability even when administered orally. Its half-life in humans is 3-5 hours.

Efficiency. Is Buy Phenylpiracetam better than piracetam?
There is ample evidence that Buy Phenylpiracetam, like other piracetam drugs, is effective in slowing the progression and symptoms of cognitive impairment. In some of these studies, piracetam was used for more than one month, and its positive effects were due only to the effect on organic causes of cognitive impairment (dementia and stroke) rather than to traumatic brain damage.

There is only one study in rats, in which there was an improvement in cognitive ability in relatively healthy individuals, and this study only describes the effectiveness of the R-isomer (the racemic mixture that is most commonly found on the market has no similar effect). It is impossible to exclude the cognitive improving effect of Buy Phenylpiracetam in young individuals. Presumably, it differs from the psychostimulating effect (which is noted equally when using the said racemic mixture and the R isomer). The R-isomer appears to be more active than the S-isomer when using phenylpiracetam for conventional purposes (for psychostimulation and enhancement of learning), while the racemic mixture (most commonly sold) is effective for increasing cognitive abilities, but it is not known, whether it has a nootropic effect in adolescents.

Buy Phenylpiracetam Dosage
The recommended dosage is 100-250 mg. Recommendations: Buy Phenylpiracetam is soluble in water. Do not use during pregnancy and lactation. Side effects - very rarely allergic reactions. Before use, consult a specialist.

Buy Phenylpiracetam has 100% bioavailability for oral administration, rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. After entering the bloodstream, it easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. 60% of the drug is excreted in the urine, the rest is through the biliary tract. Metabolism occurs with the formation of 3-hydroxycarphedon and 4-hydroxycarphedon. Buy Phenylpyracetam begins to act 1 hour after the administration, its half-life is 3-5 hours.

Buy Phenylpiracetam has the properties of a neuromodulator. It has a significant effect on the cholinergic and glutamatergic system. It binds to acetylcholine and glutamate receptors. Buy Phenylpiracetam also increases the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can explain its stimulating effect and the ability to cheer up.

On the direct mechanism of action of Buy Phenylpiracetam is known as little as other piracetamas. It is known that it increases the density of NDMA-glutamate receptors in the hippocampus. It is believed that Buy Phenylpiracetam is also able to stimulate nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the cerebral cortex and D3-dopamine receptors of the striatum.

The ability of Buy Phenylpiracetam to affect physical performance was noted. Despite the fact that phenylpiracetam has a stimulating effect, no direct effect on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was detected. It was noted that phenylpiracetam is able to reduce the pain threshold, as well as the ability to adapt to stress. It is believed that phenylpyracetam promotes modulation of locomotor activity in the brain.

Side effects of buy Phenylpiracetam
Buy Phenylpiracetam has the same side effects and risks as most other piracetamines. These include: headache, nausea, irritability and problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Insomnia can occur due to the stimulating effect of the drug. This side effect can be avoided by reducing the dosage of the drug or correcting the time of its administration, since it has a fairly short half-life.

Over time, Buy Phenylpiracetam is addictive, which develops faster than other pyracetamines. It is believed that the drug does not cause dependence, but there is information about the occurrence of dependence. In general, this drug is not recommended for daily use, as with long-term use, it loses its nootropic properties. Buy Phenylpiracetam rarely causes dependence and can be considered relatively safe with proper application.

There are no reports of fatal or severe cases when phenylpyra- cetamine interacts with other drugs. No cases of an overdose of phenylpyricetam were observed. It can be considered safe with the use of recommended dosages. Do not exceed the recommended dosage, and before starting reception should consult with a specialist. Hypersensitivity to the drug may develop, so you should start taking small doses.

Like other pyracetamines, Buy Phenylpiracetam rarely causes side effects when administered at the recommended dosages. If you have a headache, you might want to increase your choline intake, which is often recommended when taking piracetam drugs.


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Phenylpiracetam Carphedon

16 Jul 2018

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon (internationally called Fonturacetam, chemical - 4-phenylpyricetam) is a drug with nootropic effect, besides it has psychostimulating, anticonvulsant, antihypoxic and antihypertensive properties. It has an adaptogenic effect under various stress models. 

Phenylpiracetam carphedon

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon prevents overloading of higher nervous activity during information overloads in experiments in higher animals, normalizes the daily biorhythm of the indicators of the sympathoadrenal system. It is a chemically improved formula of pyracetam.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon in sport
Phenylpiracetam Carphedon has a clear activating effect, and therefore was listed in the list of banned substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency. So in 2006, Russian biathlete Olga Pyleva was disqualified for 2 years. In August 2008, another Russian athlete (run with obstacles) Roman Usov was disqualified.

According to the experience of using in sports, it is safe to say that this is one of the few drugs whose effect is really felt. Already on the second or third day of admission, there is a marked increase in endurance, physical activity and strength. It is recommended to take 3-7 days before the competition, in a dose of 200-500 mg per day. When recruiting muscle mass is undesirable, as phenotropic moderately reduces appetite and promotes weight loss.

It is worth noting that Phenylpiracetam Carphedon is extremely effective for increasing mental activity during preparation for exams or other heavy mental activity. Significantly reduces the need for sleep, improves the assimilation and processing of information. For these purposes is adopted by the instruction.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon pharmachologic effect
Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - Nootropic drug, has a pronounced antiamnestic effect, has a direct activating effect on the integrative activity of the brain, promotes memory consolidation, improves concentration and mental activity, facilitates the learning process, increases the speed of information transfer between the cerebral hemispheres, increases the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia and toxic impacts. It also has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects, regulates the processes of activation and inhibition of the central nervous system, improves mood. It has a positive effect on the metabolic processes and blood circulation of the brain, improves the regional blood flow in ischemic areas of the brain, stimulates redox processes, increases the energy potential of the organism due to better utilization of glucose. Increases the concentration of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain, does not affect the content of GABA, binds neither to GABAa nor to GABAb receptors, does not have a significant effect on spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the brain. Does not affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, shows an unexpressed diuretic effect, Phenylpiracetam Carphedon has anorexigenic activity in course use. The stimulating effect of the drug is manifested in the ability to exert a pronounced effect on motor reactions, in increasing physical performance, in pronounced antagonism to the catalepytic action of neuroleptics, and in the weakening of the expression of the hypnotic action of ethanol and hexenal. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - psychostimulating action prevails in the ideatorial sphere. Has some analgesic effect, increasing the threshold of pain sensitivity. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - adaptogenic action is manifested in increasing the body's resistance to stress in conditions of excessive mental and physical stress, fatigue, hypokinesia and immobilization, at low temperatures. Against the background of taking the drug, there is an increase in visual acuity, brightness and visual fields. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon improves blood circulation of the lower extremities. Stimulates the production of antibodies in response to the introduction of antigen, at the same time does not promote the development of immediate type hypersensitivity and does not change the skin allergic reaction caused by the introduction of a foreign protein. With the course application does not develop drug dependence, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome. The effect is manifested even when taking a single dose. Does not have a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and embryotoxic effect. The toxicity of the drug is low, the lethal dose is 800 mg / kg.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Indications
CNS diseases associated with vascular diseases and metabolic disorders in the brain, intoxication (including post-traumatic conditions, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency), accompanied by deterioration of intellectual-mnestic functions, decreased motor activity. Neurotic conditions manifested by lethargy, increased exhaustion, decreased psychomotor activity, impaired attention, memory impairment. Violation of the learning process. Depression of mild and moderate severity. Psycho-organic syndromes, manifested by intellectual-mnestic disorders and apatiko-bulimic phenomena; apatic conditions at a schizophrenia. Convulsive syndrome. Obesity (alimentary-constitutional genesis). Prevention of hypoxia, increased resistance to stress, correction of the functional state of the organism in extreme conditions of professional activity with the goal of preventing the development of fatigue and increasing mental and physical performance, correcting the daily biorhythm, inversion of the "sleep-wake" cycle. Chronic alcoholism (in order to reduce the phenomena of asthenia, depression, intellectual-mnestic disorders).

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Contraindications
Hypersensitivity, pregnancy, lactation, children's age.C with caution. Heavy organic diseases of the liver and kidneys, severe arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, panic attacks in the anamnesis, acute psychotic conditions that occur with psychomotor agitation (risk of worsening anxiety, panic, hallucinations and delirium), allergic reactions to drugs from the group of pyrrolidone.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Side effects
Insomnia (in case of taking the drug later than 15 hours). In the first 1-3 days: psychomotor agitation, hyperemia of the skin, sensation of heat, increased AD. Overdose. Treatment is symptomatic.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Dosing and Administration
Inside, right after eating. The average single dose is 150 mg (100-250 mg), the average daily dose is 250 mg (200-300 mg), the maximum daily dose is 750 mg. The daily dose is divided into 2 divided doses. Duration of treatment - from 2 weeks to 3 months. The average duration of treatment is 30 days. If necessary, a second course is possible after 1 month. To improve performance - 100-200 mg once in the morning for 2 weeks (for athletes - 3 days). Alimentary-constitutional obesity: 100-200 mg once a day in the morning hours for 30-60 days.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon special instructions
It is not recommended to take the drug after 15 hours. In case of excessive psychoemotional exhaustion against the background of chronic stress and fatigue, chronic insomnia, a single dose of the drug in the first day can cause a sharp need for sleep, therefore it is recommended for patients on out-patient treatment to start treatment on non-working days.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Interaction
Strengthens the action of drugs, stimulating the central nervous system, nootropic drugs and antidepressants.
ATTENTION!!!! Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Included in the list of substances WADA as banned in the competition period!


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Phenylpiracetam reviews: fast and furious

16 Jul 2018

A drug called Phenylpiracetam is indicated for use in people with coma (sometimes - precoma), with memory loss, violations (both chronic and acute) of the cerebral circulation. Helps in the treatment of depression and alimentary obesity, with alleviation of the way out of the alcoholic crisis and in the treatment of chronic alcoholism.

phenylpiracetam reviews

In all these cases, a qualitative and effective drug Phenylpiracetam can help (reviews) about which are received from both doctors and their patients. Quick drug help is guaranteed and people absolutely healthy, in need of any moment of life or in an extreme situation in the mobilization of all their physical and mental resources.

The only exception that applies to all similar Phenylpiracetam analogues is the ban on its use during sports competitions, as the drugs of this group are banned by the Anti-Doping Committee. In all other cases - during the student session or before the conference, for better concentration and activation of memory - the medicine can be used in accordance with the instructions and recommendations of doctors.

The action of Phenylpiracetam (the Latin name "Phenotropil") is based on the increase in the brain tissues of the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA). In addition, the drug has an effect on glycolytic processes, stimulates the absorption and cleavage of glucose, preventing its transformation into fats. As a result, as shown by the drug Phenylpiracetam reviews from doctors and specialists studying it, this pharmacological agent has an antiamnestic effect, allows the brain to "concentrate" and quickly consolidate memory by integrating information in a timely fashion. The drug increases the concentration of attention, stimulates mental activity and greatly facilitates the processes of adaptation and learning.

The main advantage of the drug lies not only in its effectiveness and functionality, but in that it has virtually no effect on the cardiovascular and urinary systems or respiratory organs. Many doctors who receive the drug Phenylpiracetam reviews, note its positive impact on patients suffering from anxiety and mood swings. In addition, this medicine can be used to treat diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic disorders in the brain and reduce motor activity.

Assign and accept a pharmacological agent Phenylpiracetam reviews that interested people can get in any pharmacy must be appointed by specialists and carefully monitored by them. The fact that the drug has certain contraindications, when it is used, there may be a problem with individual intolerance, so it can be used with caution in patients with severe kidney and liver lesions, with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Under the supervision of doctors should be treated with a drug of people with psychomotor agitation, with a heightened sense of anxiety, delirium, panic and hallucinations. In no case should you use the medicine for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as for young children, since clinical studies in this area have not yet been conducted.

The drug should be taken in accordance with the appointment of a doctor - an average of 250 mg per day, immediately after meals. The course of treatment is 30 days, but can be repeated after the same interval.


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Phenylpiracetam buy

13 Jul 2018

Phenylpiracetam buy is a nootropic agent given to patients to improve cerebral circulation.

Phenylpiracetam buy has a pronounced antiamnestic effect, has a direct activating influence on the integrative activity of the brain, promotes memory consolidation, improves concentration and mental activity.

Phenylpiracetam buy uk

Phenylpiracetam buy facilitates the learning process, increases the speed of information transfer between the hemispheres of the brain, increases the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia and toxic effects.

Phenylpiracetam buy has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effect, regulates the processes of activation and inhibition of the central nervous system, improves mood.

Phenylpiracetam buy increases the concentration of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain, does not affect the content of GABA, binds neither to GABAa nor to GABAb receptors, does not have a significant effect on spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the brain.

Phenylpiracetam buy has some analgesic effect, increasing the threshold of pain sensitivity. Against the background of taking the drug, there is an increase in visual acuity, brightness and visual fields.

With the course application does not develop drug dependence, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome.

The toxicity of the drug is low, the lethal dose is 800 mg / kg.

Phenylpiracetam buy - Indications for use

What helps with Phenylpiracetam buy? Assign the drug in the following cases:

Various neurotic conditions that are accompanied by impairment of psycho-vascular activity, lethargy, cognitive impairment, and excessive fatigue or memory loss;
Various depressive conditions;
Convulsive diseases of man;
Obesity is alimentary-constitutional;
If it is necessary to invert the sleep-wakefulness mode (this is mainly related to professional activities);
In the pathology of the central nervous system, which is associated with impaired metabolism in the brain and blood supply;
With chronic alcoholism;
In schizophrenia;
As a prevention in stressful situations;
With hypoxia;
To stimulate physical and mental performance;
With psychoorganic syndrome of lethargy, apathy, abulic disorders.

Instructions for use Phenylpiracetam buy, dosage
Tablets are taken orally immediately after ingestion. Duration of treatment and dosage of the drug is determined by the doctor in each case individually.

The average single dose is 100-200 mg.
The daily dosage is 200-300 mg.
The maximum allowable is 750 mg per day.

Dosage Phenylpiracetam buy 100 mg or less is recommended in the morning. If the prescribed dose is more than 100 mg, it should be divided into 2 divided doses.

Duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to 3 months. If necessary, the course is repeated in a month.

To improve performance, it is necessary to take 100-200 mg in the morning for 14 days. Athletes enough 3 days.

Patients with alimentary-constitutional obesity are prescribed 100-200 mg once a day for 1-2 months.

Side effects Phenylpiracetam buy
The use of phenylpiracetam may be accompanied by the following side effects:

insomnia, mainly when taking the drug for 6-8 hours before sleep;
increased blood pressure;
psycho-motor excitement;
sudden flushes of heat.

Contraindications of Phenylpiracetam buy
It is contraindicated to take Phenylpiracetam in the following cases:

increased individual sensitivity to the components of the drug components.

Overdose
Side reactions may increase. At the moment there have been no cases of overdose. Treatment is symptomatic.

Analogues of Phenylpiracetam buy
If necessary, you can replace Phenylpiracetam buy with an analogue of the ATC code - these are nootropic drugs:

Vinpotropil,
Glycine,
Divaza,
Cortexin,
Omaron.

When choosing analogues, it is important to understand that the instruction on the use of Phenylpiracetam, the price and reviews of preparations of a similar effect do not apply. It is important to get a doctor's advice and not to make an independent replacement of the drug.


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Carphedon

13 Jul 2018

Carphedon is used in neurology due to the ability to improve cognitive functions of the brain and increase resistance to psychoemotional stresses. Can also be prescribed to healthy people during overwork or during stressful situations. Children are allowed from the age of 14.

carphedon buy

Carphedon Dosage form
Carphedon is available only in the form of tablets. The active substance content in them can be 50 or 100 mg. The manufacturer offers customers packaging for 10 or 30 tablets. In color they can be from white to cream shade.

Carphedon Description and composition
The main active component is a substance that has a complex chemical name and is briefly called "carphedon". Lactose, calcium stearate and potato starch are used as auxiliary components, which should be taken into account for patients with intolerance to these substances.

Carphedon is the new representative of the nootropic group and is known for its positive effect on the blood supply to the brain and its cognitive functions. The clinical effect of carphedon is manifested in increasing endurance with psychoemotional loads, reducing the frequency of mood swings, leveling overvoltage.

The drug has found its application in neurology for the treatment of various diseases of the nervous system. It is also used in healthy people to increase resistance to stress factors and prevent overwork.

The positive effects of Carphedon are due to its ability to speed up the blood supply and metabolism in the brain tissues. This facilitates a faster flow of biochemical processes and the generation of a sufficient amount of energy. After taking Carphedon, the concentration of such mediators as dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline increases, which leads to improvement in the mood of the patient and a decrease in depressive manifestations.

Adaptogenic effect provides better resistance of brain cells to hypoxia, exposure to toxic substances, fatigue or low temperatures.

The advantage of the drug is that it does not affect the work of the vasomotor and respiratory centers.

Separately, the ability of Carphedon to completely eliminate hunger and suppress appetite should be highlighted. This makes it possible to successfully apply it in the complex therapy of obesity, combining in the right diets and physical exertion. However, it should be remembered that the drug does not have any effect on adipose tissue.

A valuable result of taking Carphedon is the ability of a person to work more productively without giving in to anxiety and nervousness.

Carphedon - Indications for use
for adults
Carphedon is prescribed as a curative and preventive agent under the following conditions:

Rehabilitation period after injuries with CNS injuries.
Insufficiency of blood supply to the brain, which led to a decrease in mental abilities and difficulty in motor activity.
Asthenic syndrome.
Hypoxia of the brain.
Neurosis.
Conditions that lead to increased exhaustion and lethargy.
Cramps of various etiologies.
Poor memory and reduced learning ability.
Depression.
Chronic intoxication, including alcohol and drugs.
Life situations when it is necessary to increase mental or physical performance, as well as in the period of falling into an uncharacteristic environment or climatic conditions.
Psycho-organic syndrome.
Presence of psychological problems with obesity.
Normalization of biorhythms or sleep cycles when changing the time zone.

for children
Carphedon is not assigned to patients under 14 years of age due to a lack of sufficient research on its safety profile. However, in practice, some doctors consider the benefits of taking the drug higher than the possible harm, so it is actively used in treatment regimens.

Before starting therapy, parents need to make sure that the diagnosis is correct. Unfortunately, many doctors consider the nervousness or restless sleep of the child a pathology, although such conditions can only be a temporary reflection of physiological development.

In most cases, Carphedon is prescribed to children when:

Intracranial pressure.
Encephalopathy.
Hydrocephalus syndrome.
Pathologies in the structure of the brain.

For school-age children, indications can also be:

Depression.
A long period of stress.
Low ability to learn and delay development.
Emotional instability.

In pediatrics, positive results were observed after the course of Carphedon, however, long-term use is not recommended.

Carphedon for pregnant women and during lactation
The drug is prohibited for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.


Contraindications
Contraindications for taking Carphedon are the following conditions:

Age to 14 years.
Pregnancy and lactation.
Hypersensitivity to any component of the drug.

Also, there are relative contraindications, in which the decision about taking Carphedon is taken by the attending physician:

Severe disorders in the liver and kidneys.
Panic attacks or psychomotor arousal in the anamnesis.
Atherosclerosis.

Carphedon Applications and dosage
for adults
Tablets are for internal use. They should be swallowed whole and washed with plain water. It is recommended to take the drug after eating.

Dosages are selected individually, taking into account the nature of the disease and the characteristics of the patient. The average daily dose of Carphedon is 300 mg, which is divided into several doses. The maximum allowable amount per day is 750 mg. The optimal scheme is to take the drug twice a day, with the last dose should be in the daytime, and not in the evening, to avoid problems with falling asleep.

The average duration of the course is from 2 weeks to 3 months. After this, you need to take a break for at least 1 month, and if necessary, repeat the treatment.

For healthy people, when Carphedon is taken to increase resistance to stressful situations or temporarily improve performance, the course of treatment can be only a few days.

To improve memory and attention, doctors prescribe 200 mg of the drug in one session for 2 weeks.


for children
The decision on dosage and duration of admission is made by the attending physician. The standard regimen allows the appointment of Carphedon at 50 mg twice daily for no longer than 4 weeks.

Carphedon Side effects
From side effects are possible:

Redness of the skin.
Sensation of heat.
Increase in pressure.
Excessive arousal.
Insomnia when taking medication at night.

At occurrence of by-effects it is recommended to lower a dosage of a preparation, and then gradually to raise it up to necessary quantity.


Interaction with other drugs
When taking Carphedon, there is an increase in the activity of psychostimulating drugs, nootropics and antidepressants.

Carphedon reduces the negative impact of alcohol on the brain, and also reduces the degree of intoxication and hangover.


Carphedon special instructions
Closer observation during treatment with Carphedon requires patients with a history of panic attacks, allergies to pyrrolidone derivatives, liver and kidney disease.

The first method can cause an increased need of the patient for rest and sleep, so it is recommended to implement it on weekends.

Analogues of Carphedon
Instead of Carphedon, the following drugs can be used:

Hopantam is a nootropic remedy, which is a substitute for Carphedon in the therapeutic group. It is produced by the company "Altayvitamins" in tablets, which are allowed to children over 3 years old. Hypantamus can not drink to women in the position and breastfeeding.
Cortexin refers to the substitutes for Carphedon by the pharmacological group. The drug is available as a lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for insertion into the muscle. Nootropic drug can be prescribed to children from birth. Cortexin is prohibited for pregnant and lactating children.
Neupilept refers to the substitutes for Carphedon by the pharmacological group. The drug is released in a solution for oral administration and injections. Neupilept is not suitable for children and mothers who support natural feeding.


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Phenotropil Dosage

12 Jul 2018

Phenotropil is a nootropic preparation. The active substance is N-carbamoyl-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone. The drug has the ability to directly improve the integrative function of the brain. This leads to an improvement in mental abilities, learning ability, memory consolidation, improvement of attention. In addition, Phenotropil has an anticonvulsant effect, anxiolytic properties, improves mood, normalizes the processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain, has an anorexigenic effect. With the course of application, phenotropin improves the stability of brain tissue in conditions of hypoxia. Due to the neuroprotective properties of Phenotropil, indications for its use include pathology caused by the influence of toxic substances, hypoxia. The drug improves the blood supply to the brain, stimulates metabolic processes in neurons.

Fenotropil has the ability to increase regional blood flow during hypoxia. Improving the energy potential of neurons is provided by enhanced utilization of glucose. Phenotropil does not affect the CAS and respiratory system. It is noted that with the course of taking Fenotropil the visual acuity improves, the perception of the brightness of the flowers increases.

The drug Fenotropil has adaptogenic properties (increases resistance to a stressful situation), which is especially evident with significant emotional and physical exertion. Phenotropil moderately affects motor reactions, reduces the inhibitory effect of ethanol and hexenal on brain tissue. It is an antagonist of the cataleptic effect of neuroleptics. Fenotropil has some analgesic effect due to an increase in the threshold of pain sensitivity.

Also, this drug improves blood flow in the vessels of the lower extremities. The positive properties of phenothropil include the absence of teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, embryotoxic effects and low toxicity. With the course of this drug, there were no symptoms of withdrawal syndrome, which reinforces the positive feedback about phenothyrope. In addition, tolerance and drug dependence do not develop.

Fentropil is a patented preparation. There is no analogue of Fentropil for the time being. When taken orally, the drug is rapidly absorbed into the digestive tract, it penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The maximum concentration is achieved one hour after administration. It is not metabolized in the body. Half-life is 3-5 hours. 60% of the drug is excreted with sweat and bile, 40% - with urine. Characterized by 100% bioavailability of Phenotropil.

Indications for use of Fenotropil

In the instructions for Fenotropil, indications are indicated for the purpose: neurotic states characterized by worsening of psycho-vascular activity, excessive fatigue, lethargy, memory loss, cognitive impairment; depressive conditions; pathology of the central nervous system associated with impaired metabolism in the brain and blood supply, as well as other diseases, accompanied by a violation of the intellectual-mnestic function; convulsive diseases; the need to invert the sleep-wakefulness regime (in connection with professional activities); alimentary-constitutional obesity; schizophrenia (vyaloapaticheskoe current); with a preventive purpose in case of stressful situations, extreme influences of professional activity, hypoxia, for stimulation of mental and physical working capacity; chronic alcoholism (to reduce asthenia, depression, enhance intellectual and mnestic functions); psychoorganic syndrome with the phenomena of lethargy, apathy, abulian disorders.

Phenotropil Dosage and Administration
Phenotropil is intended for oral administration. The tablet should be taken after a meal. The dosage of the drug, as well as the duration of therapy, is determined by the doctor depending on the clinical situation. The average dosage of Phenotropil for one dose is 100-250 mg. The maximum daily dosage is 750 mg. The daily dosage should be divided into two doses. If the daily dosage is 100 mg, let us take a single dose per day. The average duration of treatment is a month. With alimentary-constitutional obesity, Phenotropil is used for 100-200 mg for one to two months.
Tablets Fenotropil It is advisable to take Phenotropil no later than 15:00.


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Dysgraphia

11 Jul 2018

Irlen Syndrome - dyslexia, dysgraphia , dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysphasia, or hyperactivity.

Irlen Syndrome - dyslexia, dysgraphia , dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysphasia, or hyperactivity

Disgraphy is better to prevent at an early age, without waiting for problems in the second or third grade, and the child will have a disgust for learning. It is necessary to look at both for the child, closely observe the process of mastering written speech:

1. if the child attended a speech therapy kindergarten;

2. if there was a delay in speech development in 2-3 years;

3. if the child has problems with memory and attention;

4. if the child is left-handed or retrained left-handed;

5. if the child had head injuries;

6. if the violations of sound have not been corrected by the age of seven.

Diagnostics of the dysgraphy

By what signs can you guess that the child has dysgraphia? First of all - if he admits mistakes when writing a letter ... let's say, weird. They are not related to the violation of grammar rules. Under these errors, it is impossible to find the rules. Errors are in completely innocent words, the writing of which does not allow ambiguity.

A child may not add words, insert extra letters or skip them.

The rule knows, but in practice it can not apply.
But this child is not bad, not stupid, he is very nice. It's just hard for him to write. Only special exercises and self-confidence can help.

Often, the dysgraphs have very poor handwriting - small or very large, illegible. The child is hard to observe the line, the words come to the fields, one against another, slide off the line or suddenly fly over it, the word free birds. Also, young dysgraphists do not finish the endings. They can write in a mirror, turning over the letters, they may not add individual elements of the letter or add extra ones.

When a child is just learning to write, he can still have such strange mistakes at the very beginning of learning, but they quickly come to naught. A dysgrafic very slowly learns a literate letter. It creates the feeling that he is uncomfortable to write, he does not like to do it. And indeed it is. Often the schoolchild seems terrible itself the volume of what you need to learn, read, write. And when for failures they also scold, then their hands completely fall.

When oral speech suffers, everything is clear, you need a speech therapist. When writing suffers - it takes ... what? Severe punishment for lack of diligence? Or "you just need to learn better," as liberal-minded parents say?

Sometimes it's better to teach. And sometimes - and teach, and a little treat. In general, you will have to turn to a speech therapist (yes, and with a written speech too), so that he can figure out if an early logopedic help is needed. Some parents are very surprised when at school they are advised to check with a speech therapist. And even more surprised when a speech therapist advises to work out. And in any case, do not use the belt and other medieval ways to influence the person. Another speech therapist speaks the word - dysgraphy, which means a disorder of written speech.

It is better not to immediately deal with all the problems. You have to choose one - and focus on it. For example, a child confuses b-n, d-t, and also mixes prepositions with prefixes. If you take it all at once - the amount of work can scare. But if you try to cope only with the b-n, and then draw the attention of the student, that, say, there are fewer mistakes, then you can awaken enthusiasm. And then the struggle for universal literacy will go much more fun.

Speech therapist will be able to determine if there are logopaedic problems after three years, five years and before the school itself, which then will be augmented with dysgraphia, if necessary, will advise special classes. A neuropsychologist and neuropathologist can join a speech therapist. 


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Phenotropil (Phenylpiracetam) - instruction, application, reviews

11 Jul 2018

Active substance

The active ingredient-Phenylpiracetam, N-carbamoylmethyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone, or 4-phenylpiracetam. Chemical formula 1214N2O2.

fenotropil buy UK

Mechanism of action

Nootropic effect of the drug is to activate the mental processes and concentration. In addition, Phenotropil has antiamnestic effect improves memory, and eliminates t brain disorders, leading to its loss. The drug prevents the development of seizures. Under the action of Phenotropil improves mood. Psychostimulatory effect of the drug is to increase learning, to facilitate the assimilation and processing of new information. These effects are combined with the tranquilizing properties of Phenotropil. However, his tranquilizing activity is low. Under the action of Phenotropil increases visual acuity, improves color perception, expands the field of vision.

Phenotropil is a good adaptogen-increases resistance to stress in extreme conditions, eliminates the negative effects of physical and mental stress. Analgesic (analgesic) effect of the drug is to increase the threshold of pain sensitivity, to improve the tolerability of pain. It reduces the power of toxic effect on the brain of various chemical compounds, including ethyl alcohol. The drug has anorexigenic effect-reduces appetite, painful craving for high-calorie carbohydrate food.

Of the other effects, not related to the Central nervous system, it should be noted the stimulation of antibodies, and as a consequence - strengthening of immunity. It should be noted that the beneficial effect on the immune system is not accompanied by allergic reactions of immediate type. Phenotropil improves blood flow to the lower extremities, and has a weak diuretic effect.

Nootropic, psychostimulatory, anorexigenic effect is largely due to the facilitation of the transmission of impulses between the neurons of the brain. This is achieved by increasing the number of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) in the brain tissue. In this case, each of the neurotransmitters has a specific effect on the brain processes. For example, the acetylcholine allows the transmission of electric impulse through the synapses (contacts) between neurons. Dopamine, serotonin are hormones of happiness and satisfaction. They are responsible for good mood, motivation and focus.

And serotonin by affecting the peripheral centers of saturation in the hypothalamus reduces appetite. It should be noted that the reception of Phenotropil does not cause a painful state of euphoria and inadequacy. In addition, the drug improves blood circulation in the brain tissue, regulates the processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain structures. Under its action improves the transport of glucose and oxygen to the neurons of the brain, and in the opposite direction are removed toxins and waste products. As a result, the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia is increased.

History of creation

The era of nootropics began in 1964 when employees of the Belgian pharmaceutical company UCBPharma was synthesized a new drug called Piracetam. This tool is a derivative of the organic compound of pyrrolidone, and belongs to the class of chemical compounds of racemates. In 1972, this drug called Nootropil appeared on the world pharmaceutical consumer market. However, its effectiveness in the treatment of cognitive (mental) disorders has not been confirmed by clinical trials.

Perhaps this is due to the fact that the tests were conducted on the elderly, many of whom suffered from Alzheimer's disease. And to achieve a nootropic effect, it is necessary to actively stimulate brain activity by obtaining and processing new information during training, mastering new skills. Only under this condition, acetylcholine is produced in the Central nervous system. However, many foreign scientists physiologists and clinicians hastened to declare piracetam placebo, dummy. For this reason, Piracetam, as well as other nootropics, are not included in the official list of drugs in the United States and in many countries of Western Europe.

In the early 90-ies of the last century in the Russian Institute of space biology and medicine was synthesized a new drug that in its effectiveness and ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier ten times superior Piracetam or Nootropil. This action force was achieved by the fact that the structure of The nootropil molecule was introduced phenyl group.

A new tool has received the name Phenotropil (phenyl group + Nootropil). Initially, Phenotropil was conceived as an adaptogen for astronauts, a means of providing endurance, reaction and accuracy of action in extreme orbital conditions. In 2003 Phenotropil was officially entered in the state register of medicines of the Russian Federation. Since 2008, This tool is assigned to the Russian pharmaceutical manufacturer valent Pharmaceuticals. In 2010, who registered a drug under the international name Phenylpiracetam (Fonturacetam).

Phenylpiracetam Analogues

Currently, Phenotropil is produced by many Russian pharmaceutical companies in the form of tablets weighing 50 and 100 mg. Initially, the drug had a synonym for Carphedon. However, this name has not been fixed, and currently the drugs under this name are not officially registered in the Russian territory. Among other numerous analogs of Phenotropil Cavinton, Cinnarizin, Mexidol, Glycine, Noopept, and many others. But this is not generics, namely analogues-drugs that have a similar effect, but with another active ingredient.

Its psychostimulatory properties and the ability to influence the level of neurotransmitters Phenotropil similar to amphetamines. However, unlike the latter, it does not cause painful addiction and drug dependence. Does not affect Phenotropil on the vasomotor and respiratory centers of the brain. However, this drug is officially included in the list of doping, and banned for use by athletes during the competition.

Indications

Among the indications for the using of Phenotropil:

Disorders of thinking and memory in various diseases of the Central nervous system due to vascular insufficiency, metabolic disorders, intoxication;

Increased depletion in neurotic disorders;

The balance of the sleep-Wake;

Poor learning ability;

Psycho-organic changes in schizophrenia with intellectual disabilities and thinking;

Mild to moderate depressive States;

Convulsive syndrome;

Various conditions associated with hypoxia of the brain;

Improving mental and physical performance in preparation for extreme activities.

In addition, Phenotropil is included in some programs to reduce body weight. It should be borne in mind that this drug does not burn excess calories, and does not affect carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It only reduces appetite, dulls hunger. Therefore, Phenotropil in weight correction is applicable only in combination with a low-calorie diet. If you do not abandon the old gastronomic habits, the effect will not be. Similarly, Phenotropil is not effective in those cases where obesity is not associated with overeating, and with severe metabolic disorders, dishormonal disorders.

Phenotropil is also used in alcoholism-it reduces the toxic effect of alcohol on the brain. This is expressed in a decrease in the degree of intoxication and severity of hangover. However, this does not mean that Phenotropil should be consumed with alcohol. On the contrary, it is impossible. This tool stimulates the metabolic processes in the brain. Because of this, neurons become more sensitive to the action of ethyl alcohol, and die faster.

Phenylpiracetam stack

Pharmacodynamics

The drug is absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract. Its bioavailability is 100%, and the maximum concentration in the blood is created within 1 hour after administration. The half-life of Phenotropil ranges from 3 to 5 hours. 40% of the drug is excreted by the kidneys, and 60% through the sweat glands, and bile through the intestine. Moreover, the excretion is carried out in an unchanged form.

Psychostimulating and nootropic effects have different terms of appearance, and equally different duration. After 20-60 minutes after taking the pills, there is an improvement in vision, a sense of concentration, determination, thirst for action. Psychostimulating effect lasts 5-6 hours, no more. Nootropic properties are manifested later, 10-14 days, and last for the same 10-14 days. Weight loss with the use of Phenotropil on the background of a diet occurs after about 2 weeks. These facts suggest that Phenotropil, like other nootropics, should be taken as a course. Only then will the result.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

A single dose of the drug is 100-200 mg, daily-200-300 mg, the maximum daily-750 mg. the Daily dose is divided into 2 doses. If the daily dose is 100 mg, the drug is taken once in the morning. Given the stimulating effect and the likelihood of insomnia, do not recommended to take Phenotropil after 15 h

Take the whole tablets without chewing, drinking water, during meals, or after meals. Welcome to the food undesirable because of the anorectic actions. The duration of the course in the treatment of various diseases and pathological conditions is from 2 weeks to 3 months, on average 1 month. However, many experts recommend to take it no more than 3 weeks. Allegedly, long-term use of Phenotropil depletes reserves of neurotransmitters in the brain. But this view is controversial. In any case, the interval between courses of admission should be at least 1 month.

To improve mental and physical performance, the drug is taken 100-200 mg once for 2 weeks. Athletes to improve physical endurance during training enough 3-day morning reception of 100-200 mg. Phenotropil for weight loss is taken in the same dosage, and also in the morning for 1-2 months.

Phenylpiracetam Side effect

Cases of drug overdose are not described. Phenotropil non-toxic. The lethal dose is very high-800 mg / kg of body weight. Therefore, even taking 8 tablets of 100 mg per day in most patients does not entail any negative effects. However, some people after taking the drug noted insomnia, hyperactivity, increased blood pressure, redness of the skin and a feeling of heat throughout the body. Most of these side effects, with the exception of insomnia and high blood pressure, are short-lived, and independently take place within three days without medical correction.

Phenylpiracetam Contraindications

Individual intolerance to the components Phenotropil. In the appointment should be extremely careful with allergic reactions to Piracetam and other derivatives of pyrrolidone. Relative contraindications are severe liver and kidney disease, hypertension with high blood pressure numbers, severe cerebral atherosclerosis.

In patients with previously noted psychotic conditions, Phenotropil can cause psychomotor agitation and productive symptoms in the form of delusions and hallucinations. In some people with mental exhaustion due to fatigue, nervous stress, Phenotropil intake in the first day can increase the duration of sleep. In these cases, it is not recommended to prescribe the drug during work, performance of professional duties, and the beginning of the reception should fall on weekends.

Phenylpiracetam Interaction with other drugs

Phenotropil enhances the action of other nootropics, psychostimulants and antidepressants. The action of barbiturates and neuroleptics, on the contrary, are inhibited by Phenotropil.

Use in children

The effects of the drug on the child's body has not been well studied. Therefore, Phenotropil is not officially recommended for children under 14 years. In rare cases, it is still used for emotional exhaustion, mental retardation, depression, and poor learning in children. Among other indications-various brain disorders, accompanied by paresis and paralysis. The standard dosage is 50 mg 2 times a day. Duration of the course is 2-4 weeks. Indications for the use of Phenotropil in children are determined strictly individually. The main thing is that the risk of possible complications does not exceed the feasibility of prescribing this drug.

Pregnancy and lactation

The effect of Phenotropil on the body of the fetus and newborn has not been studied, and its teratogenic effect (the ability to cause deformities) is not excluded. For this reason, it is contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding


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