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Peptides of GHRP-2 and their effect on muscle growth

29 May 2018

Peptides of GHRP-2 and their effect on muscle growth

The GHRP-2 stimulator is by far the most effective drug that increases the production of growth hormone. Its peculiarity is that it is able to penetrate through the vessels of the oral cavity and directly enter the bloodstream, bypassing the liver. I study the effects of GHRP-2 on the human body, it was found that it stimulates the pituitary gland, which in turn raises the production of growth hormone 7-15 times. At the same time other additives based on amino acids can increase its secretion only 2-3 times.

ghrp-2

GHRP-2 is a peptide consisting of 6 consecutive amino acids. It was first discovered at the end of the last century. This stimulator of growth hormone (somatotropin) has a small molecular weight, due to which it easily penetrates the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. The effectiveness of this method of GHRP-2 has been proved by numerous scientific studies.

For example, in 1997, the results of scientific research published in the popular Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism showed that the use of GHRP-2 increases the secretion of growth hormone in both adults and children.

Effects of GHRP-2
Stimulation of somatotropin (growth hormone);
Improving appetite;
Reduced fat mass and increased muscle;
Strengthening of bones;
Decreased cholesterol;
Protection of the liver;
Anti-inflammatory effect.

How to take GHRP-2?
According to scientific studies, the increase in secretion of growth hormone directly depends on the volume of application of GHRP-2 and does not depend on sex, age or other factors.

Those engaged in bodybuilding, is recommended to take GHRP-2 at a dosage of 50-100 mg per 1 kg of body weight. Thus, the average dosage for an athlete is 2.5-10 mg. It must be said that the sports nutrition manufacturers nowhere indicate GHRP-2 a share in its supplements, which may mean that they use a lower dosage, which will not have the desired effect.

Additives based on GHRP-2 can be combined with other sports nutrition products, such as arginine, GABA, glutamine. This will lead to an even greater increase in the production of growth hormone. In addition, this combination is completely safe for health.

GHRP-2 Side Effects
Numerous scientific studies have shown complete safety and no side effects when taking supplements based on GHRP-2. This stimulant has undergone clinical trials and observations for 30 years, so negative impact in the future is also ruled out.


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Peptide GRF (1-29) (Sermorelin, Sermoreline) and its use in bodybuilding

28 May 2018

Peptide GRF (1-29) (Sermorelin, Sermoreline) and its use in bodybuilding

GRF (1-29) is a peptide hormone of the GHRH class, which increases the synthesis of growth hormone in the body. This peptide, most often, is sold under the trademark Sermorelin (Sermorelin).

Sermorelin

Features of Sermorelin GRF (1-29)

The main feature of GRF (1-29) is a very fast half-life in the body, which is only a few minutes (5-10). For this reason, the classical forms of GRF (1-29) provide a weak increase in the concentration of growth hormone and, accordingly, have low efficiency.

The exception is GRF (1-29) Mod - tetrasubstituted or modified GRF (1-29). Its feature is the additional 4 amino acids included in its composition and providing a half-life of about 30 minutes. This provides a longer lasting effect and significantly better stimulation of growth hormone production in the body.

GRF (1-29) and CJC-1295
Very often GRF (1-29) and CJC-1295 DAC confuse each other, however, having similarities in structure, they differ significantly in action. Thus, CJC-1295 DAC is a modified peptide of the GHRH type, which contains the amino acid lysine, which is bound to the molecule Drug Affinity Complex (DAC). This combination allows the CJC-1295 DAC to have a half-life of 1-2 weeks, which is much more convenient, since it allows injections only a couple of times a week (instead of 1-3 times a day).

Dosages and course GRF (1-29) Sermorelin (Sermorelin)
The optimal dosage of GRF (1-29) Mod is 100-200 μg, taken 1-3 times a day in the form of subcutaneous or intramuscular injections. The total duration of the course is 6-12 weeks.

The optimum is the combination of GRF (1-29) with the reception of peptides like GHRP in the following course:

Serrorelin GRF (1-29) - 100-200 mcg;
GHRP-6 or GHRP-2 - 100 μg;
Peptides must be dissolved in 1-2 ml of water and administered 1-3 times a day;
The optimal time of reception: 15 minutes before meals, immediately after training and before bedtime.

How to make a solution of GRF (1-29)?
Take the vial and cool it to room temperature;
Add the necessary amount of water for injection (the addition of water should be carried out by draining it along the wall of the bottle);
Stir the resulting composition (do not shake or shake, but use circular rotational movements);
The resulting composition can be stored in the refrigerator without freezing for 8-10 days (with the use of bacteriostatic water - up to 30 days).

Important! Tetra-substituted (modified) GRF (1-29) Mod is best dissolved only in bacteriostatic water.


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Increase the synthesis of growth hormone in the body

25 May 2018

In my previous articles, I talked about how to stimulate the production of growth hormone due to dietary supplements. Meanwhile, there are quite natural sources of increasing the level of this hormone in the blood.

- Do not eat fatty foods 4 hours before the workout

It is proved that the intake of fatty foods before training reduces the response production of growth hormone by 50%. Therefore, before going to the gym, choose sources of protein that do not contain the minimum amount of fat - whey protein, chicken breasts, turkey, tuna, low-fat or low-fat dairy products.

- Before the exercise, consume "slow" carbohydrates

The intake of "fast" carbohydrates leads to a powerful release of insulin, which not only hampers the burning of fat, but also reduces the secretion of growth hormone. Therefore, it is recommended during this period to refuse such food.

- Take food supplements

Scientific studies have shown that a large amount of arginine, glutamine and melatonin significantly increase the release of growth hormone into the blood. In this regard, it is recommended to drink 5-9 grams of arginine, 5-10 grams of glutamine and 0.5-5 mg of melatonin 30 minutes before taking the protein cocktail.

- Do not neglect the workout

Other studies have shown that as the body temperature rises, the level of growth hormone also increases. Therefore, before the start of training, it is recommended to hold a small 5-minute cardio-warm-up, then perform 2-3 warm-up approaches of the first exercise. This will increase body temperature and positively affect the level of growth hormone in the blood.

- Apply aerobic workouts

It is noticed that if you use cardio-loads before strength training, then the level of growth hormone will fall 3 times. However, if immediately after strength training go to cardio, on the contrary, the production of growth hormone will increase. It does not matter with what intensity you perform aerobic exercises - equally useful as a slow, and fast pace.


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Side effects of taking HGH

24 May 2018

HGH has been used for a long time by many professional athletes. Since this hormone is produced naturally in the body, the side effects from its administration are quite rare and arise mainly when using large doses over a long period of time.

growth hormone side effects

Possible side effects of taking growth hormone:

Tunnel syndrome - characterized by pain and numbness in the extremities. The main reason for such manifestations is an increase in the volume of muscles that begin to squeeze peripheral nerves. As a rule, this syndrome disappears with a decrease in dosages.
Fluid accumulation in muscles - this side effect is inherent in many hormonal drugs (used for anabolic purposes). Try to minimize this effect by reducing consumption of salty foods and giving up alcohol.
Increased blood pressure. Eliminates either by reducing dosages of growth hormone, or by taking antihypertensive drugs.
Oppression of the thyroid gland function is weak. To eliminate it, on a course of reception of a growth hormone it is recommended to accept the Thyroxine (25 mkg a day). It is worth noting that after the course ends the function of the thyroid gland is completely restored.
Hyperglycemia is an increase in the level of sugar in the blood. This side effect is eliminated with the help of an additional intake of insulin or drugs that stimulate the pancreas (for example, Diabeton).
Acromegaly - observed when using elevated doses of growth hormone for a long period of time. At observance of moderate doses does not meet.
Hypertrophy (increase) of internal organs - occurs only in the case of very large doses of growth hormone.

The side effects of growth hormone, not confirmed by official science:
Increase of abdomen.

There is an opinion that the intake of growth hormone over time leads to an increase in the abdomen (due to the hyperplasia of the internal organs due to the receptors of IGF-1). At present, this fact is not confirmed by science, but the experience of some professional bodybuilders shows that this can be the case. Experts explain this by the fact that many professionals take large doses of growth hormone in combination with other anabolic steroid, which indirectly can affect the increase in the abdomen.

Impotence and infertility.
According to research, the use of GR in an anabolic manner did not lead to pathological changes in sexual function.

Suppression of the production of its own growth hormone.
According to studies by professors Elmer M. and Cranton M., in more than 100 patients taking growth hormone, there was no suppression of the function of intrinsic GR production.

Development of tumors.
There is an opinion that the intake of growth hormone can accelerate the division of cancer cells. Wishing to verify this fact, the researchers conducted a study, which found that patients suffering from tumors and undergoing growth hormone treatment did not experience deterioration.

Correct conclusions
Taking any hormonal drugs for anabolic purposes leads to irreversible effects on the body. Safe steroids are not and can not be. The use of these drugs to build muscle mass and strength can be justified only if the athlete earns performances with money or has the status of a professional (which is generally the same thing), soberly aware of the consequences of such a sporting career.


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Peptides in bodybuilding: properties, effects, influence on muscle growth

23 May 2018

Peptides are a family of substances whose molecules are built on the residues of alpha-amino acids linked together by a peptide chain. These substances can be both vegetable and synthetic origin. In this article, we will consider only those peptides that can be used to enhance the physical performance of the athlete.

peptids

At present, peptides aimed at stimulating the production of growth hormone are widely used in the pharmaceutical market. These include:

The Grelin group (GHRP) - the main feature of this group is that the increase in the production of growth hormone occurs immediately after administration.

This group includes:

  • GHRP-6 and Hexarelin
  • GHRP-2
  • Ipamorelin

Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) group - when using this group of peptides, the increase in production of growth hormone occurs during hours of natural increase in the secretion of growth hormone (for example, at night); at other times, the increase in production will be insignificant.

This group includes:
  • GRF (1-29) Sermorelin
  • CJC-1295

Benefits of taking peptides

Many athletes may have a question - why take peptides, if it is much easier to use artificial growth hormone? It should be noted that peptides in this regard have several clear advantages:

Significantly lower price, compared with the growth hormone
Taking peptides, it is possible to flexibly control the concentration of growth hormone in the blood, thus achieving a better anabolic response
The production of peptides is not regulated in any way by the law, and therefore they can be acquired legally
The rapid peptide decay period leads to the impossibility of determining them in the body of an athlete during doping tests
Preparations based on peptides can be easily verified for authenticity - for this it is enough to pass tests for the content of growth hormone (somatotropin) in plasma after taking the drug.

Scientific basis for effectiveness
Scientific research conducted in 1998 (Bowers CY: Growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP), Cell Mol Life Sci 1998, 54 (12): 1316-29 and Camanni F, Ghigo E, Arvat E: Growth hormone-releasing peptides and their analogs, Front Neuroendocrinol 1998, 19 (1): 47-72) showed that peptides of the GREEN group (GHRP), as well as other non-peptidic substances aimed at increasing the production of growth hormone, really affect its synthesis.

These studies served as a powerful impetus to the creation of food additives that increase the production of growth hormone. At the moment, there is evidence that these supplements actually work - the increase in growth hormone and IGF-1 was observed both at rest and in the course of strength training. However, the effect of these processes on the increase in dry muscle mass was not observed.


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Peptide CJC-1295 DAC: Features, dosage, methods of administration, side effects

22 May 2018

Peptide CJC-1295 is a peptide hormone consisting of 30 amino acids and functioning in the body as a natural stimulant for the production of growth hormone.

cjc1295

The main advantage of CJC-1295, in comparison with GRF (1-29), is a longer decay period and, as a result, a much longer period of action.

Peptide CJC-1295 DAC in bodybuilding

CJC-1295 DAC was invented in 2005, but it was widely used in bodybuilding by 2010-2011. It was during this period that a number of third-party companies mastered the production technology of this peptide, which led to a large-scale popularization of CJC-1295 and peptides in general.

The main activities of CJC-1295:

  • Increased muscle mass
  • Burning of subcutaneous fat
  • Increased muscle strength
  • Strengthening of joints, ligaments and bones
  • Improve skin quality (reduce wrinkles)
  • Normalization of sleep
What does the DAC mean?
DAC stands for Drug Affinity Complex and is a non-peptide molecule linked to the amino acid Lysine. This ligament can significantly increase the action time (up to 2 weeks) of the peptide and achieve higher results comparable to the intake of the course of growth hormone.

When choosing peptide CJC-1295, be careful and specify in advance whether there is a DAC. Very often under the guise of the CJC-1295 DAC, the sellers offer GRF (1-29), the action of which is only 30 minutes (for the modified version (Mod), for the usual - 5-10 minutes), which is clearly not enough to get any tangible results.

How to take CJC-1295 DAC?
The optimal dosage of CJC-1295 DAC is 1000-2000 μg, taken 2 times a week: at the beginning of the week (Monday) and at the end (Saturday).

To obtain a better effect, the administration of CJC-1295 DAC can be combined with the administration of other peptides, GHRP-6 or GHRP-2. The optimal course is as follows:

GHRP-6 or GHRP-2 at 100 mcg - 3 times a day;
CJC-1295 DAC for 1000 mcg - 2 times a week.

The total duration of the course is from 8 to 12 weeks.


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How to increase testosterone levels in men

21 May 2018

How to increase testosterone levels in men: dietary supplements and drugs

In our last article, we analyzed the main natural ways to increase testosterone levels in men. Today we will talk about food additives and preparations that also contribute to the production of male testosterone. Immediately make a reservation that it will not go for anabolic steroids, although some of the drugs considered are on the list of prohibited doping drugs.

Who are these drugs for?
- Men older than 20-23 years, whose goal is a set of muscle mass;

- Men over 30 and 40 years of age for the growth of muscle mass, potency and libido;

- Athletes after courses of anabolic steroids - to stimulate the development of their own testosterone, reduce the "phenomenon of recoil" (muscle destruction).

Who does NOT use these drugs?
- Men younger than 20-23 years old have a naturally increased testosterone level and an unstable hormonal system, so they do not need additional stimulation. Otherwise, there may be a significant decrease in the production of their own sex hormones.
- For girls, as stimulation of testosterone production leads to the development of masculinization (accumulation of secondary sexual characteristics of the male sex).

Drugs and supplements to increase testosterone in men
Letrozole - this drug is an aromatase inhibitor that increases testosterone production by 50% and reduces the synthesis of estrogens. To this type of drugs are also Anastrozole and Exemestane.
Tamoxifen - the drug reduces the production of estrogens in the body, thereby increasing the concentration of testosterone (142% of the initial level).
Proviron - increases the level of free testosterone, improves potency and libido, compensates for the inadequacy of producing their own sex hormones.
Vitamin D - a number of scientific studies have revealed the dependence of the level of vitamin D and testosterone.
Forskolin - is a component of the plant Coleus forskohlii. Promotes increased testosterone production, increased dry muscle mass and increased potency.
Agmatin - a number of studies have proved that this substance helps to increase the production of gonadotropin and gonadoliberin, which also affects the synthesis of its own testosterone.
Tribulus (Tríbulus terréstris) - food additives based on this plant increase the synthesis of testosterone in the body, sexual activity and libido.

Dosages and courses of admission
When taking any of the above drugs should follow the manufacturer's recommendation. The optimal course duration is 4 weeks. The greatest effect from taking is observed with the use of adequate physical exertion, as well as observance of the correct diet, rest and intake of food supplements for the growth of strength and mass - protein and creatine.

Important! Choose only one product from the list above. Combine 2 or more drugs to increase testosterone can not! Also, you can not use them in combination with taking anabolic steroids and prohormones.

Side effects and contraindications
Any drugs that increase the level of testosterone in the body, affect the synthesis of your own hormone, suppressing it. Especially it affects when using higher doses and long courses of admission. Therefore, it is recommended to follow the recommendations of manufacturers strictly and not to practice courses for more than 1 month. In this case, this side effect is almost not found, although no significant growth of muscle mass also occurs.

In rare cases, the following side effects may occur:
Aggressiveness and irritability
Acne
Unstable blood pressure
Gynecomastia
Testicular Atrophy
Hair loss
Feminization (development of secondary female sexual characteristics)

Almost all side effects completely disappear when discontinuing medication.

Do not take these drugs for heart disease, kidney failure and arterial hypertension.


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Encephabol - general information

17 May 2018

Pharmacological action - nootropic, metabolic.

Encephabol is a drug that normalizes pathologically impaired metabolic processes in the brain tissues. Encephabol contains the active ingredient pyrithinol. The effect of the drug is based on its ability to increase the uptake and utilization of glucose, as well as increase the release of acetylcholine in the synapses and the exchange of nucleic acids. When encephabol is taken, there is an improvement in cholinergic neuronal transmission.
Thanks to its antioxidant action, pyrithinol helps stabilize the structure of the cell walls of neurons, prevents their damage and improves the function.
When Encephabol is used, there is also an improvement in the rheological properties of the blood, in particular, the plasticity of erythrocytes and the fluidity of the blood increase. The drug improves cerebral blood flow, promotes redistribution of blood flow and increases oxygen delivery to ischemic areas, and stimulates the exchange of glucose in areas of the brain in which ischemic damage was previously identified.
The drug helps to maintain and restore disturbed metabolic processes in the brain tissues, stimulates mental performance, and improves memory.
After oral administration, the active component of the drug is well absorbed in the intestine and reaches peak plasma concentrations within 30-60 minutes. The bioavailability of pyrithinol reaches 76-93%. About 20-40% of pyrithinol binds to plasma proteins. Due to the metabolism of pyrithinol, 2 main metabolites are formed in the liver, which are excreted mainly by the kidneys. About 5% of pyrithinol in the form of metabolites is excreted by the intestine. The half-life of the active ingredient of the Encephabol preparation reaches 2.5 hours, about 74% of the accepted dose of pyrithinol is excreted within 24 hours after taking the drug.
The active ingredient of the Encephabol preparation and its metabolites penetrate through the hematoplacental and blood-brain barrier, and are also excreted in breast milk.

Indications for use
Tablets and suspension Encephabolum is used for symptomatic therapy of patients suffering from chronic impairments of brain functions, which are accompanied by dementia syndromes. In particular, Encephabol is effective in such symptoms of dementia as memory and thinking disorders, decreased concentration and learning ability, increased fatigue, reduced mental performance, and affective disorders.
Encephabol is prescribed for patients suffering from primary degenerative dementia, dementia of vascular genesis, and mixed forms of dementia.
Encephabol in the form of a suspension can be designated as a means of maintenance therapy for patients who have suffered craniocerebral trauma, particularly when the patient has impaired consciousness, cerebral manifestations and insomnia.


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Medicine of hemp

15 May 2018

The usual way of creating a medicine is to find a biological target and to search for / select / design an active selective molecule, looking through hundreds and thousands of options. But there is another approach - to take a substance or a group of substances (say from an extract of a plant) and with perseverance to look for him for some activity. The approach is somewhat strange, and often doomed to failure. But we must admit that it, in some places, works ...

The company GW Pharmaceuticals, founded in 1998 by two British doctors Geoffrey Guy and Brian Whittle (hence the name), chose this approach and focused exclusively on extracts from cannabis, in order to withdraw products from this plant to the pharmaceutical market. They received permission from the British authorities to cultivate certain strains of cannabis for scientific research and began fruitful cooperation with Dutch pioneers of marijuana research HortaPharm.

The first success came in 2010. The product GW Pharma-Nabiximols (trade name Sativex), as a spray, has successfully passed clinical trials to alleviate a number of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and has been approved in the UK as well as in several other countries. Nabiximols, in fact, is a mixture of products of marijuana extracts: tetrahydrocannabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) and cannabidiol (cannabidiol, CBD) in an approximate ratio of 1: 1. In fact, according to the real effectiveness of Nabiximols, there are still many questions and doubts. The latest statistics says that for a number of symptoms the drug is "probably effective" - which, in general, is on the verge of ... The drug did not enter the US market, incidentally, there is evidence that in the US clinical trials were stopped in 2007.

However, it seems that in the coming months another GW Pharma drug, Epidolex, will be released to the US market, which is essentially pure cannabidiol (CBD), derived from marijuana. The drug showed significant effectiveness in cases of epilepsy (with a regular admission, the number of seizures is halved) and with the Drava and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes in children. The mechanism of action of Epidolex is unknown, which, incidentally, did not prevent him from obtaining a "fast track" status from the FDA. Just last week, an advisory committee with the FDA recommended approval of the drug, and such recommendations, as a rule, are not rejected by the regulator. With this news, the company's shares soared by 10%.

In development, GW Pharmaceuticals has a number of cannabinoids isolated from marijuana that are being tested for the treatment of epilepsy, schizophrenia and a number of oncological diseases ...


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Sleep - one day from the life of the brain

10 May 2018

What happens in our head when we wake up, open our eyes and realize ourselves here and now? And when breakfast, walk with a dog and then go to work? What processes are activated in our brain, when we, tired, return home, where an unresolved problem awaits us?

A piercing sound fills your skull. The misty veil that isolates you from the outside world evaporates as the signal becomes more and more intrusive. Fumbling in the dark source of noise, you finally restore the silence. But the devil's device has already done its job: you are awake. However, you are not yet immersed in the surrounding reality. The eyes are still closed, you feel the images slowly rise in consciousness ...

Neuroscientists have long known that unconsciousness of sleep has gradations. In fact, the previous night, you have passed about five cycles of sleep, repeatedly approaching the surface and deepest levels. During the first five or ten minutes, when reality is just beginning to "float away" from you, you were still relatively vigilant. If someone tried to wake you up, you might even say that you are in no way sleeping. This is the first stage, the beginning of the cycle and the beginning of your immersion in the unconscious.

Sometimes during this period you experience strange and extremely bright sensations, as if you fall or hear someone say your name. Sometimes the body seems to pierce a cramp - this phenomenon is known as the "myoclonic reflex": the muscles involuntarily contract, seemingly completely without a cause. During the first stage, if you had electrodes attached to your head, an electroencephalogram (EEG) would record a characteristic pattern of small and fast brain waves (theta waves).

Then, as you relax, over the next twenty minutes, the brain begins to generate additional complex electrical wave signatures (eight to fifteen cycles per second). This is the second stage. Then the body temperature decreases, the pulse slows down. It is at this point that you go from a shallow sleep to a deep one - this is the third stage. The profile of brain waves on the EEG slows down even more, the frequency ranges from two to four cycles per second. When these "delta waves" slow down even more, forming from half to two cycles per second, you enter the deepest, fourth phase of sleep. After about thirty minutes, the brain returns to the third phase, and then to the second. What for?

Undoubtedly, it would be simpler if unconsciousness remained simply a stable state. One possible reason is that a deep, almost comatose state can be fraught with for a long time: the world is full of dangers, one must be on the alert. In addition, the duration of the phases of sleep changes during the night: perhaps the brain adjusts to their needs. In the middle of the night, the fourth phase ends almost completely, and the fifth phase following it becomes dominant and lasts almost an hour.

The fifth phase is also called the "fast sleep" phase (REM), because your eyes actively move under closed eyelids. Meanwhile, the depth and frequency of breathing increases, the EEG reveals a profile of fast irregular waves, indicative of increased mental activity, comparable to activity during wakefulness. Dreams (which will be discussed in more detail later) are seen in this phase, although not throughout its entire length. Despite intense mental activity during this phase, your muscles, on the other hand, are the most relaxed, there is a sleepy paralysis: "fast sleep" is also known as a "paradoxical dream", because you seem to be conscious but immobilized. Just remember the situations that usually arise in nightmares when you try to escape from danger, but strangely find yourself immovable. This phase is repeated four to five times during the night.

But how is sleep monitoring controlled? It has long been known that the regulation of these cycles is based on the isolation of specific chemical transmitters, neurotransmitters. Acting as intermediaries between two neurons, these substances by diffusion move from one cell membrane (presynaptic) to another (postsynaptic) through a narrow slit - synapse: they run in the postsynaptic neuron pathway, causing "excitation" or "inhibition". In the language of neurobiology, inhibition is simply a reduction in the likelihood that a neuron will be able to generate an action potential (electrical impulse). Excitation is, on the contrary, an increase in probability. This vital electrical impulse lasts approximately one thousandth of a second (approximately 1 millisecond) and is a universal sign that the brain cell is active and signals this to the next cell. The excited neuron will generate volleys of action potentials at high speed, while the one that is "stalled" can be completely silent.

Transmitters controlling sleep, wakefulness and dreams are close in molecular structure to dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine and serotonin, together with the fourth, acetylcholine, a slightly more distant "relative", the most well-known and well-studied neurotransmitters. But the peculiarities of their distribution and localization are really of great interest: they can more than just make a connection between two neurons through a synaptic cleft, but instead they work on the principle of garden sprayers. Of course, there must be reasons for that. Each member of this chemical family plays a key role in controlling sleep and wakefulness. The levels of norepinephrine and its chemical precursor dopamine, as well as serotonin and histamine are highest during wakefulness, but decrease significantly during normal sleep and are practically absent in the fifth phase. Meanwhile, acetylcholine still "works". So what are these transmitters responsible for? It turns out that these molecules lead a double life and can act in a completely alternative role - as modulators.

The modulator does not cause immediate inhibition or excitation: instead, it affects how the brain cell reacts to the input signal for some time interval in the future. To better understand how this happens, imagine this situation: you work in the office, and today there was a rumor about raising wages. By itself, the rumor will not force employees, say, to pick up the phone of a silent phone. However, when a standard signal is received - a phone call, the employee will answer it faster and more willingly. The modulator works in the same way as this rumor: in itself it does not cause an effect, but strengthens the subsequent event. Theory and practice show that the classification of neurotransmitters as uniquely inhibitory or excitatory would be erroneous. It all depends on the time and the specific area of the brain in which they work.

So, for a certain period of time, the effects of the incoming stimulus (another transmitter) will differ in the presence of the modulator, up to the point that the effect of the stimulus can be completely leveled. Thus, the huge value of modulation lies in changing the time frame for signal transmission processes in the brain. Such fine regulation would never have been possible with a simple signal transmission. While you were sleeping and now when you are lying awake, the levels of these ubiquitous modulators rise and fall at different times, supporting different stages of sleep, placing large populations of brain cells more active or quiet. Therefore, it is very likely that modulators make an important contribution to the formation of consciousness and unconsciousness, as well as to the regulation of the transition between them. But we just found out that sinking into and out of sleep is a gradual process. This indicates that the modulators do not act as a key switch. Rather, they work as a kind of dimmer control ...


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