07 Apr 2020
What is coronavirus?
Coronaviruses are a family that includes, in January 2020, 39 types of viruses combined into 2 subfamilies that infect humans, cats, birds, dogs, cattle, pigs and hares.
Visually, its structure (and these are spherical microbes containing a single-stranded RNA molecule) resembles the structure of an astronomical (solar) corona, hence the Latin name Coronaviridae, and in Russian coronavirus. In the English-language media appears such a name as Corona Virus.
Coronaviruses are an infection, their viruses they cause a number of diseases from colds to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Children are sick 5-7 times more often than adults. The incubation period caused by coronavirus infection depends on the form of the virus and lasts from one day to several weeks. Immunity after a short illness does not protect against reinfection. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that all countries prepare to confront the epidemic.
This image was created at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It shows the ultrastructural morphology demonstrated by the new 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV).
Where did the coronavirus come from?
Coronavirus - initially a fairly common thing, causes a huge number of diseases in humans and other mammals. As a rule, these are acute respiratory viral infections that occur just like any flu, parainfluenza with a runny nose, fever. Sometimes these diseases manifest as intestinal infections.
What is the fuss about right now? The disease began in the Chinese city of Wuhan.
How many heard the word Wuhan before? Nobody really heard this word (except the Chinese, of course).
Wuhan is the largest city of mainland China in Hubei Province. The population of more than 11 million people. Wuhan Airport serves 21-22 million passengers a year (for example, the airport in Boryspil serves 13 million passengers). In the city of Wuhan there are about 10 national universities; there is a subway connected by high-speed trains to Guangzhou and Beijing.
Wuhan Fish Market
In this Wuhan, the first cases of the disease arose in the fish market. The question arises: what kind of fish market is this in continental Wuhan?
The city of Wuhan stands in the place where the Hanshui creek, one and a half thousand kilometers long, flows into the famous Yanji River (the length of the river is more than 6 thousand kilometers). And there is a fish market, but it is called "fish" conditionally, since it is the fish that are few there, but there is a lot of everything else.
There are more than a thousand shops and stalls in this market, where they sell cats and dogs, where they sell bats, dried wolves and a wide variety of mammals, snakes, etc.
It was there that the first infection occurred from some kind of beast (a mammal, not a fish). And the most danger is that among the first cases there were family members of those who worked in this market. That is, in relation to this virus transmission from person to person has been proven.
What is the danger of coronavirus?
- The virus is new. No one on Earth has immunity to it. Really everyone can get sick.
- The possibility of transmitting the virus from person to person has already been proven
- There are already proven deaths from the virus.
- Opinions appeared that the virus belongs to a unique line of coronaviruses and was not obtained as a result of recombination with the SARS virus
On the nose was the Chinese New Year. And for the people of China, this is travel time. The chances of the virus spreading around the world are simply huge.
Plus it's the flu season. And since this virus doesn’t have any visible and distinctive symptoms, to say for sure that this is precisely this Chinese disease, in its symptoms (runny nose, cough, fever) it mimics other acute respiratory infections. Without any special tests, coronavirus is almost impossible to diagnose.
!) All roads in Wuhan cannot be blocked. Residents of neighboring cities began to break the asphalt to stop any communication with infected cities. Spontaneous self-defense units with weapons are created to prevent the arrival of diseased neighbors.
!) China informed WHO of the appearance of the virus only on December 31, 2019.
!) Only on January 20, the Chinese authorities confirmed that the virus is transmitted from person to person.
!) On January 23 at 23:00 (UTC + 8), the Chinese government announced the closure of the city of Chibi (population 0.5 million people).
!) On January 30, it became known that a group of scientists from Australia managed to propagate the coronavirus in the laboratory from existing samples. In fact, scientists have grown the virus. The data received was transmitted to WHO.
!) As of January 30, coronavirus has spread to 22 countries.
!) The Philippine branch of the World Health Organization (WHO) reported the first death from coronavirus outside of China in the Philippines. On February 1, a 44-year-old man died.
!) In Singapore, they found a coronavirus in a six-month-old baby. Chinese doctors said the threat of mother-to-child transmission.
Coronavirus infection COVID-19
How is the disease COVID-19 caused by coronavirus and how is it manifested? In terms of symptoms, the new 2019-nCoV virus from China disguises itself as a cold. Symptoms in adults and children are the same. At risk are people with reduced immunity and chronic diseases.
In patients, the temperature suddenly rises (now this is the main criterion for a quick check for coronavirus and the likelihood of being quarantined). On January 29, China reported that some patients with coronavirus did not have a fever.
A dry cough also torments the sick person. The virus insidiously gradually gets to the lungs, so with every hour the likelihood of developing pneumonia increases (the virus can already be called SARS).
The first victim of a coronavirus outside Hubei was an 80-year-old man. He stayed with his relatives for 2 months in Wuhan and died on his return home. On January 21, an American who returned from Wuhan to the United States on January 15 to Seattle was diagnosed with the first 2019 nCoV infection outside of Asia.
On January 30, The Lancet magazine published a full review of clinical data on a new disease - the 2019 coronavirus nCoV. The analysis includes 99 laboratory confirmed cases. Of them:
- the average age of a patient with coronavirus is 55.5 years (of which 67 are men and 32 are women),
- half of the patients had cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases (40 people), as well as diabetes (12 people),
- in 74 patients, pneumonia was bilateral
- 82 people had a fever
- 31 people had shortness of breath,
- 81 people had a cough
- the majority of patients are managers and sellers, among the complaints are headache, muscle pain, diarrhea, vomiting, sore throat,
- 75 patients took drugs
- 70 patients took antibiotics,
- 75 patients received oxygen therapy,
- 17 people developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)?
- 11 people died from multiple organ failure.
The 2019-nCoV infection had a cluster onset, it is more likely that it will affect older men with concomitant illnesses and can lead to severe and even fatal respiratory illnesses, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome.
In addition to fever, fever and fever, the following symptoms are observed in patients with coronavirus infection COVID-19:
- lethargy, decreased activity and performance
- digestive problems, abdominal pain
- headaches (cephalgia)
- chest tightness
- muscle pain (myalgia)
- weakness, apathy
- joint aches
On January 31, 2020, it became known that there is one patient (a boy of 10 years old) without symptoms known and characteristic of coronavirus. Nevertheless, he is sick and able to infect others. His case shows that the disease can spread unnoticed. It is believed that this incident could mean a rapid mutation and adaptability of coronavirus infection.
The incubation period for coronavirus
The incubation period lasts an average week. Minimum - 1 day. Maximum 3 weeks. At this time, the virus does not manifest itself in any way. China's chief virologist has made a statement that the epidemic will decline in 20 days. At the peak of the disease, the patient may experience severe cramps in combination with an extremely high temperature. According to recent reports, the coronavirus began to mutate. Incubation period recent data.
How to find coronavirus in tests?
- primary temperature measurement
- using a PCR test (polymerase chain reaction) in the laboratory
Express methods are currently being developed to determine coronavirus infection.
Can coronavirus be cured?
The Chinese virus was first detected in December. As early as January 13, Chinese scientists completely deciphered the virus genome and handed it over to everyone who wanted to study it. Today it’s already clear what coronavirus is, and it’s possible to create:
- diagnosis (drugs that will allow you to quickly make a diagnosis)
- the vaccine
- different medecines (mentioned below)/
The Russian Ministry of Health named four drugs for the treatment of Chinese coronavirus:
- Ribavirin (an antiviral drug for treating severe infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus, viral hepatitis C, as well as other viral infections).
- Interferon beta 1b (an antiviral drug from the interferon family, used as an injection to alter the course of multiple sclerosis).
- Arbidol – antiviral drug
- Amixin – antiviral drug
- Lopinavir (is an anti-retroviral class protease inhibitor. It is used against HIV infection as a fixed-dose combination with another protease inhibitor, ritonavir)
- Ritonavir (an antiretroviral drug that is used together with other drugs to treat HIV / AIDS (such combination treatment is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy) and genotype 4 viral hepatitis C (HCV)
The last two drugs, as mentioned above, are used to combat HIV infection and are not sold in pharmacies just like that. All medicines should be used with caution due to side effects. Antimicrobials can also be used: Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin, Amoxicillin.
The choice of drugs and the course of treatment depends on the patient's condition and the severity of the disease.