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Buy Phenylpiracetam

17 Jul 2018

Buy Phenylpiracetam is one of the most effective nootropic drugs available on the market today. This is a relatively new nootropic drug from the family of pyracetam derivatives, which is a modification of the original preparation Piracetam. The difference between Buy Phenylpiracetam and pyracetam is that its activity is 30-60 times higher, it has neuroprotective properties and increases physical efficiency. For all these reasons, phenylpira - cetam is increasingly becoming the drug of choice among nootropics.

buy phenylpiracetam

Phenylpyracetam (RS) -2- (2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) -acetamide), also known as Carphedon or Fentropil, was developed in Russia in 1983. It was created as a nootropic remedy, and also as a means to increase physical endurance. Buy Phenylpiracetam was synthesized from Piracetam by adding a phenyl group to the substance. Buy Phenylpiracetam has long been popular in the east, and only recently has become popular in the west. Its effects are described as increasing concentration of attention, as well as improving memory and learning. There is a stimulation and improvement of locomotor activity, which increases physical efficiency. For this reason, Buy Phenylpiracetam has been included in the list of banned drugs by many sports organizations, including the Olympic Committee.

The structure of phenylpiracetam is a pyracetam with a phenyl group attached to it. This feature significantly increases its bioavailability and increases the efficiency 30-60 times compared to piracetam. The addition of a phenyl group affects these properties in two ways:

High efficiency and more pronounced effects are achieved due to the ability of the molecule to penetrate more easily through the blood-brain barrier.

Stimulant effects are more pronounced due to their similarity to phenylethylamines, such as Adderol. In comparison with other pyracetamines, phenylpiracetam is quite effective and has high bioavailability even when administered orally. Its half-life in humans is 3-5 hours.

Efficiency. Is Buy Phenylpiracetam better than piracetam?
There is ample evidence that Buy Phenylpiracetam, like other piracetam drugs, is effective in slowing the progression and symptoms of cognitive impairment. In some of these studies, piracetam was used for more than one month, and its positive effects were due only to the effect on organic causes of cognitive impairment (dementia and stroke) rather than to traumatic brain damage.

There is only one study in rats, in which there was an improvement in cognitive ability in relatively healthy individuals, and this study only describes the effectiveness of the R-isomer (the racemic mixture that is most commonly found on the market has no similar effect). It is impossible to exclude the cognitive improving effect of Buy Phenylpiracetam in young individuals. Presumably, it differs from the psychostimulating effect (which is noted equally when using the said racemic mixture and the R isomer). The R-isomer appears to be more active than the S-isomer when using phenylpiracetam for conventional purposes (for psychostimulation and enhancement of learning), while the racemic mixture (most commonly sold) is effective for increasing cognitive abilities, but it is not known, whether it has a nootropic effect in adolescents.

Buy Phenylpiracetam Dosage
The recommended dosage is 100-250 mg. Recommendations: Buy Phenylpiracetam is soluble in water. Do not use during pregnancy and lactation. Side effects - very rarely allergic reactions. Before use, consult a specialist.

Buy Phenylpiracetam has 100% bioavailability for oral administration, rapidly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and other organs. After entering the bloodstream, it easily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. 60% of the drug is excreted in the urine, the rest is through the biliary tract. Metabolism occurs with the formation of 3-hydroxycarphedon and 4-hydroxycarphedon. Buy Phenylpyracetam begins to act 1 hour after the administration, its half-life is 3-5 hours.

Buy Phenylpiracetam has the properties of a neuromodulator. It has a significant effect on the cholinergic and glutamatergic system. It binds to acetylcholine and glutamate receptors. Buy Phenylpiracetam also increases the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can explain its stimulating effect and the ability to cheer up.

On the direct mechanism of action of Buy Phenylpiracetam is known as little as other piracetamas. It is known that it increases the density of NDMA-glutamate receptors in the hippocampus. It is believed that Buy Phenylpiracetam is also able to stimulate nicotinic cholinergic receptors of the cerebral cortex and D3-dopamine receptors of the striatum.

The ability of Buy Phenylpiracetam to affect physical performance was noted. Despite the fact that phenylpiracetam has a stimulating effect, no direct effect on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems was detected. It was noted that phenylpiracetam is able to reduce the pain threshold, as well as the ability to adapt to stress. It is believed that phenylpyracetam promotes modulation of locomotor activity in the brain.

Side effects of buy Phenylpiracetam
Buy Phenylpiracetam has the same side effects and risks as most other piracetamines. These include: headache, nausea, irritability and problems with the gastrointestinal tract. Insomnia can occur due to the stimulating effect of the drug. This side effect can be avoided by reducing the dosage of the drug or correcting the time of its administration, since it has a fairly short half-life.

Over time, Buy Phenylpiracetam is addictive, which develops faster than other pyracetamines. It is believed that the drug does not cause dependence, but there is information about the occurrence of dependence. In general, this drug is not recommended for daily use, as with long-term use, it loses its nootropic properties. Buy Phenylpiracetam rarely causes dependence and can be considered relatively safe with proper application.

There are no reports of fatal or severe cases when phenylpyra- cetamine interacts with other drugs. No cases of an overdose of phenylpyricetam were observed. It can be considered safe with the use of recommended dosages. Do not exceed the recommended dosage, and before starting reception should consult with a specialist. Hypersensitivity to the drug may develop, so you should start taking small doses.

Like other pyracetamines, Buy Phenylpiracetam rarely causes side effects when administered at the recommended dosages. If you have a headache, you might want to increase your choline intake, which is often recommended when taking piracetam drugs.


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Phenylpiracetam Carphedon

16 Jul 2018

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon (internationally called Fonturacetam, chemical - 4-phenylpyricetam) is a drug with nootropic effect, besides it has psychostimulating, anticonvulsant, antihypoxic and antihypertensive properties. It has an adaptogenic effect under various stress models. 

Phenylpiracetam carphedon

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon prevents overloading of higher nervous activity during information overloads in experiments in higher animals, normalizes the daily biorhythm of the indicators of the sympathoadrenal system. It is a chemically improved formula of pyracetam.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon in sport
Phenylpiracetam Carphedon has a clear activating effect, and therefore was listed in the list of banned substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency. So in 2006, Russian biathlete Olga Pyleva was disqualified for 2 years. In August 2008, another Russian athlete (run with obstacles) Roman Usov was disqualified.

According to the experience of using in sports, it is safe to say that this is one of the few drugs whose effect is really felt. Already on the second or third day of admission, there is a marked increase in endurance, physical activity and strength. It is recommended to take 3-7 days before the competition, in a dose of 200-500 mg per day. When recruiting muscle mass is undesirable, as phenotropic moderately reduces appetite and promotes weight loss.

It is worth noting that Phenylpiracetam Carphedon is extremely effective for increasing mental activity during preparation for exams or other heavy mental activity. Significantly reduces the need for sleep, improves the assimilation and processing of information. For these purposes is adopted by the instruction.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon pharmachologic effect
Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - Nootropic drug, has a pronounced antiamnestic effect, has a direct activating effect on the integrative activity of the brain, promotes memory consolidation, improves concentration and mental activity, facilitates the learning process, increases the speed of information transfer between the cerebral hemispheres, increases the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia and toxic impacts. It also has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects, regulates the processes of activation and inhibition of the central nervous system, improves mood. It has a positive effect on the metabolic processes and blood circulation of the brain, improves the regional blood flow in ischemic areas of the brain, stimulates redox processes, increases the energy potential of the organism due to better utilization of glucose. Increases the concentration of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain, does not affect the content of GABA, binds neither to GABAa nor to GABAb receptors, does not have a significant effect on spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the brain. Does not affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, shows an unexpressed diuretic effect, Phenylpiracetam Carphedon has anorexigenic activity in course use. The stimulating effect of the drug is manifested in the ability to exert a pronounced effect on motor reactions, in increasing physical performance, in pronounced antagonism to the catalepytic action of neuroleptics, and in the weakening of the expression of the hypnotic action of ethanol and hexenal. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - psychostimulating action prevails in the ideatorial sphere. Has some analgesic effect, increasing the threshold of pain sensitivity. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon - adaptogenic action is manifested in increasing the body's resistance to stress in conditions of excessive mental and physical stress, fatigue, hypokinesia and immobilization, at low temperatures. Against the background of taking the drug, there is an increase in visual acuity, brightness and visual fields. Phenylpiracetam Carphedon improves blood circulation of the lower extremities. Stimulates the production of antibodies in response to the introduction of antigen, at the same time does not promote the development of immediate type hypersensitivity and does not change the skin allergic reaction caused by the introduction of a foreign protein. With the course application does not develop drug dependence, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome. The effect is manifested even when taking a single dose. Does not have a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and embryotoxic effect. The toxicity of the drug is low, the lethal dose is 800 mg / kg.

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Indications
CNS diseases associated with vascular diseases and metabolic disorders in the brain, intoxication (including post-traumatic conditions, chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency), accompanied by deterioration of intellectual-mnestic functions, decreased motor activity. Neurotic conditions manifested by lethargy, increased exhaustion, decreased psychomotor activity, impaired attention, memory impairment. Violation of the learning process. Depression of mild and moderate severity. Psycho-organic syndromes, manifested by intellectual-mnestic disorders and apatiko-bulimic phenomena; apatic conditions at a schizophrenia. Convulsive syndrome. Obesity (alimentary-constitutional genesis). Prevention of hypoxia, increased resistance to stress, correction of the functional state of the organism in extreme conditions of professional activity with the goal of preventing the development of fatigue and increasing mental and physical performance, correcting the daily biorhythm, inversion of the "sleep-wake" cycle. Chronic alcoholism (in order to reduce the phenomena of asthenia, depression, intellectual-mnestic disorders).

Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Contraindications
Hypersensitivity, pregnancy, lactation, children's age.C with caution. Heavy organic diseases of the liver and kidneys, severe arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, panic attacks in the anamnesis, acute psychotic conditions that occur with psychomotor agitation (risk of worsening anxiety, panic, hallucinations and delirium), allergic reactions to drugs from the group of pyrrolidone.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Side effects
Insomnia (in case of taking the drug later than 15 hours). In the first 1-3 days: psychomotor agitation, hyperemia of the skin, sensation of heat, increased AD. Overdose. Treatment is symptomatic.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Dosing and Administration
Inside, right after eating. The average single dose is 150 mg (100-250 mg), the average daily dose is 250 mg (200-300 mg), the maximum daily dose is 750 mg. The daily dose is divided into 2 divided doses. Duration of treatment - from 2 weeks to 3 months. The average duration of treatment is 30 days. If necessary, a second course is possible after 1 month. To improve performance - 100-200 mg once in the morning for 2 weeks (for athletes - 3 days). Alimentary-constitutional obesity: 100-200 mg once a day in the morning hours for 30-60 days.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon special instructions
It is not recommended to take the drug after 15 hours. In case of excessive psychoemotional exhaustion against the background of chronic stress and fatigue, chronic insomnia, a single dose of the drug in the first day can cause a sharp need for sleep, therefore it is recommended for patients on out-patient treatment to start treatment on non-working days.


Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Interaction
Strengthens the action of drugs, stimulating the central nervous system, nootropic drugs and antidepressants.
ATTENTION!!!! Phenylpiracetam Carphedon Included in the list of substances WADA as banned in the competition period!


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Phenylpiracetam reviews: fast and furious

16 Jul 2018

A drug called Phenylpiracetam is indicated for use in people with coma (sometimes - precoma), with memory loss, violations (both chronic and acute) of the cerebral circulation. Helps in the treatment of depression and alimentary obesity, with alleviation of the way out of the alcoholic crisis and in the treatment of chronic alcoholism.

phenylpiracetam reviews

In all these cases, a qualitative and effective drug Phenylpiracetam can help (reviews) about which are received from both doctors and their patients. Quick drug help is guaranteed and people absolutely healthy, in need of any moment of life or in an extreme situation in the mobilization of all their physical and mental resources.

The only exception that applies to all similar Phenylpiracetam analogues is the ban on its use during sports competitions, as the drugs of this group are banned by the Anti-Doping Committee. In all other cases - during the student session or before the conference, for better concentration and activation of memory - the medicine can be used in accordance with the instructions and recommendations of doctors.

The action of Phenylpiracetam (the Latin name "Phenotropil") is based on the increase in the brain tissues of the level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA). In addition, the drug has an effect on glycolytic processes, stimulates the absorption and cleavage of glucose, preventing its transformation into fats. As a result, as shown by the drug Phenylpiracetam reviews from doctors and specialists studying it, this pharmacological agent has an antiamnestic effect, allows the brain to "concentrate" and quickly consolidate memory by integrating information in a timely fashion. The drug increases the concentration of attention, stimulates mental activity and greatly facilitates the processes of adaptation and learning.

The main advantage of the drug lies not only in its effectiveness and functionality, but in that it has virtually no effect on the cardiovascular and urinary systems or respiratory organs. Many doctors who receive the drug Phenylpiracetam reviews, note its positive impact on patients suffering from anxiety and mood swings. In addition, this medicine can be used to treat diseases of the central nervous system, metabolic disorders in the brain and reduce motor activity.

Assign and accept a pharmacological agent Phenylpiracetam reviews that interested people can get in any pharmacy must be appointed by specialists and carefully monitored by them. The fact that the drug has certain contraindications, when it is used, there may be a problem with individual intolerance, so it can be used with caution in patients with severe kidney and liver lesions, with arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis. Under the supervision of doctors should be treated with a drug of people with psychomotor agitation, with a heightened sense of anxiety, delirium, panic and hallucinations. In no case should you use the medicine for women during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as for young children, since clinical studies in this area have not yet been conducted.

The drug should be taken in accordance with the appointment of a doctor - an average of 250 mg per day, immediately after meals. The course of treatment is 30 days, but can be repeated after the same interval.


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Phenylpiracetam buy

13 Jul 2018

Phenylpiracetam buy is a nootropic agent given to patients to improve cerebral circulation.

Phenylpiracetam buy has a pronounced antiamnestic effect, has a direct activating influence on the integrative activity of the brain, promotes memory consolidation, improves concentration and mental activity.

Phenylpiracetam buy uk

Phenylpiracetam buy facilitates the learning process, increases the speed of information transfer between the hemispheres of the brain, increases the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia and toxic effects.

Phenylpiracetam buy has anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effect, regulates the processes of activation and inhibition of the central nervous system, improves mood.

Phenylpiracetam buy increases the concentration of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the brain, does not affect the content of GABA, binds neither to GABAa nor to GABAb receptors, does not have a significant effect on spontaneous bioelectrical activity of the brain.

Phenylpiracetam buy has some analgesic effect, increasing the threshold of pain sensitivity. Against the background of taking the drug, there is an increase in visual acuity, brightness and visual fields.

With the course application does not develop drug dependence, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome.

The toxicity of the drug is low, the lethal dose is 800 mg / kg.

Phenylpiracetam buy - Indications for use

What helps with Phenylpiracetam buy? Assign the drug in the following cases:

Various neurotic conditions that are accompanied by impairment of psycho-vascular activity, lethargy, cognitive impairment, and excessive fatigue or memory loss;
Various depressive conditions;
Convulsive diseases of man;
Obesity is alimentary-constitutional;
If it is necessary to invert the sleep-wakefulness mode (this is mainly related to professional activities);
In the pathology of the central nervous system, which is associated with impaired metabolism in the brain and blood supply;
With chronic alcoholism;
In schizophrenia;
As a prevention in stressful situations;
With hypoxia;
To stimulate physical and mental performance;
With psychoorganic syndrome of lethargy, apathy, abulic disorders.

Instructions for use Phenylpiracetam buy, dosage
Tablets are taken orally immediately after ingestion. Duration of treatment and dosage of the drug is determined by the doctor in each case individually.

The average single dose is 100-200 mg.
The daily dosage is 200-300 mg.
The maximum allowable is 750 mg per day.

Dosage Phenylpiracetam buy 100 mg or less is recommended in the morning. If the prescribed dose is more than 100 mg, it should be divided into 2 divided doses.

Duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to 3 months. If necessary, the course is repeated in a month.

To improve performance, it is necessary to take 100-200 mg in the morning for 14 days. Athletes enough 3 days.

Patients with alimentary-constitutional obesity are prescribed 100-200 mg once a day for 1-2 months.

Side effects Phenylpiracetam buy
The use of phenylpiracetam may be accompanied by the following side effects:

insomnia, mainly when taking the drug for 6-8 hours before sleep;
increased blood pressure;
psycho-motor excitement;
sudden flushes of heat.

Contraindications of Phenylpiracetam buy
It is contraindicated to take Phenylpiracetam in the following cases:

increased individual sensitivity to the components of the drug components.

Overdose
Side reactions may increase. At the moment there have been no cases of overdose. Treatment is symptomatic.

Analogues of Phenylpiracetam buy
If necessary, you can replace Phenylpiracetam buy with an analogue of the ATC code - these are nootropic drugs:

Vinpotropil,
Glycine,
Divaza,
Cortexin,
Omaron.

When choosing analogues, it is important to understand that the instruction on the use of Phenylpiracetam, the price and reviews of preparations of a similar effect do not apply. It is important to get a doctor's advice and not to make an independent replacement of the drug.


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Carphedon

13 Jul 2018

Carphedon is used in neurology due to the ability to improve cognitive functions of the brain and increase resistance to psychoemotional stresses. Can also be prescribed to healthy people during overwork or during stressful situations. Children are allowed from the age of 14.

carphedon buy

Carphedon Dosage form
Carphedon is available only in the form of tablets. The active substance content in them can be 50 or 100 mg. The manufacturer offers customers packaging for 10 or 30 tablets. In color they can be from white to cream shade.

Carphedon Description and composition
The main active component is a substance that has a complex chemical name and is briefly called "carphedon". Lactose, calcium stearate and potato starch are used as auxiliary components, which should be taken into account for patients with intolerance to these substances.

Carphedon is the new representative of the nootropic group and is known for its positive effect on the blood supply to the brain and its cognitive functions. The clinical effect of carphedon is manifested in increasing endurance with psychoemotional loads, reducing the frequency of mood swings, leveling overvoltage.

The drug has found its application in neurology for the treatment of various diseases of the nervous system. It is also used in healthy people to increase resistance to stress factors and prevent overwork.

The positive effects of Carphedon are due to its ability to speed up the blood supply and metabolism in the brain tissues. This facilitates a faster flow of biochemical processes and the generation of a sufficient amount of energy. After taking Carphedon, the concentration of such mediators as dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline increases, which leads to improvement in the mood of the patient and a decrease in depressive manifestations.

Adaptogenic effect provides better resistance of brain cells to hypoxia, exposure to toxic substances, fatigue or low temperatures.

The advantage of the drug is that it does not affect the work of the vasomotor and respiratory centers.

Separately, the ability of Carphedon to completely eliminate hunger and suppress appetite should be highlighted. This makes it possible to successfully apply it in the complex therapy of obesity, combining in the right diets and physical exertion. However, it should be remembered that the drug does not have any effect on adipose tissue.

A valuable result of taking Carphedon is the ability of a person to work more productively without giving in to anxiety and nervousness.

Carphedon - Indications for use
for adults
Carphedon is prescribed as a curative and preventive agent under the following conditions:

Rehabilitation period after injuries with CNS injuries.
Insufficiency of blood supply to the brain, which led to a decrease in mental abilities and difficulty in motor activity.
Asthenic syndrome.
Hypoxia of the brain.
Neurosis.
Conditions that lead to increased exhaustion and lethargy.
Cramps of various etiologies.
Poor memory and reduced learning ability.
Depression.
Chronic intoxication, including alcohol and drugs.
Life situations when it is necessary to increase mental or physical performance, as well as in the period of falling into an uncharacteristic environment or climatic conditions.
Psycho-organic syndrome.
Presence of psychological problems with obesity.
Normalization of biorhythms or sleep cycles when changing the time zone.

for children
Carphedon is not assigned to patients under 14 years of age due to a lack of sufficient research on its safety profile. However, in practice, some doctors consider the benefits of taking the drug higher than the possible harm, so it is actively used in treatment regimens.

Before starting therapy, parents need to make sure that the diagnosis is correct. Unfortunately, many doctors consider the nervousness or restless sleep of the child a pathology, although such conditions can only be a temporary reflection of physiological development.

In most cases, Carphedon is prescribed to children when:

Intracranial pressure.
Encephalopathy.
Hydrocephalus syndrome.
Pathologies in the structure of the brain.

For school-age children, indications can also be:

Depression.
A long period of stress.
Low ability to learn and delay development.
Emotional instability.

In pediatrics, positive results were observed after the course of Carphedon, however, long-term use is not recommended.

Carphedon for pregnant women and during lactation
The drug is prohibited for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.


Contraindications
Contraindications for taking Carphedon are the following conditions:

Age to 14 years.
Pregnancy and lactation.
Hypersensitivity to any component of the drug.

Also, there are relative contraindications, in which the decision about taking Carphedon is taken by the attending physician:

Severe disorders in the liver and kidneys.
Panic attacks or psychomotor arousal in the anamnesis.
Atherosclerosis.

Carphedon Applications and dosage
for adults
Tablets are for internal use. They should be swallowed whole and washed with plain water. It is recommended to take the drug after eating.

Dosages are selected individually, taking into account the nature of the disease and the characteristics of the patient. The average daily dose of Carphedon is 300 mg, which is divided into several doses. The maximum allowable amount per day is 750 mg. The optimal scheme is to take the drug twice a day, with the last dose should be in the daytime, and not in the evening, to avoid problems with falling asleep.

The average duration of the course is from 2 weeks to 3 months. After this, you need to take a break for at least 1 month, and if necessary, repeat the treatment.

For healthy people, when Carphedon is taken to increase resistance to stressful situations or temporarily improve performance, the course of treatment can be only a few days.

To improve memory and attention, doctors prescribe 200 mg of the drug in one session for 2 weeks.


for children
The decision on dosage and duration of admission is made by the attending physician. The standard regimen allows the appointment of Carphedon at 50 mg twice daily for no longer than 4 weeks.

Carphedon Side effects
From side effects are possible:

Redness of the skin.
Sensation of heat.
Increase in pressure.
Excessive arousal.
Insomnia when taking medication at night.

At occurrence of by-effects it is recommended to lower a dosage of a preparation, and then gradually to raise it up to necessary quantity.


Interaction with other drugs
When taking Carphedon, there is an increase in the activity of psychostimulating drugs, nootropics and antidepressants.

Carphedon reduces the negative impact of alcohol on the brain, and also reduces the degree of intoxication and hangover.


Carphedon special instructions
Closer observation during treatment with Carphedon requires patients with a history of panic attacks, allergies to pyrrolidone derivatives, liver and kidney disease.

The first method can cause an increased need of the patient for rest and sleep, so it is recommended to implement it on weekends.

Analogues of Carphedon
Instead of Carphedon, the following drugs can be used:

Hopantam is a nootropic remedy, which is a substitute for Carphedon in the therapeutic group. It is produced by the company "Altayvitamins" in tablets, which are allowed to children over 3 years old. Hypantamus can not drink to women in the position and breastfeeding.
Cortexin refers to the substitutes for Carphedon by the pharmacological group. The drug is available as a lyophilizate for the preparation of a solution for insertion into the muscle. Nootropic drug can be prescribed to children from birth. Cortexin is prohibited for pregnant and lactating children.
Neupilept refers to the substitutes for Carphedon by the pharmacological group. The drug is released in a solution for oral administration and injections. Neupilept is not suitable for children and mothers who support natural feeding.


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Phenotropil Dosage

12 Jul 2018

Phenotropil is a nootropic preparation. The active substance is N-carbamoyl-methyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone. The drug has the ability to directly improve the integrative function of the brain. This leads to an improvement in mental abilities, learning ability, memory consolidation, improvement of attention. In addition, Phenotropil has an anticonvulsant effect, anxiolytic properties, improves mood, normalizes the processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain, has an anorexigenic effect. With the course of application, phenotropin improves the stability of brain tissue in conditions of hypoxia. Due to the neuroprotective properties of Phenotropil, indications for its use include pathology caused by the influence of toxic substances, hypoxia. The drug improves the blood supply to the brain, stimulates metabolic processes in neurons.

Fenotropil has the ability to increase regional blood flow during hypoxia. Improving the energy potential of neurons is provided by enhanced utilization of glucose. Phenotropil does not affect the CAS and respiratory system. It is noted that with the course of taking Fenotropil the visual acuity improves, the perception of the brightness of the flowers increases.

The drug Fenotropil has adaptogenic properties (increases resistance to a stressful situation), which is especially evident with significant emotional and physical exertion. Phenotropil moderately affects motor reactions, reduces the inhibitory effect of ethanol and hexenal on brain tissue. It is an antagonist of the cataleptic effect of neuroleptics. Fenotropil has some analgesic effect due to an increase in the threshold of pain sensitivity.

Also, this drug improves blood flow in the vessels of the lower extremities. The positive properties of phenothropil include the absence of teratogenic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, embryotoxic effects and low toxicity. With the course of this drug, there were no symptoms of withdrawal syndrome, which reinforces the positive feedback about phenothyrope. In addition, tolerance and drug dependence do not develop.

Fentropil is a patented preparation. There is no analogue of Fentropil for the time being. When taken orally, the drug is rapidly absorbed into the digestive tract, it penetrates the blood-brain barrier. The maximum concentration is achieved one hour after administration. It is not metabolized in the body. Half-life is 3-5 hours. 60% of the drug is excreted with sweat and bile, 40% - with urine. Characterized by 100% bioavailability of Phenotropil.

Indications for use of Fenotropil

In the instructions for Fenotropil, indications are indicated for the purpose: neurotic states characterized by worsening of psycho-vascular activity, excessive fatigue, lethargy, memory loss, cognitive impairment; depressive conditions; pathology of the central nervous system associated with impaired metabolism in the brain and blood supply, as well as other diseases, accompanied by a violation of the intellectual-mnestic function; convulsive diseases; the need to invert the sleep-wakefulness regime (in connection with professional activities); alimentary-constitutional obesity; schizophrenia (vyaloapaticheskoe current); with a preventive purpose in case of stressful situations, extreme influences of professional activity, hypoxia, for stimulation of mental and physical working capacity; chronic alcoholism (to reduce asthenia, depression, enhance intellectual and mnestic functions); psychoorganic syndrome with the phenomena of lethargy, apathy, abulian disorders.

Phenotropil Dosage and Administration
Phenotropil is intended for oral administration. The tablet should be taken after a meal. The dosage of the drug, as well as the duration of therapy, is determined by the doctor depending on the clinical situation. The average dosage of Phenotropil for one dose is 100-250 mg. The maximum daily dosage is 750 mg. The daily dosage should be divided into two doses. If the daily dosage is 100 mg, let us take a single dose per day. The average duration of treatment is a month. With alimentary-constitutional obesity, Phenotropil is used for 100-200 mg for one to two months.
Tablets Fenotropil It is advisable to take Phenotropil no later than 15:00.


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Dysgraphia

11 Jul 2018

Irlen Syndrome - dyslexia, dysgraphia , dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysphasia, or hyperactivity.

Irlen Syndrome - dyslexia, dysgraphia , dyspraxia, dyscalculia, dysphasia, or hyperactivity

Disgraphy is better to prevent at an early age, without waiting for problems in the second or third grade, and the child will have a disgust for learning. It is necessary to look at both for the child, closely observe the process of mastering written speech:

1. if the child attended a speech therapy kindergarten;

2. if there was a delay in speech development in 2-3 years;

3. if the child has problems with memory and attention;

4. if the child is left-handed or retrained left-handed;

5. if the child had head injuries;

6. if the violations of sound have not been corrected by the age of seven.

Diagnostics of the dysgraphy

By what signs can you guess that the child has dysgraphia? First of all - if he admits mistakes when writing a letter ... let's say, weird. They are not related to the violation of grammar rules. Under these errors, it is impossible to find the rules. Errors are in completely innocent words, the writing of which does not allow ambiguity.

A child may not add words, insert extra letters or skip them.

The rule knows, but in practice it can not apply.
But this child is not bad, not stupid, he is very nice. It's just hard for him to write. Only special exercises and self-confidence can help.

Often, the dysgraphs have very poor handwriting - small or very large, illegible. The child is hard to observe the line, the words come to the fields, one against another, slide off the line or suddenly fly over it, the word free birds. Also, young dysgraphists do not finish the endings. They can write in a mirror, turning over the letters, they may not add individual elements of the letter or add extra ones.

When a child is just learning to write, he can still have such strange mistakes at the very beginning of learning, but they quickly come to naught. A dysgrafic very slowly learns a literate letter. It creates the feeling that he is uncomfortable to write, he does not like to do it. And indeed it is. Often the schoolchild seems terrible itself the volume of what you need to learn, read, write. And when for failures they also scold, then their hands completely fall.

When oral speech suffers, everything is clear, you need a speech therapist. When writing suffers - it takes ... what? Severe punishment for lack of diligence? Or "you just need to learn better," as liberal-minded parents say?

Sometimes it's better to teach. And sometimes - and teach, and a little treat. In general, you will have to turn to a speech therapist (yes, and with a written speech too), so that he can figure out if an early logopedic help is needed. Some parents are very surprised when at school they are advised to check with a speech therapist. And even more surprised when a speech therapist advises to work out. And in any case, do not use the belt and other medieval ways to influence the person. Another speech therapist speaks the word - dysgraphy, which means a disorder of written speech.

It is better not to immediately deal with all the problems. You have to choose one - and focus on it. For example, a child confuses b-n, d-t, and also mixes prepositions with prefixes. If you take it all at once - the amount of work can scare. But if you try to cope only with the b-n, and then draw the attention of the student, that, say, there are fewer mistakes, then you can awaken enthusiasm. And then the struggle for universal literacy will go much more fun.

Speech therapist will be able to determine if there are logopaedic problems after three years, five years and before the school itself, which then will be augmented with dysgraphia, if necessary, will advise special classes. A neuropsychologist and neuropathologist can join a speech therapist. 


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Phenotropil (Phenylpiracetam) - instruction, application, reviews

11 Jul 2018

Active substance

The active ingredient-Phenylpiracetam, N-carbamoylmethyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone, or 4-phenylpiracetam. Chemical formula 1214N2O2.

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Mechanism of action

Nootropic effect of the drug is to activate the mental processes and concentration. In addition, Phenotropil has antiamnestic effect improves memory, and eliminates t brain disorders, leading to its loss. The drug prevents the development of seizures. Under the action of Phenotropil improves mood. Psychostimulatory effect of the drug is to increase learning, to facilitate the assimilation and processing of new information. These effects are combined with the tranquilizing properties of Phenotropil. However, his tranquilizing activity is low. Under the action of Phenotropil increases visual acuity, improves color perception, expands the field of vision.

Phenotropil is a good adaptogen-increases resistance to stress in extreme conditions, eliminates the negative effects of physical and mental stress. Analgesic (analgesic) effect of the drug is to increase the threshold of pain sensitivity, to improve the tolerability of pain. It reduces the power of toxic effect on the brain of various chemical compounds, including ethyl alcohol. The drug has anorexigenic effect-reduces appetite, painful craving for high-calorie carbohydrate food.

Of the other effects, not related to the Central nervous system, it should be noted the stimulation of antibodies, and as a consequence - strengthening of immunity. It should be noted that the beneficial effect on the immune system is not accompanied by allergic reactions of immediate type. Phenotropil improves blood flow to the lower extremities, and has a weak diuretic effect.

Nootropic, psychostimulatory, anorexigenic effect is largely due to the facilitation of the transmission of impulses between the neurons of the brain. This is achieved by increasing the number of neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) in the brain tissue. In this case, each of the neurotransmitters has a specific effect on the brain processes. For example, the acetylcholine allows the transmission of electric impulse through the synapses (contacts) between neurons. Dopamine, serotonin are hormones of happiness and satisfaction. They are responsible for good mood, motivation and focus.

And serotonin by affecting the peripheral centers of saturation in the hypothalamus reduces appetite. It should be noted that the reception of Phenotropil does not cause a painful state of euphoria and inadequacy. In addition, the drug improves blood circulation in the brain tissue, regulates the processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain structures. Under its action improves the transport of glucose and oxygen to the neurons of the brain, and in the opposite direction are removed toxins and waste products. As a result, the resistance of brain tissue to hypoxia is increased.

History of creation

The era of nootropics began in 1964 when employees of the Belgian pharmaceutical company UCBPharma was synthesized a new drug called Piracetam. This tool is a derivative of the organic compound of pyrrolidone, and belongs to the class of chemical compounds of racemates. In 1972, this drug called Nootropil appeared on the world pharmaceutical consumer market. However, its effectiveness in the treatment of cognitive (mental) disorders has not been confirmed by clinical trials.

Perhaps this is due to the fact that the tests were conducted on the elderly, many of whom suffered from Alzheimer's disease. And to achieve a nootropic effect, it is necessary to actively stimulate brain activity by obtaining and processing new information during training, mastering new skills. Only under this condition, acetylcholine is produced in the Central nervous system. However, many foreign scientists physiologists and clinicians hastened to declare piracetam placebo, dummy. For this reason, Piracetam, as well as other nootropics, are not included in the official list of drugs in the United States and in many countries of Western Europe.

In the early 90-ies of the last century in the Russian Institute of space biology and medicine was synthesized a new drug that in its effectiveness and ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier ten times superior Piracetam or Nootropil. This action force was achieved by the fact that the structure of The nootropil molecule was introduced phenyl group.

A new tool has received the name Phenotropil (phenyl group + Nootropil). Initially, Phenotropil was conceived as an adaptogen for astronauts, a means of providing endurance, reaction and accuracy of action in extreme orbital conditions. In 2003 Phenotropil was officially entered in the state register of medicines of the Russian Federation. Since 2008, This tool is assigned to the Russian pharmaceutical manufacturer valent Pharmaceuticals. In 2010, who registered a drug under the international name Phenylpiracetam (Fonturacetam).

Phenylpiracetam Analogues

Currently, Phenotropil is produced by many Russian pharmaceutical companies in the form of tablets weighing 50 and 100 mg. Initially, the drug had a synonym for Carphedon. However, this name has not been fixed, and currently the drugs under this name are not officially registered in the Russian territory. Among other numerous analogs of Phenotropil Cavinton, Cinnarizin, Mexidol, Glycine, Noopept, and many others. But this is not generics, namely analogues-drugs that have a similar effect, but with another active ingredient.

Its psychostimulatory properties and the ability to influence the level of neurotransmitters Phenotropil similar to amphetamines. However, unlike the latter, it does not cause painful addiction and drug dependence. Does not affect Phenotropil on the vasomotor and respiratory centers of the brain. However, this drug is officially included in the list of doping, and banned for use by athletes during the competition.

Indications

Among the indications for the using of Phenotropil:

Disorders of thinking and memory in various diseases of the Central nervous system due to vascular insufficiency, metabolic disorders, intoxication;

Increased depletion in neurotic disorders;

The balance of the sleep-Wake;

Poor learning ability;

Psycho-organic changes in schizophrenia with intellectual disabilities and thinking;

Mild to moderate depressive States;

Convulsive syndrome;

Various conditions associated with hypoxia of the brain;

Improving mental and physical performance in preparation for extreme activities.

In addition, Phenotropil is included in some programs to reduce body weight. It should be borne in mind that this drug does not burn excess calories, and does not affect carbohydrate and fat metabolism. It only reduces appetite, dulls hunger. Therefore, Phenotropil in weight correction is applicable only in combination with a low-calorie diet. If you do not abandon the old gastronomic habits, the effect will not be. Similarly, Phenotropil is not effective in those cases where obesity is not associated with overeating, and with severe metabolic disorders, dishormonal disorders.

Phenotropil is also used in alcoholism-it reduces the toxic effect of alcohol on the brain. This is expressed in a decrease in the degree of intoxication and severity of hangover. However, this does not mean that Phenotropil should be consumed with alcohol. On the contrary, it is impossible. This tool stimulates the metabolic processes in the brain. Because of this, neurons become more sensitive to the action of ethyl alcohol, and die faster.

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Pharmacodynamics

The drug is absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract. Its bioavailability is 100%, and the maximum concentration in the blood is created within 1 hour after administration. The half-life of Phenotropil ranges from 3 to 5 hours. 40% of the drug is excreted by the kidneys, and 60% through the sweat glands, and bile through the intestine. Moreover, the excretion is carried out in an unchanged form.

Psychostimulating and nootropic effects have different terms of appearance, and equally different duration. After 20-60 minutes after taking the pills, there is an improvement in vision, a sense of concentration, determination, thirst for action. Psychostimulating effect lasts 5-6 hours, no more. Nootropic properties are manifested later, 10-14 days, and last for the same 10-14 days. Weight loss with the use of Phenotropil on the background of a diet occurs after about 2 weeks. These facts suggest that Phenotropil, like other nootropics, should be taken as a course. Only then will the result.

Phenylpiracetam Dosage

A single dose of the drug is 100-200 mg, daily-200-300 mg, the maximum daily-750 mg. the Daily dose is divided into 2 doses. If the daily dose is 100 mg, the drug is taken once in the morning. Given the stimulating effect and the likelihood of insomnia, do not recommended to take Phenotropil after 15 h

Take the whole tablets without chewing, drinking water, during meals, or after meals. Welcome to the food undesirable because of the anorectic actions. The duration of the course in the treatment of various diseases and pathological conditions is from 2 weeks to 3 months, on average 1 month. However, many experts recommend to take it no more than 3 weeks. Allegedly, long-term use of Phenotropil depletes reserves of neurotransmitters in the brain. But this view is controversial. In any case, the interval between courses of admission should be at least 1 month.

To improve mental and physical performance, the drug is taken 100-200 mg once for 2 weeks. Athletes to improve physical endurance during training enough 3-day morning reception of 100-200 mg. Phenotropil for weight loss is taken in the same dosage, and also in the morning for 1-2 months.

Phenylpiracetam Side effect

Cases of drug overdose are not described. Phenotropil non-toxic. The lethal dose is very high-800 mg / kg of body weight. Therefore, even taking 8 tablets of 100 mg per day in most patients does not entail any negative effects. However, some people after taking the drug noted insomnia, hyperactivity, increased blood pressure, redness of the skin and a feeling of heat throughout the body. Most of these side effects, with the exception of insomnia and high blood pressure, are short-lived, and independently take place within three days without medical correction.

Phenylpiracetam Contraindications

Individual intolerance to the components Phenotropil. In the appointment should be extremely careful with allergic reactions to Piracetam and other derivatives of pyrrolidone. Relative contraindications are severe liver and kidney disease, hypertension with high blood pressure numbers, severe cerebral atherosclerosis.

In patients with previously noted psychotic conditions, Phenotropil can cause psychomotor agitation and productive symptoms in the form of delusions and hallucinations. In some people with mental exhaustion due to fatigue, nervous stress, Phenotropil intake in the first day can increase the duration of sleep. In these cases, it is not recommended to prescribe the drug during work, performance of professional duties, and the beginning of the reception should fall on weekends.

Phenylpiracetam Interaction with other drugs

Phenotropil enhances the action of other nootropics, psychostimulants and antidepressants. The action of barbiturates and neuroleptics, on the contrary, are inhibited by Phenotropil.

Use in children

The effects of the drug on the child's body has not been well studied. Therefore, Phenotropil is not officially recommended for children under 14 years. In rare cases, it is still used for emotional exhaustion, mental retardation, depression, and poor learning in children. Among other indications-various brain disorders, accompanied by paresis and paralysis. The standard dosage is 50 mg 2 times a day. Duration of the course is 2-4 weeks. Indications for the use of Phenotropil in children are determined strictly individually. The main thing is that the risk of possible complications does not exceed the feasibility of prescribing this drug.

Pregnancy and lactation

The effect of Phenotropil on the body of the fetus and newborn has not been studied, and its teratogenic effect (the ability to cause deformities) is not excluded. For this reason, it is contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding


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Phenylpiracetam (Carphedon, Phenotropil) capsules - instructions for use, analogs, reviews

10 Jul 2018

Phenotropil (Phenylpiracetam, Carphedon) is a new drug of a group of nootropics that improve brain blood supply and cognitive functions (thinking, memory, attention, etc.). In addition, Phenotropil has a psychostimulatory effect, improving endurance under high emotional stress, tension, mood swings and other similar conditions. Due to these properties, Phenotropil is used in the treatment of diseases of the Central nervous system, such as cerebral circulation failure, neuroses, asthenia, depression, apathy in schizophrenia, abstinence after drinking alcohol or drugs. In healthy people, Phenotropil is used to increase resistance to stress and to prevent fatigue in severe mental and physical stress.

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The composition, names and method of production

Currently, Phenotropil is only available in pill form with the active substance 50 mg or 100mg.

Pills are sold in packs of 10, 20 or pieces. To quickly refer to the different dosages of the drug in everyday speech are often used the terms "Phenotropil 100"or" Phenotropil 50". In these names, the numbers mean the dosage of tablets. In addition, the names "Phenotropil 30" or "Phenotropil 20" are sometimes used to refer to how many tablets are in the described package.

However, these names are used much less frequently compared to those where the name Phenotropil is added to the figure indicating the content of the active substance. Part of Phenotropil as the active component includes phenyl-oxo-pyrrolidinyl-acetamide a substance that briefly is called "Phenotropil". Actually, according to the short name of the active substance, the drug got its trade name. Tablets may contain phenyl-oxo-pyrrolidinyl-acetamide in two doses 50 mg or 100mg. As auxiliary substances Phenotropil contains the following components:

  • Potato starch;
  • Lactose;
  • calcium Stearate.

Phenotropil tablets are in the form of an elongated cylinder, flattened on both sides, and painted white or white with a yellowish or cream tint.

Therapeutic action and clinical effects of Phenylpiracetam

Phenotropil has the following clinical effects:

  • posed anti-amnesic effect of (the drug improves memory including at the expense of its consolidation and accelerate the speed of transmission of nerve impulses between the various structures of the brain);
  • Activates the integrative brain activity, i.e., improves memory and intelligence, enhances concentration, increases the activity of mental performance and the ability to tolerate high intellectual exertion;
  •  Improves ability to learn and assimilate new information and mastering new skills;
  • Increases resistance of the brain to oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) and toxic agents;
  • Anticonvulsant effect;
  •  Anxiolytic (calming) effects;
  • Improves your mood, to treat depression;
  • Normalizes and balances the processes of excitation and inhibition in the Central nervous system;
  • Enhances physical and mental performance;
  • Increases the number of different ideas, contributes to the emergence of non-standard vision of the situation and several solutions;
  • Increases pain threshold;
  • Improves vision (increase in sharpness, brightness, expansion of fields of vision).

The listed clinical effects of Phenotropil are provided by Its ability to accelerate metabolism and blood supply in brain tissues. In addition, the drug accelerates the oxidation-reduction processes in brain cells, which provide them with the necessary energy for active work. Improvement of mood and reduction of depressive component are achieved due to the ability of Phenotropil to increase the content of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in the nerve fibers of the brain. These substances affect the speed of transmission of nerve impulses, regulate feelings of happiness and pleasure, and also maintain a good mood. The stimulating effect of Fenotropil (increased mental and physical performance) is combined with a calming effect. That is, a person on the background of taking the drug is able to work intensively and powerfully, but at the same time remain calm and not subject to anxiety, nervousness or fears. Resistance to the negative effects of oxygen deficiency, toxic substances, low temperatures, fatigue and immobility is given to brain cells due to the action of Carphedon adaptogenic. At the same time, Phenylpiracetam does not affect the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the medulla oblongata, so it does not change breathing, but reduces blood pressure. However, Phenotropil has a weak diuretic effect. When using the exchange rate Phenylpiracetam can provoke anorexia by suppressing appetite. A very important property of 1.3 dimethylamine is that it does not develop addiction and tolerance, and after discontinuation of the drug does not occur withdrawal syndrome. All the effects of Phenotropil develop after a single dose of the drug, which allows its use if necessary, and not necessarily long-term courses.

Phenylpiracetam experience, indications for use

Phenotropil is indicated for use for the treatment and prevention of pathological conditions of the Central nervous system: Rehabilitation after traumatic CNS injury (e.g. traumatic brain injury, meningitis, etc.); Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, accompanied by a deterioration of mental abilities and memory, as well as a decrease in motor activity; Asthenic syndrome, combined with cerebrovascular insufficiency; Neuroses; a Condition in which the person concerned about the lethargy, exhaustion, low activity, attention disorders and poor memory; The decline in learning ability; Depression asthenic, apathetic and dinamicheskogo Genesis; Shallow psycho-organic syndromes that manifest violation of intelligence and memory, as well as the phenomena of bulimia and apathy; a state of lethargic apathy, when schizophrenia; Convulsions of various origins; Alcohol withdrawal (alcohol withdrawal syndrome); Chronic alcohol and drug abuse (in the complex treatment for the relief of fatigue, elimination of depression and restore memory and mental abilities); In the complex treatment of arterial hypertension I II stages; Complex therapy of obesity, not associated with endocrine disorders; Prevention of brain hypoxia; increased resistance to stress; Correction of functional state in contact with various unusual or extreme conditions (for example, the need to work in an unusual climatic or time zone, etc.); prevention of fatigue and increase of mental and physical performance in cases where necessary; Normalization of biorhythm; Violation of the cycles of "sleep-wakefulness" with rapid movement of 4 or more time zones.

Phenotropil-instructions for use

Tablet Phenotropil should be swallowed whole, without chewing or grinding in any other way. The tablet should be washed down with enough water-at least half a glass. It is optimal to take Phenotropil immediately after eating. However, if this option is not possible for any reason, it is recommended to take the pill after a meal, not on an empty stomach. This recommendation is due to the fact that Phenylpiracetam reduces appetite up to anorexia.

Carphedon dosages are selected individually, based on the human condition and the desired therapeutic effect. The average single dose of Phenotropil is from 100 mg (1 tablet 100 mg) to 200 mg (2 tablets 100 mg), and the daily dose from 200 mg to 300 mg. the Maximum allowable daily dose of Phenotropil is 750 mg (7.5 tablets 100 mg or 15 tablets 50 mg). It is optimal to take the drug twice a day-morning and afternoon. It is not recommended to take the drug later than 15-00 hours, because there may be difficulties with falling asleep. However, if the daily dose is 100 mg or less, you can take it at a time in the morning. The duration of course therapy with Phenotropil is from 2 weeks to 3 months. If necessary, the course of treatment can be repeated at intervals of not less than one month. However, Fenotropil courses should be taken for the treatment of various conditions and diseases. And for the temporary improvement of performance and adaptation to unusual conditions it is enough to use Phenotropil for a short period of time from several days to two weeks. To improve performance and memory, as well as improve attention Phenylpiracetam should be taken on 100 200 mg (1 2 tablets) once a day for 2 weeks. You can also take Phenotropil 100 200 mg once a day for three days as a preparation for intensive physical training or powerful mental stress. When obesity Phenotropil in the complex therapy is recommended to take 100-200 mg 1 time a day for 1 2 months. If Phenotropil is taken against the background of psycho-emotional exhaustion, fatigue or chronic stress and insomnia, you should be prepared for the fact that after the first dose of the drug a person will need a long sleep. If a person works, it is recommended to start taking the drug on weekends to be able to sleep as much as necessary to the body.

Phenotropil should be used with caution in people suffering from liver and kidney diseases, severe hypertension or atherosclerosis. This means that during the entire course of treatment it is necessary to carefully monitor your own health and to fix the slightest changes, which should be reported to the doctor. You should also regularly take tests that reflect the state of the kidneys, liver and the number of lipid fractions in the blood.

In addition, Phenotropil should be taken with caution to people who have previously suffered panic attacks, anxiety, psychosis or periods of psychomotor agitation, because the drug can lead to a new manifestation of these diseases. Also, there may be an exacerbation of anxiety, the appearance of panic, hallucinations and delirium in people who have allergic reactions to the compounds of the pyrrolidone group (for example, Piracetam, Fezam, etc.).

When the first signs of mental instability against the background of the use of Fenotropil, it is necessary to immediately cancel the drug and consult a doctor as soon as possible. If in the first three days of receiving Phenlpiracetam in humans there were side effects (feeling of heat, redness of the skin, increased pressure or excessive excitation), it is recommended to reduce the dosage by half and then gradually, within 2 to 7 days to bring it to the prescribed.

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Interaction with other drugs

Phenotropil enhances the effects of other psychostimulatory drugs and substances, as well as antidepressants and nootropics. In addition, Phenotropil reduces the effect of neuroleptics and weaken the hypnotic effect of ethyl alcohol and hexenal.

The overdose of Phenotropil for the entire period of its clinical use has not been recorded even once. The drug is normally carried in dosages of up to 800 mg (8 tablets of 100 mg) per day.

Phenotropil for children

Phenotropil is a drug that is not recommended for children, because there is no adequate and reliable studies proving its safety for them. However, in clinical practice, it is allowed to use the drug for severe diseases, when the benefit of it will undoubtedly exceed all possible risks and side effects. Unfortunately, at the present time in the countries of the former Soviet Union has developed a very bad practice of overdiagnosis of neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders in children of early age. This means that in young children identify diseases that they do not actually suffer.

The most common such diseases are perinatal encephalopathy, intracranial pressure, hydrocephalic syndrome, as well as "deviations" in the brain structure revealed during sonography, EEG or Echocardium, such as, for example, an increase in the ventricles by 1 3 mm more than the norm, thickening of the septum, etc. Parents agree with the doctors, because it seems to them that the child does not sleep well, does not cry, takes off the blanket, bends, wakes up and does not correspond to the prevailing ideas in their head.

However, this is hyperdiagnosis, since there are no objective data on the presence of the disease, and there are only indicators of outdated studies and subjective impressions of parents and doctors, which without clinical symptoms are a reflection of the normal option. After all, the child is not made according to the patterns, he is alive, he has individual properties that may differ from the standards available in the clinic, very far from perfect. Therefore, parents should remember that only the presence of long-existing clinical symptoms, which does not pass within a few weeks, is a cause for concern. In all other cases, if the child occasionally sleeps poorly, not as you want to eat, has a " bad " EEG, sonography or Echocardiography, but gaining weight and develops according to age, there is no reason to worry.

Returning to Fenotropil, it should be said that in the countries of the former USSR, the drug is administered to children for treatment of various "diseases" identified in the course of overdiagnosis. Thus, the drug is often used to normalize sleep, eliminate "capriciousness" and excitability in the child, as well as to accelerate its development. Strictly speaking, this use of Phenotropil can not be called correct and reasonable, so all the recommendations remain on the conscience of a particular doctor and parent.

Phenotropil is also recommended to take children of school age to eliminate the following conditions:

  • Frequent stress situations;
  • Emotional burnout;
  • Depression;
  •  Low ability to learn;
  • mental Retardation;
  • Paralysis and paresis.

In these situations, Phenotropil can really have a positive effect, normalizing the child's condition. However, the drug should be used carefully, tracking the appearance of side effects or deterioration of the child. If any, you should stop taking Fenotropil and see a doctor. Children can take Phenylpiracetam 50 mg 2 times a day for 2 to 4 weeks. Longer courses of admission are not recommended, because the child may form a psychological dependence on pills.

Phenylpiracetam and alcohol

Phenotropil reduces the effect of alcohol on the brain, so against the background of taking the drug a person gets drunk much less than usual, the head remains sober and clear. In addition, in the morning after a stormy libation, symptoms of "hangover" or completely absent, or mild. However, this does not mean that against the background of receiving Phenotropil, you can drink alcoholic beverages in any amount. The negative effect of the combination of Phenotropil and alcohol is manifested after the removal of all the products of the decay of ethyl alcohol, when the process of the death of brain neurons in large quantities is started. This is due to the fact that Phenotropil activates metabolism in brain cells. Against the background of intensive metabolism of the cells absorb toxic metabolites of alcohol, poisoned and after a while literally die EN masse.

To visualize the effect on the brain cells produces a combination of Phenotropil + alcohol, it is necessary in the imagination to draw a picture of being in a room where a toxic substance is sprayed, for example, carbon monoxide. To reduce the impact of a toxic substance, a person will try to breathe as little as possible and shallow. But if you breathe deeply and intensely at this moment, the poisoning will be very strong, possibly fatal. In this analogy, the action of Phenotropil can be compared with intensive breathing, due to which there is a large amount of harmful substance absorption, and alcohol is a toxic compound that destroys brain cells.

That is, under the influence of Phenotropil brain cells receive more than usual amount of toxic alcohol metabolites, which trigger the process of their intensive destruction. Therefore, the effects of alcohol in combination with Phenotropil on brain cells are even more detrimental compared to only ethyl alcohol. In addition, in the initial depressed state of the Central nervous system, which just causes alcohol, Phenotropil does not have a psychostimulatory effect, but, on the contrary, overwhelming. That is, increases the oppression of the CNS.

How to take Phenotropil for weight loss

Fenotropil is used in the treatment of obesity, not associated with hormonal disorders, that is, caused by constitutional features or overeating. This means that theoretically Phenotropil can be used for weight loss. However, before making such a decision, it is necessary to know what is causing its effect. So, Phenylpiracetam really helps to reduce weight due to the fact that it has anorexigenic activity, that is, simply completely eliminates appetite and hunger.

Thanks to this, a person does not want to eat, the amount of calories consumed is reduced, and the excess weight is lost. That is, Phenotropil does not break down body fat, does not bind nutrients received by the body, but simply reduces appetite, which makes it a relatively safe drug for weight loss.

After all, as a result of its action from the gastrointestinal tract, all the nutrients that have entered the body are normally absorbed, and the digestion process is not disturbed, proceeding completely normally. This means that Phenotropil will be very effective in combination with a diet that will directly help reduce weight, and the drug, in turn, will help to comply with it without any problems and inconveniences associated with hunger. However, if a person does not follow any diet or will continue to eat as much as before the use of Phenotropil, he will not lose weight.

Remember that the drug only eliminates hunger, which allows you to eat less and, accordingly, to lose weight, but the Fenotropil itself directly on the fat tissue does not have any action. For weight loss Phenotropil is recommended to take 50 mg twice a day for the required period of time. People who are obese, Phenotropil under the supervision of a doctor can take up to 23 months. If a person takes Carphedon for weight loss on their own, without medical supervision, it can be done for a maximum of one month. The second course can be held after a break of at least three months.

Phenotropil-side effects

Phenotropil can provoke the development of the following side effects:

  • Insomnia (usually occurs when taking pills after 15-00 hours);
  • Hyperstimulation (excitement, energy, the desire to do everything at once, etc.);
  • Psychomotor agitation;
  • increased blood pressure;
  • Redness of the skin;
  • Feeling of heat on the skin.

All of these side effects, except insomnia, develop and disturb a person in the first three days from the beginning of taking Phenotropil, and then disappear. Thus, the body reacts to the introduction of the drug, but after addiction, which lasts from one to three days, the condition is normalized and side effects disappear.

Phenotropil analogues

In the pharmaceutical market there is only one synonym Phenotropil is Carphedon drug containing the same active substance. However, there is a wide range of Phenotropil analogues, that is, drugs that have similar therapeutic effects, but contain a different active substance. Analogues of Phenotropil are the following drugs:

1. Acephen tablets; 2. Bradenton concentrate; 3. Vero-Vinpocetine tablets; 4. Vinpotropil capsules and solution; 5. Vinpocetine tablets and concentrate; 6. Vinpocetine Forte tablets; 7. Vinceti tablets; 8. Glycine and Glycine Forte tablets; 9. Gopantsam pills; 10. Demanol solution; 11. Idebenon capsules and tablets; 12. Cavinton tablets and concentrate; 13. Cavinton Forte; 14. Calcium gopantenat tablets; 15. Carnitin capsules; 16. Kogitum solution; 17. Combitrain capsules; 18. Karsavin and Karsavin Forte tablets; 19. Cortexin lyophilizate and dry extract; 20. Lucetam tablets and solution; 21. Memotropil tablets; 22. Minisem drops; 23. Neuromet capsules; 24. Noben capsules; 25. Nooka capsules; 26. Nooclerin solution; 27. Noopept tablets; 28. Nootropil capsules, tablets and solution; 29. Omaron tablets; 30. Pantogam syrup and tablets; 31. Pantocalcin tablets; 32. Picamilon tablets and solution; 33. Spiractin capsules; 34. Piracetam granules, capsules and solution; 35. Piriditol tablets; 36. Celectol tablets; 37. Thiocetam tablets and solution; 38. Fezam capsules; 39. Celesta capsules; 40. Cellex solution; 41. Ceraxon solution; 42. Cerebrolysate solution; 43. Cerebrolysin solution; 44. Encephabol tablets and suspension; 45. Epithalamin powder; 46. Isotropic solution.

Phenylpiracetam Reviews

About 70% of the reviews of Phenotropil are positive and 30% are negative. Most often people used the drug to improve mental and physical performance, when it was necessary to perform a large amount of work for a limited period of time or to remember a lot of new information. In other words, the help of Phenotropil is most often used by people who need to improve the efficiency of their work for any reason, to get an excellent concentration of attention, memory, intelligence and high intensity of intellectual activity.

The vast majority of reviews of Fenotropil when used for the purpose of" brain activation " are positive, because the effect was pronounced, clearly visible, and people had time to do everything they wanted and planned. It is worth noting that Phenotropil has its effect after a single application, to achieve a pronounced clinical effect it is not necessary to take for a long course. This quality of the drug is a very important advantage for many people who need a single pronounced effect and do not need to take nootropics-psychostimulants courses, because in the normal rhythm of life they do not need them. A few less common feedback about the use of Phenylpiracetam in the extreme fatigue, loss of strength, irritability, weakening of memory and attention, samotnosci, etc. In such situations, the feedback on Fenotropil in 2/3 cases positive, and 1/3 negative. Positive due to the fact that after the course of application of Phenotropil, the state of people was normalized. Negative reviews of Phenotropil are due to a number of factors the presence of hard to-tolerate side effects, addiction when taken at a dose of 2-3 tablets per day, insomnia, anxiety, excessive sweating. People who took the drug, noted that the clinical effect is there, but the" payback " for it comes after, and it is very unpleasant and hard to tolerate. Therefore, they consider Phenotropil to be a potent drug that can be taken only by a doctor's prescription if there are indications, and it is not suitable for activating the brain in a healthy person.

Doctors Reviews of Phenylpiracetam

Doctors ' reviews of Phenotropil are usually positive, but with a mandatory alarming component. The positive opinion of doctors is based on the high clinical efficacy of the drug, which really activates the brain, improves memory, reaction speed, concentration and, in principle, improves intellectual function. That is, if you need to get the effect of an active, well and quickly working brain, Phenotropil is an excellent tool that works, both with a single and with course use. However, together with the indication of an excellent clinical effect in the reviews, doctors always insert a disturbing potential user of Phenotropil aspect, which usually consists in describing the condition that occurs after the termination of the "miracle pill".

This condition is very unpleasant, painful and poorly tolerated, because a person feels depressed, inhibited and clearly bad work of the brain. Figuratively we can say that after a great intelligence on the background of Phenylpiracetam comes complete stupidity, when not just no clarity and clarity of thought, and it is impossible to remember and pick up the usual words to describe everyday situations. This is due to the fact that Phenotropil gives energy and increased mental activity from the hidden reserves of the body, which then have to be restored. And after the action of the drug ends, there is a natural fatigue, multiplied by the depletion of the body's reserves. Moreover, the period of recovery, inhibited state and dullness will last the longer the longer was the reception of Phenotropil.


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Phenylpiracetam tablets: instructions for use

10 Jul 2018

In this medical article you can read the drug Phenotropil. Instructions for use will explain in which cases you can take injections or tablets, which helps the drug, what are the indications for use, contraindications and side effects. The abstract presents the form of the drug and its composition.

In the article, doctors and consumers can leave only real feedback about Phenotropil, from which you can find out whether the drug has helped in the treatment of depression, seizures, alcoholism and other diseases of the Central nervous system in adults and children, for which it is prescribed more. The instructions listed Phenotropil analogues, drug prices in pharmacies, as well as its use in pregnancy.

Form and composition

The drug Phenotropil is available in the form of tablets for oral use in contour cell packages of 10 pieces, in a box with a drug enclosed instruction with a detailed description.

Each tablet contains 50 mg or 100 mg of the active substance of the same name, as well as a number of auxiliary components, including lactose monohydrate.

Pharmacological action

Phenotropil helps to improve integrative brain function, which leads to improved mental ability, improved memory consolidation, learning ability and concentration.

The drug has anticonvulsant effect, has anxiolitic properties, improves mood, restores the processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain, and also has anorexigenic effect.

Use of Phenotropil enhances the resistance of brain tissue hypoxia. Due to the neuroprotective properties of the drug, among the indications can be distinguished pathology provoked by exposure to toxic substances and hypoxia. This tool provides improved blood supply to the brain, as well as activates the metabolic processes in neurons.

In the process of using Phenotropil increases regional blood flow in hypoxia, there is an improvement in the energy potential of neurons, which occurs as a result of increased glucose utilization. Phenotropil does not affect the cardiovascular system and respiratory system. Course application increases visual acuity, as well as increases the perception of color brightness.

This tool helps to strengthen resistance to stress situations caused by excessive emotional and physical stress. The drug has a moderate effect on motor reactions, reduces the inhibitory effect of ethanol and hexenal on brain tissue.

The drug has analgesic effect, increasing the pain threshold. The use of Phenotropil provides improved blood flow in the vessels of the lower extremities. The drug is characterized by low toxicity. The drug does not cause withdrawal syndrome, tolerance or drug dependence.

Indications for use

What helps Phenotropil? The tablets are indicated for use if the patient is diagnosed:

depression of varying severity;

increased psychological and physiological load;

various diseases of the Central nervous system, especially associated with a violation of the blood supply to the brain or metabolic processes;

attention impairment, memory impairment;

obesity alimentary-constitutional Genesis;

alcoholism;

some types of schizophrenia (lethargy and apathy, as a side effect of the disease);

normalization of biorhythms.

Instruction for use

Phenotropil taken orally immediately after eating. Dosing mode is set individually. The average single dose is 100-200 mg, the average daily dose of 200-300 mg. Maximum daily dose of 750 mg is Recommended to divide the daily dose into 2 doses.

The daily dose to 100 mg should be taken 1 time a day in the morning, the daily dose of more than 100 mg should be divided into 2 doses. The duration of treatment can vary from 2 weeks to 3 months. The average duration of treatment is 30 days. If necessary, the course can be repeated in a month.

To improve performance, 100-200 mg is prescribed once a day in the morning for 2 weeks (for athletes 3 days). In alimentary constitutional obesity-100-200 mg once a day in the morning for 30-60 days. It is not recommended to take Phenotropil after 15 hours.

Contraindications

According to the instructions to Phenotropil, contraindication to the use of this drug increased individual sensitivity to the components of the drug.

Contraindications

According to the instructions to Phenotropil, contraindication to the use of this drug increased individual sensitivity to the components of the drug.

Fenotropil Side effects

Usually, the drug is well tolerated by patients, but in persons with increased individual sensitivity to the components of the tablets may develop some side effects:

allergic reactions-skin rash, urticaria, hyperemia of the skin, itching of the skin;

from the nervous system insomnia, increased psycho-emotional arousal, irritability;

from the digestive system-dry mouth, increased thirst, nausea, abdominal pain, sometimes vomiting, stool disorders;

from the cardiovascular system - increase in blood pressure, tachycardia, feeling of heat in the head.

In the development of side effects, the patient should consult a doctor, you may need to reduce the therapeutic dose or complete withdrawal of the drug.

For children, pregnancy and breast-feeding

No teratogenic and embryotoxic effects of the drug were found, but due to insufficient clinical experience, the use of Phenotropil during pregnancy and lactation was not recommended. Due to the same reason, the drug is not used in Pediatrics.

The drug is contraindicated in children and adolescents under 18 years.

Special instruction

It should be borne in mind that with excessive psycho-emotional exhaustion against the background of chronic stress and fatigue, chronic insomnia, a single dose of Phenotropil in the first day can cause a sharp need for sleep. Such patients in an outpatient setting are recommended to start taking the drug on non-working days.

Phenylpiracetam Drug interaction

Phenotropil enhances the action of drugs that have an effect on the Central nervous system, various antidepressants and other drugs of nootropic type.


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