Meldonium has no analogues. In ordinary life, when the load on the body oversteps the permissible level, irreversible cell damage -.. A minor heart attack or a massive heart attack, the death of cells in the brain, stroke, etc. Action of Meldonium is to optimize the use of oxygen to produce energy. Is there any other similar drug in the world? No.
Efficiency of Meldonium is proved. In the Cardiology Meldonium held double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study, which showed that the drug was well affected with angina and beyond.
In Russia sinse 2012 Meldonium included in the list of vital and essential medicines. This drug is taken every year more than two million people.
Meldonium is a universal medicine with a very wide range of activities:
CHD (in combination with other drugs and therapies);
peripheral artery disease;
reduced working capacity;
physical stress (including sports);
postoperative period (for accelerating the recovery of the body);
heart failure in a chronic form;
false angina (pain in the left side of the chest), due dyshormonal myocardiopathy;
alcohol withdrawal (as an adjunct to specific therapy);
Additional indications for the use of injections of the drug:
bleeding in the vitreous cavity of the eye (hemophthalmus);
bleeding in the retina of the eye;
thrombosis and occlusion of the central retinal vein or its branches;
retinopathy origin of various nature (e.g., diabetic or hemorrhagic).
We will analyze popular supplements that can be used to improve mood. It will be presented specifically BADs, and not all fluoxetines and phenybuts. Someday we will definitely make a release about the biology of good mood, in terms of secreted substances in the body.
This is the supplement that perfectly copes with the bad mood and is the precursor of the main antidepressant neurotransmitter - serotonin. Recall that serotonin is not exactly a hormone of happiness, but its level supports, in general, a good mood. Depressive states are not without reason treated with inhibitors of the inverse state of serotonin.
Where is the place 5-HTP? This amino acid is created from Tryptophan, count protein food, and from 5-HTP already produces serotonin. It's not just food, but not yet a hormone. In general, suitable for those who have some temporary decline in mood. He can slightly improve his health and depression, but then, of course, it is better to treat with a doctor.
The working dosage ranges from 200 to 500 mg, once a day with meals. It is better to start with a lower one, and then, if there are no effects, we increase it.
This is already the predecessor of dopamine, and dopamine under the term "excellent mood" is even more suitable than serotonin. Synthesis of dopamine is not in 3 stages, like serotonin, but in 4 or 5, tyrosine is the second link. Even closer to dopamine will be the addition of Levadop, but it is already more serious and is used to treat Parkinson's disease.
You, it will be enough to indulge just l-tyrosine. The dosage can be 500 mg and 5 grams. For mental make-up with dopamine, you can feel 1-2 grams. If you are going to practice, then 2-4.
The most famous legal stimulant. Caffeine works in several ways. First, it blocks Adenosine receptors. This substance, characterized by a feeling of fatigue, it seems to tell the body that it's time to rest. Adenosine will circulate through the blood and will not be able to attach to the cells, because the attachment points are closed with caffeine. Secondly, caffeine increases the density of dopamine receptors. Add the effects of dopamine.
What we get as a result: caffeine removes drowsiness and improves the work of dopamine. Will this be a better mood? Definitely, yes!
Caffeine is able to cause addiction, while a rare technique, a couple of times a week at dosages of 100-300 mg will not disturb anything, and the same dosage will be exactly the same after one year.
A sports supplement, positioned as a fat burner. At the same time, the effect on fat burning in the absence of a diet from l-carnitine, is slightly more than nothing. But this supplement can improve mood due to increased norepinephrine, acetylcholine and serotonin. The substance is really interesting, it affects both cognitive functions and pain threshold.
For different purposes - different dosage. If you average, then comes out about 15 mg / kg of its own weight. Reception 1 time a day, better in the morning.
There was a separate issue on the theanin. This additive is found in the leaves of green tea and has a mild relaxing effect on the body and the brain, increasing concentration, especially in combination with caffeine. Suitable not for those who have a bad mood, but rather for those who experience a lot, nervous and those who find it difficult to do some work without being distracted.
The first 4 substances directly acted on those things that you are happier. Theanine also helps with stress. Increased alpha rhythms in the brain, a sense of quiet recovery in the morning, when you are not sleeping, until you want to run and jump, but the head is already making plans and thinking about something there)
Vitamins, Sleep, Sport Loads
People terribly underestimate the influence of sleep and nutrition on well-being. Yes, the above additives work, the effectiveness is proven in comparison with placebo. However, it is desirable to restore the body to normal. It's not about a fanatical ZOZHE, when a person becomes obsessed, but you need to understand what you eat and how much you sleep.
We also recommend taking multivitamins. They can be neglected with a balanced diet.
And the last recommendation is communication. A study was conducted with a sample of almost 1,000 people and a duration of 75 years, where they tried to find a formula that makes people happy. Yes, health, low bad cholesterol, physical form play a role, but in the first place was the quantity and quality of your communication with friends and acquaintances.
- 5-HTP will help serotonin, it is suitable for bringing yourself back to normal.
- L-tyrosine, a precursor of dopamine, improves the mood above normal.
- Caffeine - blocks drowsiness and acts a little on dopamine.
- L-Carnitine - acetylcholine + noradrenaline + serotonin.
- L-Theanine - helps with nervousness and stress.
Supplement the reception with sleep and normal food with vitamins, strive for the best, no social phobia and you will be happy!
The Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis developed Meldonium (Mildronate; 3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium_proprionate) in the late 1970s to promote growth in animals.
A potent metabolic modulator, clinical studies showed Meldonium/Mildronate is anti-ischemic with effects ranging from cardioprotection, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-diabetes (2, 3). According to Sjakste and Kalvinsh, Meldonium/Mildronate is 'officially recommended for treatment of acute and chronic ischemic disorders of brain circulation in Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Byelorussia, Uzbekistan, Moldova and Kyrgyzstan'. A carnitine analog, it modulates its metabolism. Essential for the cell's energy metabolism, carnitine is the key molecule involved in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism and as such has a potent effect on fatty acid beta-oxidation and glycolysis in the myocardium, the heart muscle.
As far as sports use is concerned, effect of Meldonium/Mildronate on human physiology is similar to that of the prohibited Trimetazidine, as both potently inhibit beta-oxidation of free fatty acids, and thus strongly influence cardiac metabolism.
A recent review About Meldonium buy states 'In dubious online shops, the performance-enhancing effects of Mildronate are advertised overtly'. In sports, taken at 0.25 to 1 gram twice a day for 2 to 3 weeks during training and for 10 to 14 days before competition, Meldonium/Mildronate showed increase in athletes' endurance metabolism, post-exercise rehabilitation and improvement in CNS function. These results were published in obscure journals not indexed by PubMed. It may also improve mood, and learning and memory performance.
Though it was only in Jan 2016 that WADA (the World Anti-Doping Agency) placed it on its Prohibited List, Meldonium/Mildronate was already on its radar since January 2015 when it short-listed it for its Monitoring Program to assess its prevalence and misuse in sports. In practical terms, the one year period was meant for developing methods capable of reliably measuring it to confirm its presence/absence in human urine. So at best it's disingenuous and at worst downright dissembling for Maria Sharapova and her team to pretend they were just unaware it was now a banned substance. From Jan 2015 they had more than enough time to find out. In addition, the Guardian reports,
'makes the negligence at the crux of Sharapova’s story – that she received an email in December with a link detailing the updated banned substance list for 2016 but no one in her cadre of agents, coaches, managers and personal trainers apparently clicked it – so difficult to accept. It doesn’t help that other athletes have been caught after testing positive for the same substance over the past month, among them Ekaterina Bobrova and middle-distance runner Abeba Aregawi. Or that Russia’s anti-doping federation warned all Russian athletes of the new list back in September'
According to the Guardian newspaper, 'The Latvian company that manufactures meldonium says the normal course of treatment for the drug is four to six weeks – not the 10 years that Maria Sharapova says she used the substance'.
'Sharapova says she has been taking the drug for 10 years after she was regularly falling ill. She had a magnesium deficiency and family history of diabetes'.
There seem to be no peer-reviewed scientific studies supporting Meldonium/Mildronate Rx for magnesium deficiency or as prophylactic for a non-diabetic with a family history of diabetes.
From what I understand, Meldonium is primarily used to treat various forms of heart disease - angina, heart attacks (myocardial infarctions) and the like.
Clinical trials in 2007 demonstrated that in combination with Lisinopril, Meldonium could be used to treat chronic heart failure by increasing peripheral circulation of blood. It significantly improves exercise capacity of a person. There has also been research showing that it improves Central Nervous System functions.
Mildronate (Meldonium) in professional sports - is the paper that described the "anti-ischemic drug" as one that could perhaps demonstrate "an increase in endurance performance of athletes, improved rehabilitation after exercise, protection against stress, and enhanced activations of central nervous system (CNS) functions."
Which is where the doping bit comes in.
So, you have a drug which increases your physical endurance and capacity to exercise - that is, it will enhance your performance.
So, if it does have the same effect on humans, it will significantly improve performance as well.
Lastly, it stimulates the CNS which would also help to enhance performance.
How to choose the optimal dosage of growth hormone?
• For professional athletes, the optimal number is 8-12 units. per day. Stimulates a set of muscle mass and fat burning.
• For amateur athletes will be enough 4-8 units. per day. When included in the course, Jintropin rhGH will not only improve the composition of the body, but also treat injuries and strengthen joints.
• If you decide to use growth hormone for rejuvenation, then it will be enough and 1-4 units. per day. Children with a lack of growth is given a similar dosage.
It is also recommended to divide the daily dosage into two or more injections, this will provide the best effect of the drug.
On the degree of purification and antibodies:
The technology of cleaning Jintropin is completely unique and qualitatively different from how the cheaper growth hormones presented on the market are being purified. The degree of purification of Gentropine is 100%. Only that one dry figure will tell the average consumer? It's more interesting to know what's behind it. Gentropine is so pure that it is perceived by our body as its own growth hormone. To him antibodies are not produced, and accordingly there is no addiction and the feedback from the course will always remain stably high. It should be added that the above antibodies also interfere with the normal secretion of endogenous growth hormone. That is, low-quality drugs, significantly inhibit the production of the body's own growth hormone. In addition, it is antibodies - the "source" of a variety of side effects.
We often talk about improving memory and the brain as a whole. About various neurotransmitters, which positively influence cognitive abilities. Today we will analyze the real ways of worsening memory.
The process of memory is very flexible and the brain itself determines very well what information to remember is important, for example, cook a simple dish and what can be forgotten - background information.
And, perhaps, the best ways, to remember something: to become interested, give importance and repeat. We well remember the vital moments, what we regularly repeat and of course, what interests us, our hobbies.
It turns out, it is important to act from the opposite: treat do-not-care feeling, score and do not remember.
On the other hand, the healthy state of the brain, the normal production of neurotransmitters, too, play an important role. Remember at least about senile deterioration of intellect, amnesia and loss of memory in superstress conditions or traumas.
We do not care what you want to forget, we turn to practice.
Section 1. Psychological ways of forgetting
The methods described below are good for both the distant event, which you want to forget, and about the very recent. In the second section there will be pharmacological ways of forgetting, so they will not work under the old events, keep in mind!
Working with the subconscious mind
About the subconscious mind, we'll take a separate issue. This is an important thing! We often do something unconsciously, my dishes, and in my thoughts we plan something. Moreover, the accumulated experience also translates into patterns of behavior. You noticed that you are not familiar with the person yet, but you already do not like him and you will not understand why. And it all started with a kindergarten, when a boy stole your candy. And you, not realizing that, noticed similar features. Or just talk to a person and understand that you can count on him or her, although you know less than a minute. Well, you do not remember the old film and the good character in it.
And a subconscious mind in the variability! Over time, noticed how tastes and preferences change?
The way of working with the subconscious mind involves self-suggestion or programming itself. The displacement of a vector from sharply negative to neutral or even positive!
We need to abstract from the situation and think, but were there any more people with such a negative memory? And maybe even so, that this negative has benefited me? And I coped with the situation, which means that I became even stronger and now I have very little to do.
It also happens that a person gets hung up and inflates an elephant from a fly. Then, at the first memory, then immediately switch attention! Plus a person is able to displace memories, any.
Section 2. Pharmacological methods of forgetting
Can work if a little more time has passed. These methods are really dangerous, because they are more damaging to the brain. We do not recommend the reception, the information is given for review.
Alcohol causes failure in memory, acts as an anti-stress, and in a good company it also improves mood.
A large dosage of alcohol kills nerve cells. Violates the formation of synaptic connections, where our memory is stored. So it's important to decide if it's worth it.
One of the most popular diseases that can occur in old age - Alzheimer's disease, in particular, leads to violations in the short-term memory. A person usually remembers old events, but there are problems with remembering the events of several days.
This disease is associated with many causes and one of the main ones is the reduction of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. And of course, there are substances that help to reduce it for a while.
Examples of active ingredients: Trihexyphenidyl, Azamethonium bromide.
Even in the instructions to them, in side effects it is written: "short-term memory impairment".
Allow more nihilistic evaluation of everything around. Here there are both quite safe dietary supplements, such as Motherwort, and heavy neuroleptics like Resperidone.
It is also possible to isolate inhibitors of protein synthesis: cycloheximide anisomycin puromycine, camptothecin, actinomycin D and blockers of NMDA receptors. The problem is that these things need to be taken before the stress, and as you understand, it's almost impossible. Inhibitors of protein synthesis are generally injected directly into the brain. Well, by the way, if you really want to spoil the memory on a particular day, that is such a popular blocker of NMDA receptors, besides dissociative - Memantine. Dosages of 20-40 mg are already capable of causing tulips on healthy people.
It is necessary to understand that the brain is very plastic and it is quite possible to change its "settings".
The placebo effect or auto-suggestion effect works, so use it! This concerns the psychological methods of forgetting.
In the topic of pharmacology: alcohol, blockers of acetylcholine and NMDA receptors are not bad so spoil the memory. But first of all we work with psychology. A regular "drinking" will not get rid of problems, rather add.
Negative experience is also an experience, and one must understand that having only positive memories is as dangerous as negative. In addition, when recalling an event, we transform the event, it means that it is quite probable that our memory, even for the negative, is distorted, exaggerated.
Today we will analyze the principle of the work of one of the most tangible and powerful mediators that function in the body. Adrenaline is simple to disgrace, in super stressful situations it turns on and saves life. He, like a professional bodyguard, is idle 99% of the time, but at 1%, he works fast, hard, efficiently.
How adrenaline works
The starting materials are amino acids, foods rich in protein. Adrenaline refers to catecholamines, and is the last, strongest link. Norepinephrine and dopamine also apply to catecholamines, but are much softer.
At the time of a sudden stressful situation, this hormone is produced by our adrenal glands. But the development and release of matter into the blood does not mean anything. To work adrenaline, like any other hormone or neurotransmitter, you need to attach to specific receptors on the cell, so that this cell feels strongly that adrenaline has adhered to it like a leech.
All this seemingly complex process takes a fraction of a second. Try to jump into an ice hole and for a second cheer as from the most powerful stimulant.)
Our body is very intelligent and he himself knows what receptors adrenaline should be attached to. Adrenaline in the body acts as a powerful source of energy, and where to direct energy determine the receptors to adrenaline or adenoreceptors. By the way noradrenaline also works with these receptors.
There are 2 of them.
Alpha 1 receptor regulates primarily smooth muscles. These are blood vessels, intestines. So, when adrenaline is attached to alpha1 adrenergic receptors, blood circulation becomes worse, the brain works worse. That's why fright or intense stress sometimes causes blanching of the skin and outflow of blood. Norepinephrine works with this receptor to a greater extent than adrenaline.
The alpha 2 receptor is already in our brain on the nerve cells and the part is also on the smooth muscles, and then it's not enough if the alpha 1 does not drag!)
In order not to make a boring lecture, we immediately turn to the effects: suppression of the release of noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Alpha 2 receptor immediately sharply reduces norepinephrine itself. Increase and then a sharp drop in pressure. There is a slowing down of metabolism. In short, you will not want to eat anything in the toilet under the alpha 2 receptors.
There are 3.
Beta 1. It makes you sweaty, accelerates your heartbeat, promotes fat burning.
Beta 2. This is exactly the receptor that already affects the skeletal muscles, realizing the function "Beat or run". The endurance increases dramatically, it seems to be enough to lift cars, but it seems. Beta 2 adrenoreceptor improves glucose delivery and expands arteries, so the brain also thinks up a little faster. The only thing - for good effects, so as not to feel dizzy and not nauseated - it is important to eat more carbohydrates.
Beta 3. It is present in adipose tissue, when activated, it "hardens" the fat and "heats up" the skeletal muscles, indirectly increasing their efficiency.
It can not be said that in one situation adrenaline and noradrenaline are attached to one receptor, and ignore the other. There is always a percentage distribution. When you are ashamed - adrenaline is produced, when it's scary - it's the same. Only the receptors in the first case cause you to blush, and in the second - to turn pale.
There is another difference in adrenaline and norepinephrine. Once an example was cited that in the body of a lion, a predatory aggressive animal, the production of noradrenaline predominates, while in a cowardly rabbit, epinephrine prevails. This is a slippery topic, but there is some truth.
We are used to characterizing the level of our courage and cowardice. On the other hand, the character is formed from the ratio of different substances that are produced in us. In general, think about this topic)
How to increase adrenaline
Usually people do not have problems with raising this hormone, when it should be increased - be sure. Let us dwell on the specific increase in the activity of individual receptors, the so-called agonists. Information is given for informational purposes only.
Alpha 1: Ethylephrine, phenylephrine, synephrine and other -eprin)
Alpha 2: Agmatin, clonidine.
Beta 1: Heart medications, usually use pure adrenaline, or epinephrine, the one that Statham chased in the film.
Beta 2: The territory of ephedrine and DMAA. But they are not pure beta 2 receptor agonists. The most famous beta 2 agonist is clenbuterol.
Beta 3 has very few agonists.
How to reduce Adrenaline
First of all, calm down if there is such an opportunity. It is necessary to look at the situation from the side, and if you do not remember about it in 5 years, it means that you should not bathe. Of course, you can not turn off adrenaline, at the moment of slipping on the ice, some sharp movement will happen anyway. However, in borderline situations, it is better to try not to worry.
There are certain substances that somewhat reduce anxiety, normalizing the condition by raising other hormones and neurometiators. It's like in mathematics: stress, adrenaline, cortisol made +5 units to nervousness, and anti-anxiety did -2, averaged turns +3.
More light, soft substances for soothing: Selank, L-theanine, Kava, Rhodiola tincture.
But you can not only put pressure on the brake, you can also relax the pressure on the gas. With adrenaline and norepinephrine it means blocking them access to the receptors. Such substances are called adrenoblockers. Stupid list of the names of drugs we will not, but we will stop on one popular adrenoblocker - Yohimbine.
There will be a separate issue for this substance! His interest is that he is both a stimulant and nootropic. As previously stated, the only receptor that helps reduce acetylcholine and norepinephrine is alpha-2. When it is blocked by yohimbine, on the contrary, there is an increase in norepinephrine and acetylcholine. So, even though it's a blocker, there is more stimulation from it, and acetylcholine will shift some of the stimulation into the intellect. Take note of the substance)
- Adrenaline is the most perceptible hormone. Slightly weaker - norepinephrine and even weaker - dopamine. Adrenaline rises more when there is a direct threat to life, norepinephrine - when fearful, the feeling before a responsible performance, when there is still a good admixture of dopamine, it is not just scary, but also curious / interesting.
- The action of adrenaline depends on the work of adrenoreceptors.
- Increase adrenaline and norepinephrine: stress. Of the substances: Yohimbine, DMAA, Clenbuterol.
- Reduce: Adrenoblockers.
Well, adrenaline, norepinephrine and dopamine are a pledge, at least, of a bright, busy life. It is important only does not go into a strong minus. I hope the article was useful!
Treatment of hemorrhoids. The use of Actovegin / Solcoseryl
In this note we will give only a brief description of the disease mentioned in the title. The purpose of this article: to show the possibility of using Actovegin in the complex treatment of other diseases, where Actovegin, perhaps, "plays a less prominent role."
This disease of the rectum (an increase in the hemorrhoids of the rectum in diameter, the formation of nodes) is capable of delivering a lot of suffering: from itching, discomfort in the perineum and mucus discharge during defecation before the fall of hemorrhoids, the appearance of cracks, unbearable pain and even bleeding (due to, For which anemia may develop).
It should be noted that hemorrhoids can be both internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids are the most dangerous: a long time passes unnoticed, and then can give serious complications.
With external hemorrhoids, the nodes extend beyond the rectum.
Nodes can form inside and outside, the so-called combined hemorrhoids.
Constipation, prolonged sitting or standing on the ground, smoking, alcohol, excessive physical exertion, heredity, non-traditional sex and other factors can cause hemorrhoids and lead to the development of serious complications. In women, hemorrhoids often develop during pregnancy and childbirth.
Hemorrhoids can be acute and chronic.
Great importance is the prevention of exacerbations:
1. Compliance with a strict diet (not hot, pickled, smoked, etc., but you need a sufficient amount of fiber and about two liters of water a day to normalize the stool).
2. Exclusion of bad habits (smoking, alcohol).
3. Compliance with limited physical exertion.
4. Performing simple exercises to train the pelvic muscles to prevent stagnation of blood in this area.
All of the above will reduce the number of drugs taken to treat this pathology, and will help prevent aggravating exacerbations of the disease.
What kinds of therapy are used to fight hemorrhoids?
This is local therapy (ointments, gels, suppositories ...), and surgical intervention (not only traditional surgery, but laser), and folk methods (prescribe them should a proctologist or phytotherapeutist), and treatment of complications. The most frequent complication is the appearance of cracks, which not only cause pain, but are also the gateway for the penetration of infections, the development of additional complications and human suffering.
Therapy of acute hemorrhoids with the help of medicines consists in getting rid of the person from inflammation and acute pain, in eliminating thrombosis of hemorrhoids and in stopping bleeding.
If for the treatment of hemorrhoids are required on average seven to ten days, then preventive treatment is quite long.
For the prevention of hemorrhoids, Detralex is often recommended (the only drug containing a full complex of flavonoids). The course of therapy lasts from one and half to two months, treatment is carried out twice a year.
As a non-surgical method for the treatment of hemorrhoids and its prevention, doctors use a number of measures and medications.
Actovegin Ointment in the treatment of hemorrhoids
In the complex therapy of hemorrhoids, the use of Actovegin is recommended. Experts advise to apply (in the evening) ointment Actovegin or ointment Solcoseryl (analogue of Actovegin) only in the event that the inflammation has already been eliminated.
The purpose of using Actovegin is to stimulate reparative, i.e. Regenerative processes of tissues. Actovegin (like Solkoseryl) improves "the course of energy-dependent metabolic processes in the body" ("The choice of drug therapy for hemorrhoids").
We already wrote on our website that Actovegin and Solcoseryl contribute to better supply of oxygen and glucose, which is so necessary for a sick body. Actovegin increases the "activity of enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation" and activates "microcirculation in tissues".
Up to eighty percent of the world's population is facing problems associated with hemorrhoids.
It should be understood how serious this disease is: in advanced form, hemorrhoids can become one of the causes of cancer of the rectum!
Monday morning, so no jokes or facts, and a bit boring (I hope you have not stopped reading at this point), but very useful information. So, today you, my dear, strengthen your knowledge about the thyroid gland, and also learn why you need to eat iodized salt, and why selenium is important. In general, everything that accompanied us with the flow of obsessive social advertising all childhood. We begin to be enlightened.
The thyroid gland is a small endocrine organ. It is located on the front surface of the neck and may well be visible from there, if in time do not recognize the problem with it. "Thytoid" is small, yes remote - its main hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are the main regulators of the basic metabolism in our body.
Thyroid hormones are involved in processes that occur in all organs and tissues of the body, beginning with the intrauterine period. For example, they participate in the development of the central nervous system, regulate the basic metabolism, the work of the cardiovascular, respiratory and autonomic nervous system.
For the formation of hormones, the body requires iodine, which in many places of the planet is present in food in insufficient quantities. Therefore, in many countries, for example, Belarus, iodine is necessarily added to food products.
By the way, for proper functioning of thyroid hormones, selenium is required - a microelement, in the absence of which symptomatology of hypo and hyperthyroidism may manifest itself, but this is a completely different story, do not disagree, the sequel follows.
And one more article, which is now not available to a person who is not a doctor, on the medical portal, so I post it here completely.
With the regularity of the occurrence of alcoholic delirium more and more familiar to one degree or another: prolonged drinking, a sharp break (not necessarily, but in the classics - just so), a few days - and now the patient is visiting a fairy tale. The special brigade of ambulance and narcotics to such comrades have already ceased to be surprised. Although sometimes there is something completely out of the ordinary.
Less known are other types of delirium: vascular (against a background of a vascular accident, a heart attack or stroke), traumatic (against a strong craniocerebral injury), infectious (occurs at elevated temperature, especially in individuals with alcoholic history), delirium collapse (also infectious , But occurs even with a sharp drop in body temperature after its increase), senile (observed with senile dementia). A separate topic is delirium in poisoning: tetraethyl lead with passion for gasoline, dichlorvos in beer, with love for special cocktails, cocaine with the availability of the means to smell to subcutaneous cockroaches.
And we will talk in more detail about delirium of medicamentous, about what medicines can cause them.
Here, for example, atropine sulfate. There is, however, a technique in which the development of atropine delirium is not a surprise, but a natural and expected stage of treatment. This atropinokomatoznaya (it is atropine shock) therapy. Quite widespread it was when the heroin abstinence syndrome was stopped: the patient was injected with atropine until the appearance of multicolored mice, cockroaches, or some other trifle, and in delirium he spends some time until abstinence disappears. Communicating with a colorful microfauna is so fascinating that there is no time to think about breaking and breaking - not at the time of delirium, nor, even more so, after it. In everyday practice, cases of atropine delirium are described (and not in isolated cases) in ophthalmologists - guess why? That's right, precisely because the drug is used in their work quite widely, and cases of overdose, despite all the precautions, still happened.
Next - ketamine drugs, which are used for short-term anesthesia (ketamine, ketalar, calypsoal). Here for clinical examples, there is no need to go far - more than enough to visit a nearby abortion. Both the staff and the patients themselves will tell you a lot of things that Stanislav Grof did not have to observe in his experiments with LSD.
Quite interesting from the point of view of a curious delirion, medicines used to treat extrapyramidal neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, and also (in psychiatric practice) for relief of neuroleptic syndrome. In other words, cyclodol and parking. And Taren, he is the preventive antidote P-6, which was part of the kit of individual AI-1 as a means of poisoning with organophosphorous poisoning substances. They are difficult to overdo accidentally (although there are precedents), but the craftsmen will promptly tell you how many tablets must be taken, so that the dwarfs dance on the floor, the sylphs play around the chandelier, the undines in the toilet, the cup of tea begins to melt and spark, and The mirror suddenly, instead of the familiar physiognomy of the beloved self, began to show what Salvador Dali had not dreamed of, even though two bee swarms lead dances around the pomegranate grove.
A somewhat unexpected effect can cause amitriptyline, an antidepressant with a long-lasting flawless history. However, most often he brings alcoholics with experience, staying in a state of medium or heavy hangover. Therefore, to hell with it, with the mood, it is better not to try to correct it by classical means - the patient has more pressing problems. It should be used with caution in the elderly, all for the same reason.
Azaleptin (he's also a clozapine, he's also a closest person), if he's assigned to a person who suffers heroin addiction (often prescribed when a patient complains of persistent insomnia), may well be the cause of delirium. Especially in the event that the patient has not yet refused to take heroin or refused, but the abstinence has not passed. Delirium looks very characteristic: the patient stubbornly searches for supposedly hidden stash with heroin.
The drug, which is so accustomed to that no special tricks from it are not expected - phenazepam. But no, it's not so simple. Do not let God appoint you to a patient over the age of sixty with problem vessels of the brain. Quite high probability that a grandmother or grandfather, instead of peacefully fall asleep, will begin to actively hallucinate. And to behave quite restlessly, which was not assumed at the appointment. And not only phenazepam is at risk: this effect was observed in elderly people with diazepam (sibazone, relium) and other benzodiazepine tranquilizers.
And, finally, nootropics - piracetam and phenotropil. They, too, are capable of causing delirium in the administration of large doses to persons over seventy years of age.
Here is not a complete list of drugs that can acquaint the patient with an alternative reality. Do not be lazy, warn them about this probability - not always on the side of the world we are familiar with is beautiful and cloudless.