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Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

19 Nov 2018

When relatives find out that their loved one is using drugs, they begin to fight. Often this struggle does not lead to the desired result, but to the opposite. In order that this does not happen, it is desirable to adhere to certain rules. Do not try to cope with this problem yourself. You have no relevant education, no experience in treatment and rehabilitation. Examine the problem using a variety of sources, contact the specialists working with chemical addiction, to help groups close. Do not set hard controls. Do not throw drugs, do not take money, do not lock up at home. This will only cause aggression and alienation. Try to keep a warm relationship, trust on his part.

Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

When you understand that your relative is using drugs or abusing alcohol:
- Offer treatment, rehabilitation or conversation with a specialist.
- Try to make sure that the information on recovery is obtained by himself, or together with you, indicate the sources where you took it.
- If he refuses: give him the opportunity to live as badly as he wants, but do not try to artificially worsen his life;
- Do not hide the problem from relatives, neighbors, but do not advertise it,
- do not make public scandals about the use;
- do not help out when you get into the police,
- do not give him any debts,
- do not cover at work or school;
- Do not clarify the relationship when he is intoxicated, do not do this also in a state of withdrawal (Cold turkey) Phenotropil can help with hangover;
- if he is sober - do not read morals,
- do not blame, do not blame, but talk about your feelings: fear, pain, grief, material loss, necessarily with the bringing of specific dates, places, actors;
- do not give him money, learn to say "no", no matter how hard, learn to resist manipulation.

The position should be as follows: "We love you but refuse to get out of the problems that you create for yourself. If you want to suffer, suffer. If you do not want to, we'll help you by sending for treatment. "

Typical errors of relatives who contribute to the development of drug addiction:

These are anti-rules, i.e. something that you can not do in any case:

- To cherish the illusion that you yourself can cope with the chemical dependency of a loved one that is able to remake it.
- Never talk to a drug addict about his addiction, be afraid to upset him, be afraid that it can lead to a scandal, I will disrupt.
- Never talk to anyone outside the home about the presence of a drug addict in the family, believing that it's embarrassing, to make a family secret out of it, and to people who are confronted with it to lie and cover a drug addict in front of them.
- To build family relations so that the addict in them is the central person, to build family plans, given whether he uses it or not, try not to invite friends into the house when he is in use.
- To fear to bring the addict suffering and inconvenience. If he lies a layer, dirty his own best suit with mud or vomit, made debts, did not go to work or study - bring everything WITH IT NOT in order.
- Solve all problems for him, thinking that he is not good at making responsible decisions, and that you yourself know how to do better.
- Build relationships so that all other family members (even younger children) should behave more responsibly, because the family is an addict.
Ignore the problems of everyone else in the family, perceive them as something insignificant or as an annoying hindrance, referring to them in the style: "Without you, enough cares."
- Get used to the aggression of a drug addict, and sometimes with violence (moral or physical), explain to younger family members that adults are sometimes allowed to behave this way, but children will be punished if they start copying adults.
- Let him chemically control the mood of his loved ones: when he is happy, everyone is happy when he is intoxicated, aggressive or full of self-pity, everyone is depressed and withdrawn.
- Try to distract from drugs, invent useful and interesting activities for him, hobbies, entertainments, do not upset him, do not get nervous, create "conditions" for not using ...
- To feed the illusions that the main thing in the family is to keep the chemically dependent from the future use, stop it, hinder it, and everything else is secondary.


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Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

15 Nov 2018

Antidepressant: Phenazepam (Phenazepamum)

Active ingredient: bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepini)

Analogs: Diazepam, Elzepam, Oxazepam, Phezanef, Phenzitat, Tranquesipam, Phesipam, Phenorelaxane

Phenazepam is classified as tranquilizer. Removing anxiety, fear and anxiety, this drug has a good soothing effect, accompanied by some hypnotic effect.

Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

The analysis of the drug by many scientists and physicians has led to the fact that phenazepam has by now acquired a solid reputation as a highly effective and at the same time very safe means.

High efficiency of the drug is confirmed by a number of Russian clinical trials. For example, in the treatment of patients with depression, the spectrum of the highest efficacy of phenazepam was identified. It turned out that the drug best helps with anxiety-depressive conditions (in about half of cases the symptomatology disappeared completely, while a third of patients had a significant improvement in the condition), affective-delusional attacks, and also in the syndrome of depersonalization. In general, the positive effect reached about? patients taking phenazepam. At the same time there were no serious side effects, which once again confirms the reputation of phenazepam as an extremely safe drug.

As a means of treating neurotic conditions (with a predominance of anxiety and fear), such as neuroses, schizophrenia and psychosomatic diseases, phenazepam was the most highly effective. In the first days (or even hours) of such treatment, patients demonstrated a sharp decrease in emotional tension, fear, anxiety, and emotions. Simultaneously, normal sleep returned, irritability and aggressiveness decreased. Further administration of the drug only improved the overall picture.

With abstinence, the drug acted in the first hours, relieving mood disorders, tension, anxiety, fear. Accompanying this soporific effect allowed patients to sleep normally, without suffering from nightmarish dreams.

The effect of taking the drug comes in a very short time: positive changes can be felt already in the first days or even hours. And the maximum reduction in symptoms occurs around the 10th day of treatment. Thus, phenazepam is perfectly suitable for a quick and effective fight against powerful emotional experiences, strong feelings of fear, anxiety accompanied by sleep disturbances, and also by many obsessions.

Pharmachologic effect:
Phenazepam has anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), sedative (calming), hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effect.

Indications for use: Anxiety, irritability, emotional lability, nervous tension and other conditions falling under the category of neurotic, neurotic, psychopathic and psychopathic conditions.

In general, the scope of the use of phenazepam is extensive: insomnia, obsessive conditions, withdrawal syndrome with addiction and alcoholism, epileptic seizures, the etiology of which can be very different, myoclonic and temporal epilepsy, reactive psychoses, senesto-hypochondriacal disorders. The drug is used in schizophrenia as an antipsychotic drug.

In addition, phenazepam is used in neurology for a number of diagnoses (tick, muscle stiffness, hyperkinesia, athetosis). It is also used by anesthetists as a component of introductory anesthesia.

Contraindications: Phenazepam is prohibited for use in people with hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, pregnant and lactating women, as well as minors. In addition, do not use the drug for acute poisoning with drugs, alcohol, and hypnotic drugs. Other contraindications: severe depression, respiratory failure, shock, angle-closure glaucoma, coma, myasthenia gravis.

Dosage and administration: Phenazepam is taken as intramuscularly / intravenously, orally. The choice of method of taking and dosage depends on the type and severity of the problem.

If you need to shortly terminate anxiety, fear, psychomotor agitation (or in autonomic paroxysms or psychotic conditions), the drug is often taken in / m or in / in.

The adult initial dose is 0.5-1 mg, which is equivalent to 0.5-1 ml of 0.1% solution, the average daily dose is 3-5 mg (or 3-5 ml of 0.1% solution). In severe cases, the dosage can be increased up to 7-9 mg (or 7-9 ml of 0.1% solution).

Serial epileptic seizures. In this case, the initial dose (IM or IV) is 0.5 mg (or 0.5 ml 0.1% solution). The average daily dosage is 1-3 mg (or 1-3 ml of a 0.1% solution).

Diseases with increased muscle tone. Intramuscularly, adhering to a dose of 0.5 mg (0.5-1 ml of 0.1% pactworp) 1-2 times a day.

As a premedication preparation. Dosage - iv, slowly injected 3-4 ml of 0.1% solution of the drug.

It should be remembered that the maximum dose should not exceed 10 mg per day. The cancellation must be gradual. If there are stable improvements, it makes sense to switch to oral use of phenazepam.

Usage:
- In cases of sleep disorders, 250-500 micrograms are taken half an hour before going to bed
- With epilepsy - 2-10 mg per day
- When alcohol withdrawal is 2-5 mg per day

Side effects: At the first stage of treatment, drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, distracted attention, disorientation, unstable gait (in the first place all this concerns elderly patients) may occur. Also, there is a possibility of dry mouth feeling, nausea, heartburn, constipation or diarrhea, anorexia, urinary retention, skin itching, rash (allergic reactions).

Storage conditions: The temperature regime is 15-25 degrees Celsius. Do not allow children to fall into the hands. Store in a dark place.

Conditions for selling from pharmacies: Phenazepam is dispensed on prescription.


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Coaxil - Special instructions

13 Nov 2018

For a long time, tianeptine was considered the safest antidepressant, and was offered as a treatment for heroin addiction. Tianeptine - an antidepressant which was considered as not causing addiction and selling coaxil without a prescription. In the description of the application, and now indicated in the paragraph "Pharmacological properties" that "does not cause addiction ...", which is not true.

Coaxil - Special instructions

With the help of "brilliantly conducted" advertising company "Servier" the drug has become widely known among patients and doctors. And, the last two, three years, the curiosity is rather sad ...

To date, there is no serious scientific research, why coaxil as a drug, differing in the mechanism of action and the chemical composition of opiate-containing drugs, causes similarity of dependence, both in mental and physical manifestations.

When exposed to the body, in addition to the central nervous system, thrombophlebitis and severe thrombosis of the vessels often result, which lead to tissue necrosis and gangrene, which leads to forced amputation of the affected limbs. In the event that the drug is administered intravenously.

At the moment, the use of narcotics by co-addicts as a narcotic becomes more and more popular as an alternative to opium drugs, it is caused by cheapness, compared with heroin, and easy accessibility, many do not know what the effects of coaxil can be. Coaxil can be bought in pharmacies and its purchase is not difficult, coaxil price is not great. In preparation, for intravenous administration, does not require, such as "screw", the cost of time, and does not need additional ingredients. But the worst thing about using coaxil as a drug is that, in addition to the strongest physical dependence, this drug is able to cause a psychological dependence that exceeds dependence on other drugs, including it destroys the entire organism as a whole, surpasses heroin or other drugs in destructive power.

Four years ago, in one of the pharmaceutical publications, information was published that the drug on sales beats all records in absolute monetary terms among other existing psychotropic antidepressants in our country.


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First stage of alcoholism

08 Nov 2018

Duration from 1 year to 5 years.

First stage of alcoholism

At this stage of the disease, the patient develops a syndrome of mental dependence: constant thoughts about alcohol, a rise in mood in anticipation of drinking, a feeling of dissatisfaction in a sober state. The pathological attraction to alcohol is manifested in a situationally conditioned form. "Thrust" for alcoholic beverages occurs in situations related to the possibility of drinking: family events, professional holidays ...

There is a syndrome of altered reactivity in the form of growing tolerance. The tolerance of alcohol increases, there is the ability to take high doses daily, vomiting disappears with an alcohol overdose, palimpsests appear (forgetting certain episodes of the intoxication period). With mild alcoholic intoxication, mental functions are accelerated, but some of them - with the loss of quality.

Reduced quantitative control in the patient, a sense of proportion is lost. Following the initial doses of alcoholic beverages and the appearance of light intoxication, there is a desire to continue drinking. The patient drinks to medium or heavy intoxication.

The remaining symptoms of alcoholism at its first stage still do not have time to form. Physical dependence on alcohol is absent, the effects of alcoholism can be limited to asthenic manifestations and neurological dysfunctions.


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From temptation to nightmare

07 Nov 2018

During each of the forms of drug addiction, three stages are distinguished:

drug addict. Phenazepam. Phenibut

The first is the acquaintance of a person with a narcotic drug. It is characterized by adaptation. This is manifested in the disappearance of protective reactions, the development of the ability to use drugs constantly and often, increasing the doses of the drug to achieve the former effect (increasing tolerance), increasing the desire for drugs at the level of mental dependence, the formation of the ability to achieve mental comfort in intoxication.

The second stage is characterized by the appearance of two new symptom-complexes -an abstinence syndrome and a change in the form of intoxication. An abstinence syndrome (deprivation syndrome) develops after the cessation of narcotization. The syndrome is expressed in a consistent appearance at certain times (several hours after the last drug use) of various symptoms and their regression is usually also in a logical sequence.

With opium abstinence syndrome, after 8-12 hours after taking the drug, the attraction to it begins to exacerbate, tension, dissatisfaction, yawning, lacrimation, a runny nose with sneezing, and appetite disappear. On the second day, chills are added, followed by a feeling of heat, bouts of sweating and weakness, goosebumps, motor anxiety. There is a feeling of numbness in the muscles, pain in the chewing muscles. By the end of the second day of abstinence, agonizing pains in the muscles of the back and limbs are added, they are reduced, pulled, twisted. The patients become vicious, their mood is depressed. Attraction to the drug is irresistible. In order to take possession of it, patients who are in this condition can commit serious crimes.

On the third day there are pains in the abdomen, vomiting and debilitating diarrhea (10-15 times a day). The severe condition, due to the pronounced manifestation of all these symptoms, lasts for 5-10 days and is accompanied by an increase in temperature, blood pressure and changes in the biochemical parameters of the internal environment of the body.

In the future manifestations of withdrawal symptoms decrease, and they disappear usually in the reverse order within 2-6 weeks. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms depends on the duration of the narcotization. The developed abstinence syndrome described above can develop if a person has been systematically narcotized for 2 to 5 weeks. With less time and an irregular intake of opiate drugs, the syndrome does not manifest itself fully and its flow is shorter. When drug addiction is caused by other narcotic drugs, it has its own characteristics in each case.

At the second stage of the disease, another symptom develops - a change in the form of intoxication. The pharmacological effect of the drug disappears. To achieve the former euphoria, the patient increasingly raises his doses. But there comes a time when no dose can cause the former euphoria. This means that the drug does not cause the patient a euphoric effect. Narcotics exhausted the strength of the body. The addict, being alert and moving earlier before taking the drug, is sick and weak at the second stage of the illness outside his action. Now the drug only stimulates it - for a while it returns strength and vivacity.

Even more exhaustion characterizes the third stage, especially when opioaning. The drug does not cause not only euphoria, but even stimulating action. He only normalizes, tones up the patient, whose well-being, working capacity, interest in life is sharply reduced without a drug. "'A sufficient dose of it can temporarily improve one's health and return work capacity. And this dose may be less than before, since in the third stage in a number of cases there is a decrease in tolerance. Against the background of general exhaustion, and the severity of craving decreases, the pattern of withdrawal symptoms changes, but the patient can not still do without drugs.

The duration of each stage of the disease depends on the type of drug, the regularity and frequency of its administration, the way it is administered, for example, when using opium, the duration of the first stage is 3-4 months, the second is 5-10 years. injections of morphine or after 2-3 weeks of irregular intravenous administration of opium tincture. In just 2 weeks, a healthy teen doesomed herself to long years of severe illness.

The illusion of bliss and joy of the first 3-4 months of taking opium will turn into incalculable torments for him for many years to come. Of the innumerable possibilities of life that open before him, he chooses a dead end, instills in himself an insatiable monster - an attraction to the drug, and all the forces will go to the constant feeding him.


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Determination of the degree of drug dependence

06 Nov 2018

Read a number of criteria that are the basis for determining whether there is a drug dependence. Mark plus signs those signs that you have or your loved one.

Determination of the degree of drug dependence

A. Interest in the drug.
1. There is a constant heightened interest in the drug between doses, so the activity and the circle of communication are formed taking this interest into account.
2. If the dose is postponed, waiting becomes painful.
3. Communication with a certain circle of people who are criminals from the point of view of society and the law.
4. Attitude to the category of people, inevitably hiding from the law and violating it.
5. Playing such "hide and seek" begins to be valuable in itself, bring satisfaction.
6. The people around start sharing on those who are on this side ("their own"), and those who are on the other ("strangers"). By the second, hostility and alertness are established.
7. In the category of "enemies" easily come close, old friends, loved ones.
8. If necessary, choose a greater preference for drugs than for close people.

B. The loss of criticism to the state and self-control.
1. When you receive a "scheduled" amount of a substance, in the end, it turns out that more is used (a single dose is increased).
2. Evaluation of their ability to control the situation is inadequate - in fact, self-control is not enough neither to abstain, nor to make a dose less.
3. Confidence that you can always quit.
4. Do not admit to being a drug addict.
5. Confidence that others use more, so they are addicts.
6. If you do not recall the need for restrictions, he can not stop himself.

C. Increasing tolerance.
1. After a single or two-time use of the drug, the desire to take it again (instant dependence).
2. Not kept dose at a certain level (and not the more reduced), and constantly increases.
3. Able to consume in a single dose the amount of substance that, when first used, would lead to death.
4. The effect obtained from the previous dose does not meet expectations, is not pleasing or even absent.
5. Most of the day passes in search of funds for the drug, its production or use. The other does not have time.
6. increasingly isolated from society: broken old friendships and professional relationships, there is separation from family, termination of visits to places and events where previously he liked to be, and so forth.
7. The concept of "holiday" (New Year, birthday, etc.) disappears life, or becomes a reason for drug use.
8. Frequent quarrels, accusations of others, irritability over trifles.

D. The emergence of the syndrome of withdrawal.
1. In the case of conscious or forced abstinence, there are obvious signs of physical discomfort (abstinence, or "withdrawal").
2. Pain in the bones, pain in the muscles, cutting light, too loud sounds, fever, dryness in the throat, headache, weakness. It is difficult to find such a position that the whole body does not hurt. Because of such symptoms, rapid transitions from the position of immobility to a state of motor activity.
3. There are convulsive movements.
4. Symptoms of abstinence are reinforced in the community of the same drug addicts when they recollect and discuss the last "buzz sessions".
5. In a society of people who behave calmly, do not support conversations about drugs, switch to another, the symptoms of withdrawal are weakened.

E. The appearance of fear of "breaking".
1. A new dose is used to remove the syndrome of "breaking".
2. There are attempts to cause pity, asking for money for a drug or the drug itself, and justifying your behavior with fear of a painful condition. Accept the image of the victim.
3. Justify yourself when using a new dose to avoid "breaking".
4. Resorting to threats to get a drug or money on it.
5. When the dose is not enough even to get some nice effect, the use continues anyway.
6. Suffering during the "breaking" is exaggerated, colorfully described.
7. Despite the use of medicinal drugs, the symptoms of "breaking" are not removed.
8. There are people in the presence of whom the symptomatology is facilitated by itself.

F. Attempts to quit are unsuccessful.
1. There is an experience of repeated, but unsuccessful attempts to stop the use of drugs.
2. You become more persuasive, subject to influence and under the influence of conversations with different groups of people, a constant mestus from one pole to another - that fright of punishment or fear of the physical consequences of addiction, then aggressive behavior, bringing "weighty" arguments or active resistance to the "drug pressure group" ".
3. There is a "contrary" behavior. The more reproaches, moralizations, clashes with disapproval, condemnation, the more resistance, the desire to act spitefully.
4. Dependence on the drug group, the fear of losing contact with it.
5. Search for groups that support drug use, get there "help" and expose them as "saviors." Comparison with other groups is not in favor of the latter.

G. Everyday life is disrupted.
1. Drugs are used in any place and at the most inappropriate time - at school, university during class, office, at work, at the entrance, etc.
2. Drug use in any situation, threatening stress and stress.
3. Combating problems and stress solely by taking a drug.
3. Restriction of the diversity of spheres of life.

H. Studying work, private life, everything is falling apart.
1. Loss or inability to find work, frequent change of activities. If the student, then skipping classes or throwing to learn at all.
2. Difficulties in the process of work, about a career in general, it does not go.
3. Permanently "somewhere" disappear money.
4. Apathy grows, indifference to everything, except for a dose.
5. Sharply limited interests.
6. Do not attract even strong physiological stimuli, such as sex, food.
7. Completely "forgotten" to rest.
8. The instinctive sphere is suppressed - the sense of self-preservation decreases, the recklessness grows (even during the abstinence period).

I. Spiritual degradation and "narrowing" of the world.
1. Despite the obvious problems (see above), continued use of drugs.
2. Changing attitudes towards the world (the world is seen only as a source of drugs and no more).
3. The sphere of reality narrows to a minimum, leaving space solely for what is associated only with the drug.

Calculate the pluses for each group of characteristics and throughout the test.

Evaluation of results
Conclusion: if you scored 24 or more affirmative answers in the total amount, then you can talk about the existence of drug dependence.
Proceeding from the fact, by which groups of signs more positive answers are typed, one can judge the degree of dependence or the weakest points of resistance of dependence.


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Drugs and health

02 Nov 2018

In the first place, drugs damage the nervous system and the brain (Mildronate and Phenotropil can cope with it). Because of the death of brain nerve cells, the intellectual abilities of a person decrease, in other words, the addict gradually becomes stupid and turns into a half-idiot. In the brain, the drug causes the same changes that the schizophrenic patient has.

So the expression "drug addiction is voluntary madness" must be understood not only in a figurative, but also in a direct sense. Changing and the nature of man. He becomes dreary, languid, withdrawn, bored, shy, irritable, not interesting to anyone. Therefore, friends and friends very soon turn away from him - they are just uninteresting and unpleasant to communicate with such a person.

Drugs and health. Phenotropil. Mildronate. Heptral

Even if the addict succeeds in "tying", changes in the brain, and therefore in character and thinking, are not completely restored.

Very seriously drugs destroy the liver (Heptral and Cyanocobalamin can restore it). Any drug is a poison for the body. All poisons are neutralized by the liver, it takes the main blow and many of its cells die. In addition, drug addicts lose their sense of self-preservation and often use common syringes. So they are infected with hepatitis B and C. All this leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. In addition, drug users are often infected with syphilis and AIDS.

Drugs cause degeneration and dystrophy of depletion of the heart muscle (mildronate would sure help you). Such an aged, depleted heart can not cope even with a little physical exertion, so the addict quickly becomes tired and suffocating even from a small physical exertion. Against the backdrop of such a depletion of the heart muscle, even a small drug overdose can lead to cardiac arrest and death.

You can give an example of a stolen horse. If the horse whips without end, it will run until it falls dead. This is called driving a horse. Similarly, the drug pushes the heart, but instead of a whip, it's a drug.

In general there is no such body, such a system that would not suffer from a drug. The whole body suffers. Very heavily drugs suppress the body's defense systems and, in the first place, the immune system. Because of this, drug addicts often suffer from inflammatory diseases: bronchitis, pneumonia, kidneys and other organs. Due to non-compliance with hygiene rules (injecting non-sterile solution with microbes) and reducing immunity in addicts, sepsis often develops - infection of blood.

Drugs disrupt the process of digestion and the production of protein in the liver, so after a while addicts "reach" - grow weaker and lose weight until exhaustion, lose their teeth and hair, quickly age. During the period of drug use, the sexual possibilities (potency) of the addict tend to disappear completely, and if he manages to "tie", serious problems remain with the genitourinary system.


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Types of drugs and signs of drug usage

01 Nov 2018

The subject of abuse are, as a rule, drugs that cause pleasant or unusual states of consciousness. All chemical compounds of plant or synthetic origin, directly affecting the mental state of man, it is customary to call psychoactive.

Types of drugs and signs of drug usage. Phenazepam

If the abuse of any psychoactive substance becomes particularly dangerous to human health and society, while causing significant economic losses, then it is recognized as a narcotic by a special legislative act, therefore the drug is not only a medical concept, but also a social one, a legal one.

OPIATES
Drugs that have a sedative, "inhibitory" effect. This group includes natural and synthetic morphine-like compounds. All natural narcotic drugs of the opium group are derived from poppies. They cause a state of euphoria, calmness, peace. Incorporating into metabolic processes, lead to a rapid (sometimes after one or two receptions) occurrence of the strongest mental and physical dependence. Extremely destructive effect on the body. Drug dependence caused by opiates is very difficult to treat.

Heroin is the most common opiate drug. Along with a very strong and pronounced narcotic effect, it has an extremely high toxicity and the ability to quickly (after 2-3 procedures) form a physical dependence. The heroin is smoked, sniffed and injected intravenously.

Poppy straw - crushed and dried parts of stems and poppy capsules (no poppy seeds contain narcotically active substances). Straw is used to make a solution of acetylated opium.

Acetylated opium is a ready-to-use solution obtained as a result of a number of chemical reactions. Has a dark brown color and a characteristic smell of vinegar.

Raw opium - a specially processed juice of poppy plants, is used as a raw material for the preparation of acetylated opium solution. A substance resembling clay. Color - from white to brown. Sold in small pieces of balls.

Methadone is a strong synthetic drug of the opium group. Sold in the form of a white powder or a ready-made solution. In some countries it is permitted as a means of substitution therapy for the treatment of opiate addiction.

Signs of intoxication

A short state of euphoria, unusual drowsiness at very different times; slow, "stretched" speech; often "lags behind" the topic and direction of the conversation; good-natured, complaisant, preventive behavior up to complete submission; desire for solitude in silence, in the dark, despite the time of day; pallor of the skin; very narrow pupil, not reacting to changes in illumination; slowing of heart rate, breathing, decrease in pain sensitivity; decreased appetite, thirst, reflexes and sexual desire

Types of drugs and signs of drug usage

Consequences of the use of opiates
The huge risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis due to the use of shared syringes; damage to the liver due to poor quality of drugs: they retain acetic anhydride, which is used in cooking; a strong decrease in immunity and, consequently, exposure to infectious diseases; venous disease, tooth decay due to calcium metabolism; impotence; decreased intelligence. The danger of an overdose with severe consequences is very great, up to the point of death.

PREPARATIONS OF HEMP
Hemp grows in regions with a mildly warm climate. The more the plant grows to the south, the more narcotic effect is caused by the drug made from it. The active substances are cannabinoids. Impact is a change of consciousness. In the room for a long time there is a characteristic smell of burnt grass. Preserves this smell and clothing.

Marijuana is a dried or damp green herbaceous part of cannabis. Light, greenish-brown crushed leaves and flowering tops of hemp. Can be densely compressed into lumps. This drug is smoked in the form of cigarettes-rolls ("jambs"), as well as stuffed into tubes, added to food.

Hashish - a mixture of resin, pollen and crushed hemp tops - a resinous substance of dark brown color, similar to plasticine, in the form of briquettes or capsules. Contains more than 20% of cannabinoids. Hashish is smoked using special appliances. The action of the drug comes in 10-30 minutes after smoking and can last several hours. All derivatives of cannabis belong to the group of illegal drugs and are completely banned.

Signs of using cannabis drugs
Euphoria, feeling of carelessness; incontinence, increased talkativeness; a state of severe hunger and thirst, redness of the eyes; at a small dose - relaxation, acute perception of color, sounds, increased sensitivity to light due to strongly dilated pupils; at a high dose - inhibition, lethargy, confusing speech in some, aggressiveness, with unmotivated actions in others; unrestrained gaiety, disruption of coordination of movements, perception of the sizes of objects and their spatial relations, hallucinations, baseless fears and panic

Consequences of use
"Burnout" - confusion in thoughts, disappointment, depression and a sense of isolation; violation of coordination of movement, memory and mental abilities; delayed sexual development and maturation, including violations of sperm formation and menstrual cycle; hallucinations and paranoia may occur when taking a large dose of the drug; the formation of mental dependence, when smoking does not bring satisfaction, but becomes necessary; The provocation of simultaneous use of alcohol and the transition to heavier drugs; bronchitis, the system (one "cant" marijuana is equated to 25 cigarettes), lung cancer.

AMPHETAMINES

Drugs that have a psychostimulating, "exciting" effect. This group includes synthetic substances containing amphetamine compounds. In most cases, they are administered intravenously. These drugs are obtained from medications containing ephedrine (solutane, ephedrine hydrochloride). In nature, ephedrine is found in the plant "ephedra". The action of the drug lasts 2-12 hours (depending on the type of substance). Psychic and physical dependence is formed. Continuous use requires a constant increase in the dose of the drug. Exacerbated, angry, aggressive. Over time, there is unreasonable anxiety and suspicion. Suicide attempts are possible.

Amphetamine addiction has the character of "drunken" or "sessional" - periods of drug use are replaced by "cold" periods, the duration of which decreases over time.

Ephedron is a ready-to-use solution obtained as a result of a chemical reaction. Has a pink or transparent color and a characteristic smell of violets.

Pervitin is a ready-to-use solution obtained as a result of a complex chemical reaction. Oily liquid, which has a yellow or transparent color and a characteristic smell of apples. Used by consumers as a substitute for heroin addiction, which is absolutely ineffective and even more disastrous.
Ephedrine - crystals of white color, obtained from the plant ephedra. It is used for medicinal purposes, and it is also used for the preparation of ephedron and perventine more often by manipulation with medicinal preparations. Ready-to-use crystals are yellowish in color. They are inhaled or smoked.

Signs of drg use

Feeling of serenity and euphoria; increased heart rate and increased blood pressure; dilated pupils of the eyes; excessive motor activity, strong sexual emancipation; garrulity, activity is unproductive and monotonous; there is no feeling of hunger; violation of sleep and wakefulness.

Effects of amphetamines

Dizziness, headaches, blurred vision and severe sweating; heart attacks, strokes; nervous exhaustion; strong changes in the psyche and irreversible changes in the brain; lesions of the cardiovascular system and all internal organs; liver damage due to poor quality of drugs - they contain iodine, manganese and red phosphorus, which are used in the preparation of the drug; risk of contracting HIV and hepatitis due to the use of shared syringes; a strong decrease in immunity, the danger of an overdose with severe consequences, even to death.

COCAINE

A plant-derived stimulant derived from the leaves of a coca plant. Addiction develops imperceptibly, but steadfastly. Cocaine freezes the area from the eyes to the chest - the body becomes insensitive.

Cocaine is a white crystalline powder, usually inhaled through a tube or straw from a smooth surface, such as glass or a mirror. Cocaine hydrochloride dissolves easily in water, so it is not only sniffed, but sometimes injected or swallowed.

Crack-brittle plates, formed as a result of mixing cocaine with baking soda and water and evaporation, are used for smoking. Crack extremely quickly develops both physical and psychological dependence.

Signs of drug usage

Causes a short, but intense sense of euphoria and increased efficiency; stimulates the central nervous system; rapid pulse, breathing, high blood pressure, sweating; dilated pupils, lack of appetite; excessive activity, excitement, anxiety, insomnia

Consequences of use

Arrhythmia, bleeding and other injuries of the nasal cavity; destruction of the mucosa and loss of smell, taste; deafness; paranoid psychoses, hallucinations, aggressiveness; death as a result of a violation of cardiac activity (myocardial infarction) or respiratory arrest.

HALLUCINOGENES

Inhomogeneous in origin and chemical composition a group of psychedelic drugs that change consciousness - sensations, thoughts, emotions and perception.

LSD is a synthetic drug, a derivative of lysergic acid contained in ergot. Colorless odorless powder or clear liquid without odor, color and taste. The liquid is impregnated with paper or cloth painted with bright patterns. A piece of it is put under the tongue, the action renders in 30-60 minutes and lasts up to 12 hours. Has a huge hallucinogenic effect in small concentrations - 30 g. LSD is enough for 300,000 people.

Psilocin and psilocybin ("mushrooms", "toadstools") - narcotic substances with a hallucinogenic effect. Contained in mushrooms-grebes. For the onset of the narcotic effect, it is sufficient to take 2 grams of dried mushrooms. The main danger of this drug is its availability.

Signs of intoxication
Increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, dilated pupils, trembling of hands, dry skin. Drug intoxication is accompanied by a change in the perception of the outside world - those who take hallucinogens say they "see sounds" and "hear colors"; hallucinations, a strong sense of happiness, overexcitation; disturbance of sensation of the body, coordination of movements; loss of self-control

Consequences of use

Irreversible changes in the structure of the brain, mental disorders of varying degrees of severity, until the complete collapse of the personality. Even a single dose of LSD can lead to a change in the genetic code and irreversibly damage the brain. Mental disorders are indistinguishable from schizophrenia. The drug accumulates in the brain cells. Remaining there for a long time, he can and after a few months cause the same sensations as immediately after taking. The action of the drug lasts 2-12 hours (depending on the type of substance). Psychic and physical dependence is formed. Continuous use requires a constant increase in the dose of the drug. Exacerbated, angry, aggressive. Over time, there is unreasonable anxiety and suspicion. Suicide attempts possible.

ECSTASY
"Ecstasy" is a common name for a group of synthetic amphetamine-type stimulant drugs, often with a hallucinogenic effect. White, brown, pink and yellow tablets or multicolored, often with drawings, capsules contain about 150 mg of the drug. "Ecstasy" is an expensive drug, and usually its consumers switch to the systematic use of heroin or amphetamines.

Signs of intoxication
The narcotic effect lasts from 3 to 6 hours. The central nervous system is raised, the body tone rises, endurance, physical strength increases. Under the influence of "ecstasy" the person who has taken it can withstand extreme emotional and physical stress, do not sleep, do not feel tired. For the artificial "dispersal" of the body have to pay: after the cessation of the drug, a state of apathy, depression, severe fatigue, drowsiness. This condition can last several days, since the body needs to restore the expended forces.

Consequences of use

Mental dependence; depression, right up to suicide; physical and nervous exhaustion; the nervous system, heart, liver, degeneration of internal organs suffer; change in the genetic code. Possible fatal outcomes from dehydration, overheating of the body, acute renal failure.

SLEEPING PILLS
A group of sedative (sedative) and hypnotic substances, occurring in the form of official preparations, usually tablets ("wheels") or capsules. There are many varieties, the most dangerous are barbiturate acid derivatives, but other drugs more or less freely sold in pharmacies (phenazepam, relanium, reladorm) can cause mental and physical dependence.
Sleeping pills are usually taken orally, but sometimes they are administered intravenously. Causes a strong dependence on both the physical and psychological levels. Especially dangerous when used together with alcohol.

Signs of intoxication
Confusion, slurred speech, clumsiness, impaired coordination, disorientation similar to alcoholic intoxication; aggressiveness, rudeness, irritability, depression.
Consequences of use
Persistent insomnia; brain damage clinically similar to epilepsy; psychoses with hallucinations, delusions of persecution; cardiac muscle dystrophy; depletion of the liver; death from an overdose and from rapid rejection of large doses.

INHALENTS
Volatile substances of narcotic action. Contain in household chemicals: dyes, solvents, glue, gasoline, hair spray, insect repellent. By themselves, they do not apply to drugs. Intoxicating action is possible if the amount of substance that has entered the body is very large.

Signs of intoxication
Occurrence of hallucinations ("cartoons"); causing, inadequate behavior; violation of coordination of movements.
Consequences of use
Sneezing, coughing, runny nose, nosebleeds, nausea, heart rhythm disturbance and pain in the chest area, loss of coordination, balance; acute intoxication with psychoactive substances, until death; toxic liver damage after 8-10 months; irreversible brain damage; frequent and severe pneumonia; change in character, lag in mental and mental development.


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Pharmacy addiction

30 Oct 2018

Pharmacy drugs are medicines that are excellent in terms of therapeutics. Have a strong analgesic or relaxing effect. But the powders that "consumers" have learned to cook from tablets are not inferior to the most severe drugs.

Pharmacy addiction. Phenazepam. Phenibut buy

The most popular drugs are opiate group drugs (codeine, tramadol), ephedrine-containing drugs, hallucinogenic drugs and tranquilizers with sedative effect. There are many codeine-containing drugs, such as Terpinkod, Sedalgin, Pentalgin, Nurofen-plus, Sedal-M and others. They are used to obtain the effect of euphoria on codeine, withdrawal of fragility, for the production of desomorphine, which is much stronger than codeine and can be used intravenously.

To date, desomorphine drug addiction is regarded by narcologists as one of the most pernicious. Dezomorphine is 16 times more toxic than heroin, the life span of a person who uses this drug is reduced several times.

A separate area of drug abuse is represented by tranquilizers and hypnotics. Phenazepam, Diphenhydramine, naphthyzine, potassium permanganate (now it is on the list of precursors), magnesium sulfate and similar drugs from pharmacies, although not intended for direct use, are of interest to drug addicts as an aid.

Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (isomer of ephedrine) are found in various mecstures and tablets, used for the preparation of a screw (pervitine) and mulka (methcathinone). Among this group of drugs, many are sold under special prescriptions, in many cities and regions it is rather difficult to obtain it.

Recently, a new "pharmacy" drug, tropicamide, has become very popular among drug addicts. Usually it is used in ophthalmology. When using high doses, terrible side effects are likely: excitation, headache, epileptic fits, arterial, hyperthermia. Overdose can be fatal.

The probability of dying from an ominous medicine is very high. Throwing is as difficult as any other type of drug. Man is already completely dependent, both mentally and physically. Urgent measures must be taken. You need to go to a drug treatment center, where they can provide emergency care. The patient will need serious treatment and rehabilitation.


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More about bad habits

29 Oct 2018

The scale and depth of the problem require an abundance of information, so that the truth about alcohol, smoking, drugs and substance abuse, the factors that contribute to them, reached everyone.

bad habits. Phenazepam. Phenibut

According to the World Health Organization, the problems associated with the use of alcohol, nicotine, and drugs have ceased to be today the medical or moral problems of only individuals, they affect the health, well-being and safety of the entire population, and, moreover, affect national development.

Over the past decade, all of the above problems have sharply escalated in our country. And despite the active propaganda of a healthy lifestyle in the media, the issuance of numerous books, magazines, posters, booklets under the slogans "no - drug addiction!", "Life without needles", etc., as well as large-scale actions to combat "bad habits ", Morbidity, disability, mortality, including childhood, have reached a catastrophic level.

It seems to me that the problem of "bad habits" is the most urgent in our time, and combating them is not only the task of the state as a whole, but of every single citizen.

The necessary prevention of "bad habits" is, first of all, information about their harmful effect on the human body, especially on the organism of the growing up person. And the sooner we begin the prevention of "bad habits" among the younger generation, the faster we can avoid the sad consequences (serious diseases, disability, destroyed families, suicides, etc.), increase the birth rate, preserve the number of our nation.

"Smoking is bad for health"
Tobacco smoking is one of the most common bad habits, sometimes leading to serious health problems.
When smoking occurs, dry distillation of tobacco and paper under the influence of high temperature (about 300 C). At the same time, a huge number of various harmful substances are released: about 1200 of them are known!

Among them - derivatives of almost all classes of organic substances: marginal hydrocarbons, ethylene and acetylene compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, alcohols, ethers, alkaloids (among them - nicotine).

There are also inorganic compounds of arsenic, copper, iron, lead, polonium (including radioactive polonium), there are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocyanic acid in tobacco smoke. No wonder they say that the list of substances contained in tobacco smoke, makes you shudder: this is an entire guide to harmful substances.

The toxic properties of nicotine are proved simply: a leech delivered to a smoker, soon falls off in cramps and dies of sucked-up blood containing nicotine.

The list of harmful consequences of smoking is also very large. Scientists are finding more and more reasons for the connection of smoking with various diseases.
The life expectancy of smokers is 7 to 15 years less than that of non-smokers.

It is estimated that smoking is responsible for 90% of deaths from lung cancer, 75% from bronchitis and 25% from coronary heart disease in men under the age of 65 years.

If you compare the incidence of smokers and non-smokers, then the first it is several times higher. Smoking reduces physical strength, slows down the reaction, worsens memory, markedly reduces sexual potency. Smokers often have incomplete offspring more often than non-smokers. Scientists have found an increase in the frequency of spontaneous abortions, increased mortality in the prenatal and postnatal periods, a decrease in the body weight of newborns, impaired mental capacity in surviving children, the birth of children with developmental abnormalities, etc.

It should be noted that the offspring is affected not only by active, but also by the so-called passive smoking, when non-smoking pregnant women are forced to inhale tobacco smoke.

Smoking can be the cause of persistent spasm of the vessels of the lower limbs, which contributes to the development of the obliterating endarteritis, which affects mainly men. This disease leads to eating disorders, gangrene and eventually to amputation of the lower limb.

From substances contained in tobacco smoke, the digestive tract suffers, primarily teeth and mucous membranes of the mouth. Nicotine increases the secretion of gastric juice, which causes aching pain in the pitcher, nausea and vomiting. These signs can be a manifestation of gastritis, gastric ulcer, which smokers are more likely to develop than non-smokers. So, for example, among men, a stomach ulcer disease, 96 - 97% smoked. Smoking can cause nicotine amblyopia. In a patient suffering from this disease, partial or complete blindness occurs. This is a very formidable disease, in which even vigorous treatment is not always successful.

Every smoker should remember that smoking tobacco harms not only the state of his own health, but also the health of those who surround him at home, at work, in public places.

Most smokers are surprisingly unceremonious towards others. But out of a thousand smokers, no one is ashamed of letting in an unhealthy smoke in a room where non-smoking women, children, breathe air, without feeling the slightest reproof.
The need for smoking is not given to man initially. It is produced by each individually. Smoking exists as a social phenomenon, which is part of the habitual elements of the way of life of most peoples of the world.

In the process of socialization, adolescents who enter adulthood greedily look at and assimilate the "adult" norms of life activity. Imitating the elders, young people become attached to smoking, eventually become the source of imitation for others.
So, after 20 years, only 10.7% of men start smoking. The rest - much earlier. Smokers, as a rule, can not formulate exactly why they reached for a cigarette. Their answers are very vague: curiosity, desire to try, pampering, imitation, etc.
Can I quit smoking? Of course, yes, although it is not easy. But most smokers can stop smoking on their own, without any medical help. (Tabex and other medicines for quit smoking)

This is evidenced by the data of the Committee of Experts of the World Health Organization to combat smoking, confirming that among those who quit smoking about 85% "... did it on their own initiative ..."

It is very difficult to get out of smoking women, nevertheless, almost 80% of those who quit smoking did it without the help of a doctor. The statistics are very unanimous: almost all those who quit smoking took this step at the expense of volitional efforts, self-discipline, self-organization, without resorting to medication. Many heavy smokers develop dependence on nicotine - a disease in which nicotine is included in the process of metabolism of the body, being thus necessary their participant. When a person quits smoking, there is a kind of "shortage" of nicotine in metabolic processes. Absence of nicotine is manifested in a whole complex of very unpleasant for a person physical ailments and psychological experiences. These phenomena are called narcology by the abstinence syndrome. All this allows us to say: "To smoke - to harm health!"

Alcohol does not spare any internal organ

What is the effect of alcohol on the human body?
Alcohol is not only a narcotic substance, but also a poison for the liver. It has a negative effect on various types of metabolism in the body. Along with the disorders of metabolic processes (carbohydrate, fat, etc.), the functions of the endocrine organs (sex glands, etc.) also suffer. People who abuse alcohol, the ability of the liver to render harmless toxic products, participate in the metabolism, immunological and other protective reactions of the body.
Only 10-11% of people consuming alcoholic beverages did not show significant violations in the liver. In 50% of patients, replacement of active liver cells - hepatocytes - with an inert connective tissue was diagnosed, 35% had a fattening of the liver and 8% had a serious disease - cirrhosis of the liver.
In the liver, carbohydrate metabolism is disturbed, which can manifest itself in a disease resembling diabetes mellitus. Violated other types of metabolism. Reduces the ability of blood to clot; increases the permeability of small vessels. Perhaps the appearance of hemorrhages under the membranes of the brain. The antitoxic protective function of the liver is violated. The initial stages of liver damage sometimes do not appear externally. Then the patient has a decrease in appetite, nausea, a feeling of weakness, lethargy. Next, new symptoms are added. The liver increases in size, while the patient begins to lose weight. Drawing attention to the yellowness of the skin, eyeballs. Fatty degeneration of the liver gradually turns into alcoholic hepatitis, and then into cirrhosis. (Heptral and cyanocobalamin are very helpfull for this).

Severe and brighter acute alcoholic hepatitis. The patient loses appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen and under the pit of stomach. The temperature rises sharply, to 38-39 C. Next appears jaundice of the skin, itching of the skin. The liver increases in size, there is soreness when probing. In the case when the patient continues to take alcohol, the transition of the disease to the most difficult option is possible - cirrhosis of the liver.

The liver, afflicted with cirrhosis, is always different from normal, healthy. With cirrhosis, the organ looks dense, often changed in size, tuberous, has a yellowish-red color, which is caused by a delay in bile. The disease becomes life-threatening, when fluid accumulation occurs in the free abdominal cavity (ascites). Since the appearance of ascites, the disease lasts from six months to two years and leads to death. Incidentally, it should be noted that cirrhosis often develops not only in people who consume vodka and wine, but also those who regularly drink beer.
The pancreas in the body performs a dual function: as an exocrine gland, it throws the digestive juice into the duodenum, and the body of internal secretion, producing hormones - insulin and glucagon. Insulin is a protein hormone that increases the rate of glucose uptake in tissues, which leads to a decrease in the level of sugar in the blood. Deficiency in the body of insulin leads to the development of diabetes mellitus. Glucagon performs the opposite regulatory function - increases blood sugar.

How does alcohol abuse affect the work of the pancreas? Alcohol disrupts the intrasecretory and externally secretory functions of the pancreas. The negative effect on the iron of alcohol can occur in various ways, changing the nervous regulation of its work, directly affecting the tissue of the gland. When drinking alcohol in the stomach, the content of hydrochloric acid, a stimulant of the pancreas, decreases, which affects its work. Alcohol, entering the blood, first irritates the pancreas, as a result of which the production of insulin is stimulated. But with repeated alcohol intake, the pancreas is depleted, insulin production is sharply reduced. Often, diabetes mellitus in alcoholics occurs in a latent form. Patients with increased thirst, frequent urination, an increase in the daily volume of excreted urine. Patients complain of dry mouth. Appetite is usually elevated. There is a itchy skin, there are furuncles.

Abuse of alcohol can lead to chronic pancreatitis. Negative effects produce alcohol on the stomach and intestines. The stomach first perceives the effect of a concentrated portion of alcoholic beverage.

What does this lead to? The main manifestation of this effect is the development of the so-called alcoholic gastritis. Alcohol remains in the stomach for a long time. The consequences of the "chemical burn" and poisoning here are particularly pronounced. First of all, it should be noted that this gastritis (inflammation of the stomach) is noted in the vast majority of people who abuse alcohol. Initially, a form of gastritis is noted, accompanied by increased release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which later changes to an acid-free form of gastritis. Violated the formation of pepsin - an enzyme of gastric juice, which contributes to the breakdown of food proteins. In this regard, the alcoholic develops protein starvation. These changes disrupt the process of assimilation of foods entering the stomach, which affects the general state of the body. With prolonged consumption of alcoholic drinks, the excretory function of the stomach suffers. Acute alcohol poisoning can be manifested by vomiting.

The patient complains of tense sensations in the abdomen, burning sensation, pain in the pit of stomach, eructation, etc. Chronic alcohol gastritis is accompanied by a feeling of general weakness, decreased performance, an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth, aching pains in the pit of stomach, nausea, diarrhea, in the morning, on an empty stomach vomiting with scanty content. Chronic gastritis can be accompanied by the development of duodenal ulcer. Violated the activity of the small and large intestine (enterocolitis). The clinical picture of alcoholic enterocolitis is characterized by diarrhea that occurs in the morning or soon after eating. Diarrhea can alternate with constipation. There is an increase in body temperature, weight loss patients. If you continue to take alcohol, then the disease can progress and end tragically.
Alcoholism also affects the kidneys - the organs involved in the regulation of water-salt metabolism, in maintaining acid-base balance, in the isolation of various slags. Permanent long-term intake of alcohol causes chronic kidney disease (nephritis, nephrolithiasis, pyelitis, etc.). Small doses of alcohol increase urination, which is associated with the irritating effect of alcohol on the kidney tissue, with its effect on the cardiovascular system, with an increase in the filtration capacity of the kidneys.

Chronic alcohol intoxication is manifested by excessive sweating, development of edema. Due to the gradual destruction of the cells of the renal tissue, the dead cells are replaced by a connective tissue, the kidneys shrink and wrinkle. It is understandable that the noted significant changes in the nervous system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and other organs do not pass without a trace and shorten the life expectancy, lead to premature death of both women and men who abuse alcohol.

It should be taken into account that alcohol significantly reduces the body's resistance to the effects of infectious agents and toxic substances and thereby contributes to the increase in the incidence of drinkers. Against the backdrop of alcoholism, various diseases are more severe, especially chronic (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.), infectious-oallergic (bronchial asthma, rheumatism) and cardiovascular. Mortality among alcoholics in somatic diseases is 3-5 times higher than mortality among people who do not consume alcohol.

Deserves a separate consideration of the effect of alcohol on the sex glands and the sex cells they produce - male (sperm or spermatozoon) and female (oocyte). They are carriers of genetic (hereditary) information, on their condition depends the health of future children, i.e. future generations.

Chronic alcohol intoxication is manifested by excessive sweating, development of edema. Due to the gradual destruction of the cells of the renal tissue, the dead cells are replaced by a connective tissue, the kidneys shrink and wrinkle. It is understandable that the noted significant changes in the nervous system, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and other organs do not pass without a trace and shorten the life expectancy, lead to premature death of both women and men who abuse alcohol.

It should be taken into account that alcohol significantly reduces the body's resistance to the effects of infectious agents and toxic substances and thereby contributes to the increase in the incidence of drinkers. Against the backdrop of alcoholism, various diseases are more severe, especially chronic (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.), infectious-oallergic (bronchial asthma, rheumatism) and cardiovascular. Mortality among alcoholics in somatic diseases is 3-5 times higher than mortality among people who do not consume alcohol.

Deserves a separate consideration of the effect of alcohol on the sex glands and the sex cells they produce - male (sperm or spermatozoon) and female (oocyte). They are carriers of genetic (hereditary) information, on their condition depends the health of future children, i.e. future generations.

Alcohol can affect the offspring in several ways: the first - on the sex glands and sex cells they produce, the second - on the fetus (embryo) and the fetus, the third - on the development of the child.

Especially unfavorable is the effect of alcohol on the development of the male sex glands (testes) and the spermatozoa produced by them. Therefore, many spermatozoa do not fully ripen and are immature (or immature at all) as they fall into seminal fluid. Such spermatozoons often have different anomalies - lack of a head, tail, change in the structure of the body, etc. - and not able to fertilize eggs.

If fertilization also occurs, then such eggs, as a rule, die or (very rarely) give inferior offspring. Usually, after 6-7 months of alcohol administration in animals (for example, in rats) reproduction of spermatozoa stops, the spermatic tubules atrophy (die), the tissue between them swells and the male becomes barren.

Alcoholics-men also experience similar phenomena, but usually after a longer (several years) period of time. They have decreased libido (impulse), impotence (incapacity for sexual intercourse and fertilization), decreases the size of the sexual glands, decreases the number of spermatozoa or they completely disappear, often only dead sperm. There comes male infertility. In this case, the signs characteristic of the female body (growth of the mammary glands, reduction of the hair) are often developed, which is explained by alcohol suppression of the production of male hormones (testosterones) and partial conversion into female hormones (estrogens).

The frequency and degree of impairment of the function of the male sex glands are dependent on the number and duration of alcohol use.
In moderately alcohol consuming disorders of the sexual glands are found, approximately, in 30% of cases, in explicit alcoholics - in 80-90% 5. After recovery in approximately 40% of men, these phenomena persist, that is, they remain sexually inferior and can not have full-fledged offspring, and sometimes even remain fruitless. At 40-45% of men in general the ability to engage in sexual intercourse is lost.

The most dramatic disruption of sexual function in men immediately after the white fever - the highest stage of alcoholism, which is characterized by delirium, hallucinations, and sometimes convulsions.

Alcohol is dangerous not only for cells of testes that reproduce spermatozoa, but also for the function of the pituitary gland, the medullary appendage that acts with its hormones (gonadotropins) on both the male and female gonads (gonads).
Gonadotropins stimulate the testes and ovaries. Under the influence of gonadotropins, the maturation of spermatozoa and oocytes occurs and the production of male (testosterone) and female (estrogen) sex hormones in the sex glands.

The inhibition of the function of the pituitary gland by alcohol leads to a decrease in the production of hormones by the sex glands and to a violation of maturation of the sex cells (spermatozoa and oocytes). Consequently, the effect of alcohol on the sex glands and the pituitary gland leads to male and female infertility. Long-term exposure to alcohol not only inhibits puberty, prevents the correct function of the sex glands and the production of sex cells, slows and distorts the menstrual cycle, but also often leads to an irreversible reduction in the weight (mass) of the ovaries, uterus and vagina. It has long been known that pairs of alcohol reduce the egg production of chickens, and many eggs do not sit out chickens. Alcohol also prevents the correct transition of eggs from the ovaries, where they are produced, into the fallopian tubes. As a result, there are phenomena of infertility, since eggs are fertilized usually in the fallopian tubes. Under the influence of alcohol, even fatty degeneration of the ovaries may occur, in which they produce only immature oocytes or completely stop their production.

Alcohol reduces the sexual feeling in women (sometimes, with slight intoxication, it can intensify). Alcoholics often have promiscuous sexual intercourse, infection with sexually transmitted diseases, and a feeling of maternity. Although alcoholism relatively rarely affects ovulation (egg yield from the ovary) and on the ability to conceive, still in alcoholics in 40-60% there are violations of the ovarian function, manifested by amenorrhea (lack of menstruation), oligomenorrhea (rare and weak menstruation) or hypermenorrhoea (abundant and prolonged menstruation).

Approximately 8-10% of alcoholics come premature menopause (ie, aging of women with a violation, and then the termination of menstrual function). This is observed in alcoholics already in 35-40 years, although usually the phenomenon of menopause occurs in 45-48 years. In general, many scientists noted that alcoholism leads to premature aging of the whole organism. The skin becomes wrinkled, flabby, often puffiness of the face, loss of turgor (tone) of the mammary glands, the sexual function weakens, emotional reactions are lost, frigidity (coldness in sexual intercourse) appears.

Sexual life early loses its importance for them, often the childbearing function is violated, as well as the internal need for caring for children, which contributes to the violation of the emotional sphere in children and the formation of crime in them.

Drug - "White Death"
In the broadest sense, drug addiction is a painful attraction or addiction to narcotic substances used in a variety of ways (swallowing, inhalation, intravenous injection) in order to achieve a stupefying condition. To do this, use different substances, for example such authentic strong-acting drugs as opium, morphine, heroin, and weak-acting cocaine, marijuana.

A similar effect also has some medicines not classified as narcotic. Abuse of them can be called medication.

All the used intoxicating substances (both real drugs and other drugs of plant origin or obtained chemically) are strong poisons, that is, toxins, so the desire for a stupefying condition with the help of non-narcotic substances should be called, as already accepted, a substance abuse.

Since the words "drug addiction", "drugs", "drug addicts" are widespread, you can use them, whether it's about substance abuse or addiction. This is all the more justified, that true drug addiction among young people is rare, because real drugs are expensive and difficult to access. Young people, addicted to drug addicts, usually use more accessible substances or they prepare by handicraft various drugs from poppy.

It does not really matter how to call this trouble - a habit or a painful addiction to drugs, although a bad habit to win is still easier than a painful addiction.

Addiction
In this case, a person, although feeling a strong desire to take a drug, does not yet have an irresistible physical need for a narcotic dope. He does not need to increase the dose of the drug. In this case, there is still no physical dependence on drugs: depriving a person of drugs does not cause him symptoms of the so-called withdrawal syndrome, and taking them, although adversely affecting the psyche and overall health, does not yet have a serious impact on behavior in the home and in the public life.

The habit of narcotic dope after a while becomes a painful attraction, addiction. This is already a far-reaching state, when the strong need for the use of narcotic substances does not stop, caused by mental and physical dependence on them, it becomes necessary to constantly increase doses, poisoning the body.

Narcotic Stramonium
All narcotic substances are stupefying. Then, the ever-increasing narcotic hunger, which indicates the emergence of dependence; as the use of drugs progresses the physical and mental exhaustion of the body, which eventually leads to premature death.

People who take drugs differently perceive their stupefying effect. Depending on the drug taken, excitement or inhibition of activity occurs. An excited person has a feeling of freshness, lightness, physical dexterity, it seems to him that he is full of strength and desire to act, capable of unprecedented creative accomplishments. Of course, all this is just an illusion, a game of imagination, caused by the impact of a drug.

Deceleration is usually felt as a relaxation and complete indifference to all life's misfortunes and vicissitudes of fate.
A drug addict in a state of excitement by his behavior resembles a drunken man who, as they say, is tipsy, and the hindered drug addict becomes like a very drunk, and this impression is strengthened by the incoherence of his speech.

Narcotic drugs cause a variety of disorders of consciousness.

Some drug addicts experience depression, inexplicable fear, sometimes panicking, or they are tortured by some terrible visions.

Drug addiction.
Usually a person already after several drug addicts develops a strong, irresistible attraction to a stupefying condition, called psychic dependence on drugs.

There is another, much deeper dependence, called physical. It consists in the fact that drugs, as they are used, enter the chemical composition of the body tissues, as a result, habituation arises and drugs become a necessary condition for preserving the biological and chemical balance of the whole organism.

After the physical dependence has been formed, the absence of drugs causes a so-called abstinence syndrome in the person (withdrawal syndrome). The addict is forced to systematically take drugs and increase their dose to cause a dope.

The lack of a drug causes increasing irritability, nervousness, difficulty in concentrating attention, fatigue. There is great anxiety, gradually fear becomes unbearable, leads to despair, a sense of hopelessness, and often - to the thought of suicide.

A person who experiences an abstinence syndrome is not able to do anything, perform any work. His only desire is to get a drug at any cost. This concentrates all his thoughts and actions, often the drug becomes more important to him than food. This condition is accompanied by bodily ailments: severe headaches, nervous trembling, numbness of the extremities, muscle cramps, etc.

These are the symptoms of the onset of a person's mental and physical dependence on drugs. That's when he becomes their slave.
So, the prolonged absence of drugs leads to the emergence of an abstinence syndrome. It usually begins with the growth of an irresistible need for a drug, which is somewhat comparable to that of an inveterate smoker who wants to smoke, but does not have cigarettes. Then there is anxiety, a sharp yawn, profuse sweating, a disruption of the nasopharynx function, resembling a strong cold. Pupils dilate and do not respond to light. Appear "goosebumps" and chills, like at high temperature, acute pain in the stomach, lower back and hips. Then - dizziness, nausea and vomiting, muscle trembling until life-threatening seizures and circulatory and breathing disorders.
These symptoms appear in different combinations and sequences, appear with varying intensity.

Abstinence syndrome can also be accompanied by delirium, various visual and auditory hallucinations or manifestations of depression, apathy, complete indifference to the environment.

Taking the drug almost immediately eliminates these ailments, but this improvement is temporary, because after a few hours the effect of the drug will stop and symptoms of withdrawal symptoms will appear again. (Phenotropil can cope with it).

Consequences
Drug use, in addition to mental and physical dependence, always leads to an irreversible gross violation of the vital functions of the organism and the social degradation of the addict. It is these consequences that are the greatest danger to human health and life.
First, chronic poisoning of the body with narcotic drugs leads to irreversible changes in the nervous system, the disintegration of the personality. As a result, the addict loses some higher feelings and moral restraint. Appearance arrogance, dishonesty, fading life aspirations and goals, interests and hopes. A person loses kinship, attachment to people and even some natural attractions. This is especially tragic when it comes to young people, about only the emerging individualities that are most valuable to society. Narcotic intoxication and serious ailments, withdrawal symptoms make it impossible to study and work, so drug addicts usually get parasitic.

Under the influence of public opinion, the addict is forced to hide his vice. He seeks support in any group that would accept him.

Usually it is the dregs of society: when they join them, the drug addict himself excludes himself from the previous collective.
Secondly, developed or just developing malformation requires more frequent use of drugs in ever increasing doses. The constant need to get them pushes drug addicts to the path of crime: thefts, burglary of pharmacies, forgery of prescriptions, debauchery, even murder are increasing - all for the money to buy drugs.

Finally, thirdly, drug addiction leads to extreme exhaustion of the body, a significant loss of body weight and a noticeable decline in physical strength. The skin becomes pale and dry, the face acquires an earthy tint, there are also disturbances in balance and coordination of movements, which can be mistaken for alcoholic intoxication (usually drug addicts avoid alcohol, although this is not the rule).

Poisoning the body becomes the cause of illness of internal organs, especially the liver and kidneys.

Additional complications arise from intravenous drug injections with dirty needles and syringes. Drug addicts often have purulent skin lesions, thromboses, inflammation of the veins, as well as various infectious diseases, such as hepatitis.

Often cases of drug overdose, especially when after the abstinence syndrome the body's immunity to its action decreases, which the addict usually does not know. As a result - severe poisoning, accompanied by delirium and coma.

In recent years, the number of people who systematically increase drug doses has increased. Cases of abstinence syndrome and acute poisoning and death among young drug addicts have become more frequent.

Sometimes even ten to twelve-year-old children are stupefying themselves with drugs, moreover they use especially dangerous preparations, mainly from poppies, which quickly develop an addiction in the body. These dangerous substances, made by handicraft, contain a large proportion of toxic contaminants.

It is also noted that schoolchildren often use medications that quickly lead to sustained changes in the brain.


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