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Similar to Meldonium: in Russia a new substance is tested by WADA

28 Nov 2018

Russian sport is trying to avoid a new doping scandal - to prevent it will help 9.5 million rubles and mini-pigs on the treadmills.

Each year, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) publishes a short document. It contains a list of substances that cause doubt in WADA and therefore fall under the monitoring program. In fact, this is one of the steps necessary to declare a substance doping and to prohibit its use in sport. The new monitoring program-2018 included a substance called "Bemitil" (ethitiobenzimidazole) - and this can be a big problem for the entire Russian sport.

doping

The geography of the spread of bemitil is Russia and the CIS countries. In the West, no bemitil is produced, in practice it is not applied. That is, in fact, we are talking about drugs based on the substance, which only athletes from Russia and neighboring countries take. All as with meldonium: the ban of this substance will not affect anyone's interests - except for Russians, of course.

There is, however, one difference from the history of Mildronate - bemitil refers to a very different group of substances, and it can not be declared harmless as a "vitamin". Another drug from the same group was already causing a doping scandal with Russian athletes. We are talking about the Bromantane (Ladasten) and Spartak Moscow football. According to the ex-defender of "Spartak" Vladislav Vashchuk, in 2004 almost the whole team used bromantane. Captain Yegor Titov was then disqualified for a year.

To avoid a new doping scandal, the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) has signed a contract for the study of Bemitil. The goal is to find out the timing of removal of the drug from the body. The doping trial under the name "Bemitil" FMBA plans to prevent using 48 mini-pigs and 9.5 million budget funds.

To stimulate in Spartak style

"There is a drug. At a certain stage, you can stimulate ... "- quoted the words of the doctor of" Spartacus "Anatoly Shchukin, assistant head coach Sergei Yuran, -" What are the consequences? ", -" Yes, in principle, no. Everything goes for two or three days. "

It's about the Bromantane. For his use for a year was disqualified leader of the "Spartacus" Yegor Titov. Because of the bromantan, he could not play for the national team for Euro 2004. "My killer is Dr. Shchukin," Yegor Titov said after disqualification.

According to another former player of Spartak Vladislav Vashchuk, the Bromantane was in the blood of all the players of the team at the time of the disqualification of Titov. "We were cleaning the whole team," Vashchuk wrote on his Facebook page, "for very long, three months. Droppers, pills, blood transfusions, even a hyperbaric chamber, where cosmonauts are trained. "

Monitoring programm

Bromantane was included in the list of banned substances back in 1996. Bemitil is now in the WADA monitoring program. The problem is that both substances are part of the same group - actoprotectors and have similar mechanisms of action on the body. "I was shaking so that I could not fall asleep until 6am. All were awake, there was a feeling that energy from somewhere inside, excuse me, a pearl, "Vashchuk described the effect of using bromantane.

A potential prohibition of Bemitil is possible not only against the background of the "bromantane" past. According to Artem Katulin, a sports pharmacologist, ex-chief physician of Spartak in 2004 (the year of the doping scandal), the risk also increases because of the political background:

- Bemitil - a drug that slightly accelerates adaptation to physical stress. This is not a potent substance. I do not see the need to prohibit it. It seems to me that this is another witch-hunt, as in the case of meldonium.

About Mildronate the doctor recollects not casually. Before the Meldonium hit the banned list, he was also in the WADA monitoring program for 2015. After nine months of observation, WADA decided to ban the drug, so popular with Russian athletes. The geography of distribution of bemitil is even narrower than that of Meldonium. According to the state register of medicines, bemitil is produced only in Russia (and goes on sale under different trade names: there is, for example, "Metaprot", which consists of the same ettiobenzimidazole), while meldonium is also found in Latvia and Cyprus. Accordingly, if someone were looking for a way to inflict damage on Russian athletes, then the potential ban of bemitil would strike them even more accurately than banning meldonium.

Monitoring programm 2

By the way, the most widespread version about the origin of bemitil is also similar to the legend about meldonium: it is reported that bemitil was developed for Soviet airborne troops in Afghanistan. The drug itself was registered in mid-1983.

Despite the prescription of development from the Russian market, bemitil has not disappeared. In the state register of medicines it is reported that in 2008, bemitil was included in the register for "SKTB Technologist". This is confirmed by the information on the company's website, where it is reported that the production of bemitil.

In general, if you recall the stories with meldonium and Bromantane "Spartacus", then the probability of an early prohibition of bemitil seems very high. Apparently, this is understood in the Russian sports leadership. Apparently, to ensure that the remake of the meldonium scandal did not occur, the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBA) in late February 2018 published a state purchase of 9.5 million rubles. The study, which will last until November, should answer one question - how long it takes for the bemitil to leave the athlete's body.

Dangerous method. Mini-pigs at the limit
The method of investigating the timing of the withdrawal of bemitil from the body is quite simple: laboratory mini-pigs will be injected into the body with bemitil, after which they will be sent to the treadmills to undergo training loads under the action of the drug. Then the biomaterial is collected (all mini-pigs are pre-inserted with catheters).

On the treadmills, mini-pirogas will be subjected to intensive physical loads - "to failure." In addition to bemitil, other drugs from the WADA monitoring program, bupropion and synephrine, will also be tested. But this is a secondary task: bupropion and synephrine are used in practice outside of Russia, they have been on the monitoring list for at least ten years. FMBA before them did not pay attention, and began to examine the drugs, only after the inclusion of bemitil in the monitoring program this year.

All preparations of the mini-pigs will be administered in medium and maximum doses. In the case of bupropion and cinephrine, we are talking about 28 days of research. For bemitil, the timing is not defined - apparently, even the approximate time for the removal of the drug from the body is not yet clear.

There is, of course, a question of ethics: many animal rights activists are protesting against testing even the most necessary drugs, and testing for potential doping animals would cause a lot of protests. But in Russia, according to the president of the Center for the Protection of Animal Rights "Vita" Irina Novozhilova, there is no legal framework that would limit such research. In this case, Irina Novozhilova also doubts the effectiveness of such studies:

- Metabolism of animals and humans is so different that it will not have any practical significance. Already tons of works on this theme have been written. The way an animal's organism reacts to a certain drug does not mean that the human body will react as well. Especially when it comes to the timing of the removal of a certain drug from the body. Briefly, the director of the National Cancer Institute of the United States, Dr. Richard Clauzner, can be quoted as saying: "The history of cancer research is the history of treating mice from cancer ... For several decades now we have cured mice from cancer - and this simply does not work in humans" . So no valuable research results on mini-pigs will not bring.

There is another interesting aspect to this story: the structural unit of the FMBA, the Scientific Center for Biomedical Technologies, will be directly engaged in research. In other words, the Agency concluded a contract with its own organization. However, this is not directly related to the topic of doping and should interest organizations that are interested in corruption and violations of public procurement rules ..

The target date for the commissioning of the study is November 2018. If the scenario with melding repeats itself, and the World Anti-Doping Agency banned it in 2019, FMBA will have enough time to notify athletes and medical personnel. This is directly reported in the technical specification: "The social and economic effect of the introduction of scientific and technical products will be achieved through timely informing medical personnel about the half-life of medicinal products from the body of athletes."


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I am not an alcoholic!

26 Nov 2018

Many people believe that an alcoholic is someone who "pummles and shakes" every day in the morning and therefore he has to get drunk "for health correction", drinks any alcohol-containing liquid, up to the brake fluid, moonshine, cologne and other surrogates, drinks drinks , is never sober, and by the evening it is barely standing on its feet and with difficulty "crawls" to the house, counting all the pillars on the road forehead, beating up his wife, drinking on things, skipping work, and not holding work for more than one or two months . It is these completely depressed and degraded patients who are usually shown in television programs about the dangers of alcoholism and alcoholism in order to demonstrate their social and moral degradation. Therefore, in the public mind there was an opinion that all alcoholics are just such. And if a person still does not have such severe social and psychological consequences and degradation of the person, then his alcoholic is not considered.

I'm not an alcoholic

The fact that people do not realize that this person is sick with alcoholism is associated, first, with ignorance of the clinical manifestations of the initial stage of the disease, and secondly, with the existence of a variant of alcoholism, in which there are no obvious socio-psychological consequences.

Any disease, including alcoholism, can have similar symptoms common to all patients. This clinical picture of alcoholism is called typical. But in some patients, the symptoms of the disease differ from the well-known manifestations of it - this is called an atypical clinical picture. Atypical alcoholism can be more severe than a typical (malignant variant), but it can also be lightened (benign, or socially-compensated variant). It is the benign variant most often and "do not see" people, since there are some symptoms of the disease with him, but others do not, and the clinical picture of the disease as a whole differs significantly from the typical one.

Benign alcoholism can be recognized only by a specialist. Neither the drinker, nor his family members, nor his colleagues for many years suspect that this person is an alcoholic.

Everything begins with domestic drinking. However, each drinker believes that he will never get sick with alcoholism. He thinks: "Everyone is drinking now, not just me, not all the drunkards!". His friends-drinking companions, he does not consider alcoholics and believes that he himself will never become one.

The whole trouble is that alcoholism begins much earlier than many people think. The disease develops gradually and imperceptibly both for the drinker, and for his relatives, and for his friends. Everyone considers him a drunkard, and he is already an alcoholic, but he does not yet know about it.

The first, the initial stage of alcoholism, when neither the patient himself nor the surrounding people have any idea that he is ill, can limit himself to several years (with a typical variant), but can last for decades (in a benign variant).

The shorter the initial stage, the more unfavorable the disease; respectively, the longer the first stage, the more benign the course has alcoholism. But in either case, the initial stage will inevitably pass into the second, and with typical alcoholism - into the third; these are the patterns of alcoholic illness. Only with a benign version of alcoholism is the third, the final stage does not occur.

If you still "do not shake" in the morning, this does not mean that you do not have alcoholism (Phenotropil can help you with hangover). It is possible that you still have the initial stage of the disease, so you are "like a cucumber" in the morning. But if you drink often enough, then sooner or later this day will come. And that this did not happen, it is necessary to prevent the transition of the disease from the first stage to the second. And if you are still a drunkard, not an alcoholic, then you must prevent the transition of domestic drunkenness to alcoholism.

When in the morning "batters and shakes" and "the soul asks" to become drunk, - it is already a question of the late stages of the disease. At the same time, alcohol becomes necessary for the patient's body, and alcohol-free severe abnormalities arise - alcohol withdrawal syndrome (hangover syndrome), alcoholic psychosis ("white fever", alcoholic hallucinosis and others) and convulsive attacks can develop.

No matter how his wife (mother) persuaded to stop drinking, the "educational" measures of such a person can not be corrected. His body "requires", and the alcoholic can not cope with this independently. We need cardinal measures to normalize the disturbed metabolism in the body.

Most people judge alcoholism only by the criteria of social and moral decline and degradation of the individual, that is, according to its consequences, and they do not know about the main clinical manifestations of this disease.

Talking with patients and members of their family, it turned out that even they do not know anything about the symptoms of alcoholism and assess it by the presence (or lack) of social and moral consequences - whether they bring home wages, drink things, skip work, offend the wife . However, all this is peculiar not to the initial, but already to the second and third stages of alcoholism. Drugs, a hangover, morning you need freshen the nip, "white fever", cirrhosis of the liver - that's all that many people know about alcoholism. But these are also manifestations of late stages of the disease. And about the very first, initial manifestations of alcoholic illness are not aware not only people who do not have medical education, but even doctors of general medical practice, since in the course of psychiatry in medical institutions, narcology is studied very superficially. Therefore, in most cases, the first stage of alcoholism is regarded as domestic drunkenness.

The fact that alcohol is consumed by millions and thousands are ill with alcoholism allows each person to think that it is this cup that passes this: maybe a neighbor or someone else will get ill with alcoholism, but not himself.

What can happen someday, after many years, does not bother people. We live in the present day, we have troubles almost every day, and if there is a remedy that helps to forget about the problems, then nobody thinks that this will ever lead to illness.

Intimidation by severe consequences, when they do not occur immediately, but sometime later, is usually unsuccessful. It's fun, good and pleasant now, but what will happen in the distant future - people usually do not think, hoping that "maybe will carry". Therefore, the transmission on television, where degraded alcoholics or their disabled children are shown, is not popular. Everyone at the same time thinks: "So it's with alcoholics!" And I'm not an alcoholic, this will never happen to me. "

Perhaps, only in our country to drunkenness public opinion is so condescending, although in words it is condemned. Moreover, drunkenness can be publicly and very zealously branded by a person who himself would not be in a hurry to consult an expert in narcology, but he will never go to the doctor, because he is firmly convinced that he is not an alcoholic and will never become an alcoholic.

Drunkards are many in an environment with a low socio-intellectual level, and among the intelligentsia, and in the creative environment, and in business circles, and among major politicians and public figures. In any drinking group there are not only drunkards, but also patients with alcoholism. But neither they nor their constant drinking companions are aware of this. And to distinguish alcoholics from many of their drunkards around a layman is not so easy.

Drinking and alcoholism are not synonyms. There is a very big difference between domestic drunkenness and alcoholism.

Domestic drunkenness is not a disease, but a tribute to the traditions existing in our society, the influence of "drinking" attitudes taken in this collective (colleagues, friends or relatives), in some communities this way of life; drunkenness can also be a consequence of wrong prejudices.

Drug addiction does not require drug abuse, and a person can at any time voluntarily quit alcohol consumption or significantly reduce it without experiencing any discomfort from abstinence. Household drunkenness can be observed throughout the life of a person, and the amount of alcohol consumed may remain unchanged or increase, but to a certain extent. However, domestic drunkenness can turn into alcoholism, and therefore it is considered a vestibule of the disease.

And alcoholism is already a qualitatively different condition. Firstly, this is not a "bad" habit, but a disease that requires treatment. Secondly, unlike domestic drunkenness, a patient with typical alcoholism not only can not independently stop consumption of alcohol, but also control the amount drunk. Thirdly, a patient with alcoholism has such changes in metabolism that, with a sharp break, the body "rebels", demanding the continuation of drinking (which does not happen with household drunkenness). Fourth, household drunkenness does not have progression (that is, it does not progress), and alcoholism is a progressive disease, and even if its very first symptoms have arisen, the disease will develop steadily, and new clinical manifestations will inevitably arise, and then degradation of the person and all consequences of alcoholic illness. The outcome of a typical alcoholism is natural and inevitable.

To catch a line where drunkenness ends and alcoholism begins, - only an expert can. The drinker himself, if he does not know how alcoholism begins and how it differs from domestic drunkenness, can not determine this side.

Each disease has its own patterns of development. If a person has caught a flu, then he will have a fever, there will be an ache in the whole body, sweating, a runny nose and all other manifestations of the flu. If a person falls ill with gastritis, then he will have all the symptoms of this disease, if not treated at the earliest stages.

Similarly, with alcoholism. If there are first signs, then further alcoholism will develop according to its patterns. Following the initial symptoms, the following will appear, then new ones. They arise not suddenly, but gradually, for several years. Gradually they are summed up, and after years a qualitatively new condition appears. There is no way back. The patient with alcoholism will never be able to return to the initial state and again become a domestic drunkard.

I am often asked by people who are not formally my patients, how to assess their consumption of alcohol - this is alcoholism or not yet.

Even in my practice, I know how many people who are already aware that, perhaps, in recent years they began to drink much more than before. But this is how the human psyche works - people do not like to admit their mistakes, shortcomings, negative character traits or excessive consumption of alcohol, and usually seek excuses. In the heart of understanding that he drinks too much, a person justifies his drunkenness for some external reasons or situation for his or her relatives and friends - they persuaded friends, there was a business meeting, a banquet, it was impossible to give up drinking, there were troubles or just bad things mood, I wanted to relax or get distracted from my problems and stuff. Today one reason, tomorrow another, the day after tomorrow the third, - and it turns out that a person drinks almost every day or several times a week. "It's time to tie ... - in the end the drinker decides - Everything, from tomorrow, not a drop! Well, maybe just a couple of glasses for the company ..." - and then again some "respectful" occasion, and he can not refuse.

While the use of alcohol does not affect the state of health, relationships with his wife or at work, - the drinker does not worry about anything. He believes that he drinks no more than others: just as much or more than he himself, all his friends, friends, business partners and colleagues drink. In his opinion, they are not alcoholics, and he, too, is not an alcoholic. But in fact, this may not be so at all. His friends may be drunkards, and he may already be an alcoholic. Or friends too for a long time are sick of an alcoholism, and he on them is equal, considering them healthy.

So a person continues to drink until one day early in the morning he wakes up with a dry throat and a heart-pounding heart, when a bottle of cold beer seems to him the limit of dreams, and he is ready to give everything for it.

The fact that after a "cool booze" in the morning will be bad - no one is news. Among people who drink, there is even such a saying: "If it's good today, then it will be bad in the morning."

So you know, dear reader, that if after drinking is "bad in the morning," then, first, alcoholism already exists, and secondly, it is already at least the second stage of the disease.

And how many people have such people who periodically or regularly feel "badly in the morning", but no one even assumes that this person has long been an alcoholic ?! In the conversations of drinking buddies with each other, the mention that "this morning was such a strong thirst" is a common occurrence. However, a strong thirst in the morning is one of the symptoms of a hangover. A hangover (its other names - hangover syndrome, alcohol withdrawal syndrome) means late stages of alcoholism.

But usually thirsty business is not limited. In mild cases, in a hangover state, there may be sweating, which is aggravated by physical stress, headache (but in some patients the headache never hurts) or a feeling of emptiness in the head, a decrease in appetite, lethargy, weakness, absent-mindedness, lack of assortment, inability to concentrate and tune in to work. A person needs to make an effort to get involved in his daily professional duties. He does not want to work, but he overpowers himself, looking forward to the end of the day. The efficiency and productivity of the work performed is reduced.

At the very beginning of the second stage of alcoholism, there may not be all, but only some of the listed symptoms of a hangover - first thirst, with the passage of time joins a headache. The remaining symptoms of hangover syndrome occur later, as the disease develops. And the further, the hangover is heavier. (phenotropil can cope with this problem)

Most people quite rightly consider alcoholics of those who are drunk with strong alcoholic beverages in the morning. But beer is considered a low-alcohol drink, so those who drink beer in the morning to get rid of thirst after yesterday's drinking - do not consider themselves alcoholics.

However, in this case, the alcohol concentration in the alcoholic beverage does not matter. In the language of narcologists, the use of beer or any other alcoholic beverage in the morning, in order to "improve health" - is called morning freshen the nip. But even if a person has "endured" in the morning, but "corrected his health" after work - then this is also a drunkenness, it is called late, or delayed rearing. That is, in any case, if "it's bad in the morning," if there are at least some of these symptoms, and because of this, a person is forced to resort to the help of any alcoholic drink the day after drinking, it is a matter of drunkenness, which indicates already about the second stage of alcoholism.

The banal alcoholic, if possible, is not exchanged for such "trivia" as beer, but gets drunk with his usual drink: if he prefers vodka, then he will be drunk with vodka, if port or other fortified wine - then they will get drunk. But if the alcoholic can not get vodka or wine, then he will drink any drink that is available, including surrogates. And beer or champagne for the sake of a hangover from the morning is drunk by those who seek excuses for themselves, believing that if it's low-alcohol drinks, then, he is not an alcoholic.

Alcoholism begins much earlier than many people think. From the moment of its occurrence to the appearance of hangover syndrome and its other severe symptoms, not one year has passed. But if the disease has already formed, it will necessarily progress according to its patterns, and the presence of its most important symptom (craving for alcohol) does not allow the patient with alcoholism to independently stop ayanism. The patient himself for many years may not realize that this symptom already exists, and continues to rest assured that he is able to stop drinking as soon as he wants.

People with narcology almost always turn to the late stages of the disease, when severe consequences of alcoholism have appeared. While a person in the morning gets up without symptoms of a hangover, he does not think about addiction treatment. Only the wife or parents unsuccessfully try to persuade him to stop drinking, he promises, and his family is waiting and hoping that he will "come to his senses." And the forecast of alcoholism in the far-gone cases can be unfavorable.

Therefore, we must try to identify the disease, when it is only just beginning. Better yet, do not wait for alcoholism to form, and knowing from what it starts, on time to remember, when it is still fixable.


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Why drug addicts want to be treated and refuse treatment?

21 Nov 2018

The question is not idle. Often during detoxification (especially with regard to opiate addiction), the drug addict suddenly declares that he refuses treatment and wants to discharge because "he feels healthy." As a rule, after discharge he immediately starts using drugs again. And then it becomes clear that the rejection of therapy is the result of the emergence of an attraction to drugs.

The life of a drug addict is painful and unromantic. He is immersed in an addictive environment where human dignity, friendliness and love matter only when there are drugs or money to buy them. He is forced to constantly risk, cheat, break the law or beg for money from relatives in order to avoid suffering abstinence. For private life, there is no time left. In addition, his health is severely affected by drugs, and over time he feels it more and more.

Why drug addicts want to be treated and refuse treatment

At the same time, relatives and family (if any) usually exert considerable pressure on him to stop the narcotics. In the conditions of such pressure, sooner or later the addict comes to the conclusion that he needs treatment. And turns to the doctors.

What next?

Then abstinence begins (can be treated by Phenotropil). When treated with modern methods, it proceeds very easily, but the patient's condition is not at all what he is used to. The fact is that some discomfort (and even minor pains) take place, and it is impossible to completely get rid of them. But most importantly, against the background of abstinence, the addict inevitably decreases mood and irritability and impatience increase. Any minor trouble is regarded as a real tragedy, not to mention a bad state of health. And if the motivation for treatment is relatively low (for example, the patient began to be treated to "calm" his loved ones or because of a lack of money for drugs), then the worsening of the condition during abstinence seems fatal. And the best way for his "correction" is to take a single dose of drugs. The patient is discharged, "one time" pins ... - and then everything follows the usual rut.

Another common reason for refusing treatment is a "bump". This slang term means induction (transmission, excitation) of attraction to drugs to one drug addict by another. If there are several drug addicts in the department, and one of them very much wants to prick, he tries to convince others to help him get drugs. This is a very malign situation, and according to the proverb "one black sheep all herd spoils," most of the patients as a result of "bump" can stop treatment.

There is also a type of refusal of treatment - when drug addicts with long experience who have repeatedly undergone a course of treatment, lie down on detoxification only in order to "lower the dose" (after the course of treatment, the amount of narcotic required for each day is markedly reduced). Drug addicts enter treatment if this has a direct economic effect, i.e. the cost of a course of detoxification is much lower than the expected cost of continuing narcotization in the usual doses. Naturally, at the same time they try in every possible way to shorten the term of treatment.


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Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

19 Nov 2018

When relatives find out that their loved one is using drugs, they begin to fight. Often this struggle does not lead to the desired result, but to the opposite. In order that this does not happen, it is desirable to adhere to certain rules. Do not try to cope with this problem yourself. You have no relevant education, no experience in treatment and rehabilitation. Examine the problem using a variety of sources, contact the specialists working with chemical addiction, to help groups close. Do not set hard controls. Do not throw drugs, do not take money, do not lock up at home. This will only cause aggression and alienation. Try to keep a warm relationship, trust on his part.

Memo for relatives and friends of drug addicts

When you understand that your relative is using drugs or abusing alcohol:
- Offer treatment, rehabilitation or conversation with a specialist.
- Try to make sure that the information on recovery is obtained by himself, or together with you, indicate the sources where you took it.
- If he refuses: give him the opportunity to live as badly as he wants, but do not try to artificially worsen his life;
- Do not hide the problem from relatives, neighbors, but do not advertise it,
- do not make public scandals about the use;
- do not help out when you get into the police,
- do not give him any debts,
- do not cover at work or school;
- Do not clarify the relationship when he is intoxicated, do not do this also in a state of withdrawal (Cold turkey) Phenotropil can help with hangover;
- if he is sober - do not read morals,
- do not blame, do not blame, but talk about your feelings: fear, pain, grief, material loss, necessarily with the bringing of specific dates, places, actors;
- do not give him money, learn to say "no", no matter how hard, learn to resist manipulation.

The position should be as follows: "We love you but refuse to get out of the problems that you create for yourself. If you want to suffer, suffer. If you do not want to, we'll help you by sending for treatment. "

Typical errors of relatives who contribute to the development of drug addiction:

These are anti-rules, i.e. something that you can not do in any case:

- To cherish the illusion that you yourself can cope with the chemical dependency of a loved one that is able to remake it.
- Never talk to a drug addict about his addiction, be afraid to upset him, be afraid that it can lead to a scandal, I will disrupt.
- Never talk to anyone outside the home about the presence of a drug addict in the family, believing that it's embarrassing, to make a family secret out of it, and to people who are confronted with it to lie and cover a drug addict in front of them.
- To build family relations so that the addict in them is the central person, to build family plans, given whether he uses it or not, try not to invite friends into the house when he is in use.
- To fear to bring the addict suffering and inconvenience. If he lies a layer, dirty his own best suit with mud or vomit, made debts, did not go to work or study - bring everything WITH IT NOT in order.
- Solve all problems for him, thinking that he is not good at making responsible decisions, and that you yourself know how to do better.
- Build relationships so that all other family members (even younger children) should behave more responsibly, because the family is an addict.
Ignore the problems of everyone else in the family, perceive them as something insignificant or as an annoying hindrance, referring to them in the style: "Without you, enough cares."
- Get used to the aggression of a drug addict, and sometimes with violence (moral or physical), explain to younger family members that adults are sometimes allowed to behave this way, but children will be punished if they start copying adults.
- Let him chemically control the mood of his loved ones: when he is happy, everyone is happy when he is intoxicated, aggressive or full of self-pity, everyone is depressed and withdrawn.
- Try to distract from drugs, invent useful and interesting activities for him, hobbies, entertainments, do not upset him, do not get nervous, create "conditions" for not using ...
- To feed the illusions that the main thing in the family is to keep the chemically dependent from the future use, stop it, hinder it, and everything else is secondary.


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Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

15 Nov 2018

Antidepressant: Phenazepam (Phenazepamum)

Active ingredient: bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepini)

Analogs: Diazepam, Elzepam, Oxazepam, Phezanef, Phenzitat, Tranquesipam, Phesipam, Phenorelaxane

Phenazepam is classified as tranquilizer. Removing anxiety, fear and anxiety, this drug has a good soothing effect, accompanied by some hypnotic effect.

Phenazepam - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

The analysis of the drug by many scientists and physicians has led to the fact that phenazepam has by now acquired a solid reputation as a highly effective and at the same time very safe means.

High efficiency of the drug is confirmed by a number of Russian clinical trials. For example, in the treatment of patients with depression, the spectrum of the highest efficacy of phenazepam was identified. It turned out that the drug best helps with anxiety-depressive conditions (in about half of cases the symptomatology disappeared completely, while a third of patients had a significant improvement in the condition), affective-delusional attacks, and also in the syndrome of depersonalization. In general, the positive effect reached about? patients taking phenazepam. At the same time there were no serious side effects, which once again confirms the reputation of phenazepam as an extremely safe drug.

As a means of treating neurotic conditions (with a predominance of anxiety and fear), such as neuroses, schizophrenia and psychosomatic diseases, phenazepam was the most highly effective. In the first days (or even hours) of such treatment, patients demonstrated a sharp decrease in emotional tension, fear, anxiety, and emotions. Simultaneously, normal sleep returned, irritability and aggressiveness decreased. Further administration of the drug only improved the overall picture.

With abstinence, the drug acted in the first hours, relieving mood disorders, tension, anxiety, fear. Accompanying this soporific effect allowed patients to sleep normally, without suffering from nightmarish dreams.

The effect of taking the drug comes in a very short time: positive changes can be felt already in the first days or even hours. And the maximum reduction in symptoms occurs around the 10th day of treatment. Thus, phenazepam is perfectly suitable for a quick and effective fight against powerful emotional experiences, strong feelings of fear, anxiety accompanied by sleep disturbances, and also by many obsessions.

Pharmachologic effect:
Phenazepam has anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), sedative (calming), hypnotic, anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant effect.

Indications for use: Anxiety, irritability, emotional lability, nervous tension and other conditions falling under the category of neurotic, neurotic, psychopathic and psychopathic conditions.

In general, the scope of the use of phenazepam is extensive: insomnia, obsessive conditions, withdrawal syndrome with addiction and alcoholism, epileptic seizures, the etiology of which can be very different, myoclonic and temporal epilepsy, reactive psychoses, senesto-hypochondriacal disorders. The drug is used in schizophrenia as an antipsychotic drug.

In addition, phenazepam is used in neurology for a number of diagnoses (tick, muscle stiffness, hyperkinesia, athetosis). It is also used by anesthetists as a component of introductory anesthesia.

Contraindications: Phenazepam is prohibited for use in people with hypersensitivity to the components of the drug, pregnant and lactating women, as well as minors. In addition, do not use the drug for acute poisoning with drugs, alcohol, and hypnotic drugs. Other contraindications: severe depression, respiratory failure, shock, angle-closure glaucoma, coma, myasthenia gravis.

Dosage and administration: Phenazepam is taken as intramuscularly / intravenously, orally. The choice of method of taking and dosage depends on the type and severity of the problem.

If you need to shortly terminate anxiety, fear, psychomotor agitation (or in autonomic paroxysms or psychotic conditions), the drug is often taken in / m or in / in.

The adult initial dose is 0.5-1 mg, which is equivalent to 0.5-1 ml of 0.1% solution, the average daily dose is 3-5 mg (or 3-5 ml of 0.1% solution). In severe cases, the dosage can be increased up to 7-9 mg (or 7-9 ml of 0.1% solution).

Serial epileptic seizures. In this case, the initial dose (IM or IV) is 0.5 mg (or 0.5 ml 0.1% solution). The average daily dosage is 1-3 mg (or 1-3 ml of a 0.1% solution).

Diseases with increased muscle tone. Intramuscularly, adhering to a dose of 0.5 mg (0.5-1 ml of 0.1% pactworp) 1-2 times a day.

As a premedication preparation. Dosage - iv, slowly injected 3-4 ml of 0.1% solution of the drug.

It should be remembered that the maximum dose should not exceed 10 mg per day. The cancellation must be gradual. If there are stable improvements, it makes sense to switch to oral use of phenazepam.

Usage:
- In cases of sleep disorders, 250-500 micrograms are taken half an hour before going to bed
- With epilepsy - 2-10 mg per day
- When alcohol withdrawal is 2-5 mg per day

Side effects: At the first stage of treatment, drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, distracted attention, disorientation, unstable gait (in the first place all this concerns elderly patients) may occur. Also, there is a possibility of dry mouth feeling, nausea, heartburn, constipation or diarrhea, anorexia, urinary retention, skin itching, rash (allergic reactions).

Storage conditions: The temperature regime is 15-25 degrees Celsius. Do not allow children to fall into the hands. Store in a dark place.

Conditions for selling from pharmacies: Phenazepam is dispensed on prescription.


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Coaxil - Special instructions

13 Nov 2018

For a long time, tianeptine was considered the safest antidepressant, and was offered as a treatment for heroin addiction. Tianeptine - an antidepressant which was considered as not causing addiction and selling coaxil without a prescription. In the description of the application, and now indicated in the paragraph "Pharmacological properties" that "does not cause addiction ...", which is not true.

Coaxil - Special instructions

With the help of "brilliantly conducted" advertising company "Servier" the drug has become widely known among patients and doctors. And, the last two, three years, the curiosity is rather sad ...

To date, there is no serious scientific research, why coaxil as a drug, differing in the mechanism of action and the chemical composition of opiate-containing drugs, causes similarity of dependence, both in mental and physical manifestations.

When exposed to the body, in addition to the central nervous system, thrombophlebitis and severe thrombosis of the vessels often result, which lead to tissue necrosis and gangrene, which leads to forced amputation of the affected limbs. In the event that the drug is administered intravenously.

At the moment, the use of narcotics by co-addicts as a narcotic becomes more and more popular as an alternative to opium drugs, it is caused by cheapness, compared with heroin, and easy accessibility, many do not know what the effects of coaxil can be. Coaxil can be bought in pharmacies and its purchase is not difficult, coaxil price is not great. In preparation, for intravenous administration, does not require, such as "screw", the cost of time, and does not need additional ingredients. But the worst thing about using coaxil as a drug is that, in addition to the strongest physical dependence, this drug is able to cause a psychological dependence that exceeds dependence on other drugs, including it destroys the entire organism as a whole, surpasses heroin or other drugs in destructive power.

Four years ago, in one of the pharmaceutical publications, information was published that the drug on sales beats all records in absolute monetary terms among other existing psychotropic antidepressants in our country.


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First stage of alcoholism

08 Nov 2018

Duration from 1 year to 5 years.

First stage of alcoholism

At this stage of the disease, the patient develops a syndrome of mental dependence: constant thoughts about alcohol, a rise in mood in anticipation of drinking, a feeling of dissatisfaction in a sober state. The pathological attraction to alcohol is manifested in a situationally conditioned form. "Thrust" for alcoholic beverages occurs in situations related to the possibility of drinking: family events, professional holidays ...

There is a syndrome of altered reactivity in the form of growing tolerance. The tolerance of alcohol increases, there is the ability to take high doses daily, vomiting disappears with an alcohol overdose, palimpsests appear (forgetting certain episodes of the intoxication period). With mild alcoholic intoxication, mental functions are accelerated, but some of them - with the loss of quality.

Reduced quantitative control in the patient, a sense of proportion is lost. Following the initial doses of alcoholic beverages and the appearance of light intoxication, there is a desire to continue drinking. The patient drinks to medium or heavy intoxication.

The remaining symptoms of alcoholism at its first stage still do not have time to form. Physical dependence on alcohol is absent, the effects of alcoholism can be limited to asthenic manifestations and neurological dysfunctions.


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From temptation to nightmare

07 Nov 2018

During each of the forms of drug addiction, three stages are distinguished:

drug addict. Phenazepam. Phenibut

The first is the acquaintance of a person with a narcotic drug. It is characterized by adaptation. This is manifested in the disappearance of protective reactions, the development of the ability to use drugs constantly and often, increasing the doses of the drug to achieve the former effect (increasing tolerance), increasing the desire for drugs at the level of mental dependence, the formation of the ability to achieve mental comfort in intoxication.

The second stage is characterized by the appearance of two new symptom-complexes -an abstinence syndrome and a change in the form of intoxication. An abstinence syndrome (deprivation syndrome) develops after the cessation of narcotization. The syndrome is expressed in a consistent appearance at certain times (several hours after the last drug use) of various symptoms and their regression is usually also in a logical sequence.

With opium abstinence syndrome, after 8-12 hours after taking the drug, the attraction to it begins to exacerbate, tension, dissatisfaction, yawning, lacrimation, a runny nose with sneezing, and appetite disappear. On the second day, chills are added, followed by a feeling of heat, bouts of sweating and weakness, goosebumps, motor anxiety. There is a feeling of numbness in the muscles, pain in the chewing muscles. By the end of the second day of abstinence, agonizing pains in the muscles of the back and limbs are added, they are reduced, pulled, twisted. The patients become vicious, their mood is depressed. Attraction to the drug is irresistible. In order to take possession of it, patients who are in this condition can commit serious crimes.

On the third day there are pains in the abdomen, vomiting and debilitating diarrhea (10-15 times a day). The severe condition, due to the pronounced manifestation of all these symptoms, lasts for 5-10 days and is accompanied by an increase in temperature, blood pressure and changes in the biochemical parameters of the internal environment of the body.

In the future manifestations of withdrawal symptoms decrease, and they disappear usually in the reverse order within 2-6 weeks. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms depends on the duration of the narcotization. The developed abstinence syndrome described above can develop if a person has been systematically narcotized for 2 to 5 weeks. With less time and an irregular intake of opiate drugs, the syndrome does not manifest itself fully and its flow is shorter. When drug addiction is caused by other narcotic drugs, it has its own characteristics in each case.

At the second stage of the disease, another symptom develops - a change in the form of intoxication. The pharmacological effect of the drug disappears. To achieve the former euphoria, the patient increasingly raises his doses. But there comes a time when no dose can cause the former euphoria. This means that the drug does not cause the patient a euphoric effect. Narcotics exhausted the strength of the body. The addict, being alert and moving earlier before taking the drug, is sick and weak at the second stage of the illness outside his action. Now the drug only stimulates it - for a while it returns strength and vivacity.

Even more exhaustion characterizes the third stage, especially when opioaning. The drug does not cause not only euphoria, but even stimulating action. He only normalizes, tones up the patient, whose well-being, working capacity, interest in life is sharply reduced without a drug. "'A sufficient dose of it can temporarily improve one's health and return work capacity. And this dose may be less than before, since in the third stage in a number of cases there is a decrease in tolerance. Against the background of general exhaustion, and the severity of craving decreases, the pattern of withdrawal symptoms changes, but the patient can not still do without drugs.

The duration of each stage of the disease depends on the type of drug, the regularity and frequency of its administration, the way it is administered, for example, when using opium, the duration of the first stage is 3-4 months, the second is 5-10 years. injections of morphine or after 2-3 weeks of irregular intravenous administration of opium tincture. In just 2 weeks, a healthy teen doesomed herself to long years of severe illness.

The illusion of bliss and joy of the first 3-4 months of taking opium will turn into incalculable torments for him for many years to come. Of the innumerable possibilities of life that open before him, he chooses a dead end, instills in himself an insatiable monster - an attraction to the drug, and all the forces will go to the constant feeding him.


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Determination of the degree of drug dependence

06 Nov 2018

Read a number of criteria that are the basis for determining whether there is a drug dependence. Mark plus signs those signs that you have or your loved one.

Determination of the degree of drug dependence

A. Interest in the drug.
1. There is a constant heightened interest in the drug between doses, so the activity and the circle of communication are formed taking this interest into account.
2. If the dose is postponed, waiting becomes painful.
3. Communication with a certain circle of people who are criminals from the point of view of society and the law.
4. Attitude to the category of people, inevitably hiding from the law and violating it.
5. Playing such "hide and seek" begins to be valuable in itself, bring satisfaction.
6. The people around start sharing on those who are on this side ("their own"), and those who are on the other ("strangers"). By the second, hostility and alertness are established.
7. In the category of "enemies" easily come close, old friends, loved ones.
8. If necessary, choose a greater preference for drugs than for close people.

B. The loss of criticism to the state and self-control.
1. When you receive a "scheduled" amount of a substance, in the end, it turns out that more is used (a single dose is increased).
2. Evaluation of their ability to control the situation is inadequate - in fact, self-control is not enough neither to abstain, nor to make a dose less.
3. Confidence that you can always quit.
4. Do not admit to being a drug addict.
5. Confidence that others use more, so they are addicts.
6. If you do not recall the need for restrictions, he can not stop himself.

C. Increasing tolerance.
1. After a single or two-time use of the drug, the desire to take it again (instant dependence).
2. Not kept dose at a certain level (and not the more reduced), and constantly increases.
3. Able to consume in a single dose the amount of substance that, when first used, would lead to death.
4. The effect obtained from the previous dose does not meet expectations, is not pleasing or even absent.
5. Most of the day passes in search of funds for the drug, its production or use. The other does not have time.
6. increasingly isolated from society: broken old friendships and professional relationships, there is separation from family, termination of visits to places and events where previously he liked to be, and so forth.
7. The concept of "holiday" (New Year, birthday, etc.) disappears life, or becomes a reason for drug use.
8. Frequent quarrels, accusations of others, irritability over trifles.

D. The emergence of the syndrome of withdrawal.
1. In the case of conscious or forced abstinence, there are obvious signs of physical discomfort (abstinence, or "withdrawal").
2. Pain in the bones, pain in the muscles, cutting light, too loud sounds, fever, dryness in the throat, headache, weakness. It is difficult to find such a position that the whole body does not hurt. Because of such symptoms, rapid transitions from the position of immobility to a state of motor activity.
3. There are convulsive movements.
4. Symptoms of abstinence are reinforced in the community of the same drug addicts when they recollect and discuss the last "buzz sessions".
5. In a society of people who behave calmly, do not support conversations about drugs, switch to another, the symptoms of withdrawal are weakened.

E. The appearance of fear of "breaking".
1. A new dose is used to remove the syndrome of "breaking".
2. There are attempts to cause pity, asking for money for a drug or the drug itself, and justifying your behavior with fear of a painful condition. Accept the image of the victim.
3. Justify yourself when using a new dose to avoid "breaking".
4. Resorting to threats to get a drug or money on it.
5. When the dose is not enough even to get some nice effect, the use continues anyway.
6. Suffering during the "breaking" is exaggerated, colorfully described.
7. Despite the use of medicinal drugs, the symptoms of "breaking" are not removed.
8. There are people in the presence of whom the symptomatology is facilitated by itself.

F. Attempts to quit are unsuccessful.
1. There is an experience of repeated, but unsuccessful attempts to stop the use of drugs.
2. You become more persuasive, subject to influence and under the influence of conversations with different groups of people, a constant mestus from one pole to another - that fright of punishment or fear of the physical consequences of addiction, then aggressive behavior, bringing "weighty" arguments or active resistance to the "drug pressure group" ".
3. There is a "contrary" behavior. The more reproaches, moralizations, clashes with disapproval, condemnation, the more resistance, the desire to act spitefully.
4. Dependence on the drug group, the fear of losing contact with it.
5. Search for groups that support drug use, get there "help" and expose them as "saviors." Comparison with other groups is not in favor of the latter.

G. Everyday life is disrupted.
1. Drugs are used in any place and at the most inappropriate time - at school, university during class, office, at work, at the entrance, etc.
2. Drug use in any situation, threatening stress and stress.
3. Combating problems and stress solely by taking a drug.
3. Restriction of the diversity of spheres of life.

H. Studying work, private life, everything is falling apart.
1. Loss or inability to find work, frequent change of activities. If the student, then skipping classes or throwing to learn at all.
2. Difficulties in the process of work, about a career in general, it does not go.
3. Permanently "somewhere" disappear money.
4. Apathy grows, indifference to everything, except for a dose.
5. Sharply limited interests.
6. Do not attract even strong physiological stimuli, such as sex, food.
7. Completely "forgotten" to rest.
8. The instinctive sphere is suppressed - the sense of self-preservation decreases, the recklessness grows (even during the abstinence period).

I. Spiritual degradation and "narrowing" of the world.
1. Despite the obvious problems (see above), continued use of drugs.
2. Changing attitudes towards the world (the world is seen only as a source of drugs and no more).
3. The sphere of reality narrows to a minimum, leaving space solely for what is associated only with the drug.

Calculate the pluses for each group of characteristics and throughout the test.

Evaluation of results
Conclusion: if you scored 24 or more affirmative answers in the total amount, then you can talk about the existence of drug dependence.
Proceeding from the fact, by which groups of signs more positive answers are typed, one can judge the degree of dependence or the weakest points of resistance of dependence.


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Drugs and health

02 Nov 2018

In the first place, drugs damage the nervous system and the brain (Mildronate and Phenotropil can cope with it). Because of the death of brain nerve cells, the intellectual abilities of a person decrease, in other words, the addict gradually becomes stupid and turns into a half-idiot. In the brain, the drug causes the same changes that the schizophrenic patient has.

So the expression "drug addiction is voluntary madness" must be understood not only in a figurative, but also in a direct sense. Changing and the nature of man. He becomes dreary, languid, withdrawn, bored, shy, irritable, not interesting to anyone. Therefore, friends and friends very soon turn away from him - they are just uninteresting and unpleasant to communicate with such a person.

Drugs and health. Phenotropil. Mildronate. Heptral

Even if the addict succeeds in "tying", changes in the brain, and therefore in character and thinking, are not completely restored.

Very seriously drugs destroy the liver (Heptral and Cyanocobalamin can restore it). Any drug is a poison for the body. All poisons are neutralized by the liver, it takes the main blow and many of its cells die. In addition, drug addicts lose their sense of self-preservation and often use common syringes. So they are infected with hepatitis B and C. All this leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. In addition, drug users are often infected with syphilis and AIDS.

Drugs cause degeneration and dystrophy of depletion of the heart muscle (mildronate would sure help you). Such an aged, depleted heart can not cope even with a little physical exertion, so the addict quickly becomes tired and suffocating even from a small physical exertion. Against the backdrop of such a depletion of the heart muscle, even a small drug overdose can lead to cardiac arrest and death.

You can give an example of a stolen horse. If the horse whips without end, it will run until it falls dead. This is called driving a horse. Similarly, the drug pushes the heart, but instead of a whip, it's a drug.

In general there is no such body, such a system that would not suffer from a drug. The whole body suffers. Very heavily drugs suppress the body's defense systems and, in the first place, the immune system. Because of this, drug addicts often suffer from inflammatory diseases: bronchitis, pneumonia, kidneys and other organs. Due to non-compliance with hygiene rules (injecting non-sterile solution with microbes) and reducing immunity in addicts, sepsis often develops - infection of blood.

Drugs disrupt the process of digestion and the production of protein in the liver, so after a while addicts "reach" - grow weaker and lose weight until exhaustion, lose their teeth and hair, quickly age. During the period of drug use, the sexual possibilities (potency) of the addict tend to disappear completely, and if he manages to "tie", serious problems remain with the genitourinary system.


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