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Benzodiazepines - pharmacy and drugs

21 Aug 2018

The article is purely informative in nature, we do not advocate the use of drugs and other unlawful acts.

Drug addicts contrive to "catch high" in a variety of ways. One of the simplest and most popular is to swallow pharmaceutical pills containing substances with a narcotic effect.

Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines
Benzodiazepines are psychoactive substances that exert a retarding effect on the central nervous system, but, more precisely, they have hypnotic, anxious, sedative, relaxing, anticonvulsant effect. All benzodiazepines are representatives of the CNS depressant group.

In medicine, benzodiazepines have found their application in the treatment and symptomatic action in relation to:

  • epilepsy;
  • insomnia;
  • anxiety disorders;
  • spasms in the muscles;
  • withdrawal syndrome from alcohol, drugs.

The drugs are widely used in the practice of drug dependence treatment for opiates (in the first days for withdrawal), amphetamines, as well as panic attacks provoked by the use of hallucinogens. Strangely enough, the properties of benzodiazepines, drug addicts are more often used not for cure, but for getting high, because drugs have a narcotic effect.

A group of benzodiazepines was created back in 1955, and by 1959 they began to be sold in pharmacies (the first drug was called Valium). Physicians initially met this group of drugs with enthusiasm, it largely replaced barbiturates. But by the 1980s, a serious side effect had been identified - drugs caused addiction. According to studies, benzodiazepines, when consumed for a long time, damage the brain in the same way that alcohol does when it is abused. It is because of the fact that the drugs are similar to drugs, they are sold only on the prescription of a doctor and are appointed in a limited way.

Representatives of the group of benzodiazepines, who prefer to use addicts, are as follows:

  • Nordiazepam;
  • Phenazepam;
  • Diazepam;
  • Lorazepam;
  • Nozepam;
  • Quazepam;
  • Xanax;
  • Librium;
  • Serax and many others.

Among "drugstores" that affect the operation of the central nervous system, it is the benzodiazepines, including tranquilizers, that are discharged to people most often, and then are used far from their intended purpose. Recipes for medicines are usually falsely repaired, while dependent people use an unfair attitude towards their testing in many pharmacies.

Properties and mechanism of action

Benzodiazepines affect the specific receptors of the brain (GABA receptors), while increasing the similarity of GABA (gamma-butyric acid) with nerve cells. The result is a decrease in the excitability of neurons, which leads to a retarding effect. Activation of different types of GABA receptors by benzodiazepines causes the development of not only the therapeutic effect, but also various other effects. Some type of GABA-receptors are even called benzodiazepines, after all, after the binding with them, the drug "parish", which drug addicts expect, develops. The fact is that strengthening the work of all the described receptors provokes the release into the intercellular space of dopamine - the "pleasure hormone".

The duration of the sensations followed by drug addicts can be 2-8 hours, depending on the duration of the drug and its dose.

The effect that drugs give is as follows:

  • Reducing feelings of anxiety;
  • calmness;
  • tranquility;
  • reduction of pain and sensitivity to pain;
  • decrease in mindfulness;
  • Relaxation, complete relaxation;
  • a feeling of complete satisfaction;
  • serenity.

Properties of drugs - sedative, anti-anxiety, miorelaxing, hypnotic and others - largely depend on the dose used. Usually, drug addicts prefer to exceed therapeutic dosages by 2 or more times, which, in addition to obtaining the desired result, threatens to overdose.

Usually, taking the drug in large quantities, eventually ends with a deep sleep, but after awakening a person awaits a number of unpleasant consequences.
It is worth responding to the question of how many benzodiazepines are held in urine and blood. Thus, the exact time depends on the properties of a particular preparation and the characteristics of the organism. The half-life of blood is 1-100 hours. In urine, they last from 24 hours to 7 days or more.

Symptoms of Use
Preparations in the form of tablets are taken orally, or, if desired, enhance the effect, are poured into powder and injected. Symptomatology occurs due to the onset of action of benzodiazepines on the central nervous system. In general, narcotic intoxication resembles one when taking a large dose of alcohol. There is no alcohol smell from a person, and this is an important distinctive feature that will help drug addicts find out the fact of their use.

The main symptoms of benzodiazepine abuse are:

  • Slurred speech.
  • Violation of orientation in time, in space.
  • Dizziness.
  • Drowsiness of varying degrees.
  • Violation of concentration of attention. Decreased appetite.
  • Nausea) 0
  • Various problems with vision.
  • The state of euphoria.
  • Convulsions (rarely).
  • Delusions, utterances.
  • Nightmares in a dream.

With frequent consumption of benzodiazepines, people periodically experience depression, they lose libido, men get an erection. After the cessation of the effects of drugs often there are headaches, nausea, depression of mood. With intravenous administration of a drug, a drop in blood pressure, a violation of breathing acts is possible.
Side effects
Most side effects from this group of drugs are due to their sedative as well as relaxing effect. As the concentration of attention in the addict is seriously reduced, it is fraught with serious consequences - injuries, bruises. The situation is aggravated by drowsiness, dizziness. If a person in this condition sits behind the wheel, the risk of an accident is high, often with a fatal outcome.

The long reception of benzodiazepines greatly reduces the quality of sexual life, worsens eyesight, possibly reduces cardiac output, slows the movement of food through the digestive tract. There have been recorded cases of toxic liver damage (drug hepatitis), development of chronic insomnia, tremors, skin rashes, weight gain, chronic hypotension. Possible anterograde amnesia, muscle weakness, changes in the hormonal background. The longer the period of drug use, the higher the risk of depressions and suicidal thoughts, the development of panic conditions and other mental disorders.

Occasionally, there are abnormal side effects, which are not characteristic of the drugs of this group. However, when taking a large dose that drug addicts practice, they are quite possible:

  • Unmotivated aggression;
  • Convulsions;
  • Impulsive behavior.
Most often, a bad outcome occurs in drug addicts, already suffering from various disorders of the psyche and personality disorders. In most cases, this is observed with polydrug use.

Addiction
Even taking in a therapeutic dosage, but organized long-term, can provoke the development of dependence on benzodiazepines. It is proved that these drugs provoke both mental and physical dependence, but in a relatively low degree (in barbiturates, opiates it is much higher). The dependence is easily provable, since after the withdrawal of the medicine, a number of symptoms arise from the side of the body and internal organs, and also from the side of the psyche.

When taking benzodiazepines in a standard dosage, the dependence develops, on average, in 4-6 months, even when it comes to preparations of weak action. But very few people become really dependent if they did not initially have the goal of using the drug to get a drug effect.

But drug users who use large doses, and especially those who previously had experience using other psychoactive substances, densely sit down on bendodiazepines for 2-3 months. According to statistics, up to 50% of addicts undergoing therapy have a parallel dependence on this group of drugs.

Poisoning and overdose
Benzodiazepines may lead to overdose, but, used as a mono drug, rarely cause a fatal outcome (no more than 3% of cases of acute poisoning). But simultaneous reception of alcohol or opiates this probability is seriously increased, and this combination is very dangerous for life. Also, a high predilection for benzydiazepines in people who use cocaine, and such a combination is also considered risky.

Symptoms of an overdose of benzydiazepines may be:

  • Dilation of pupils
  • Weakness of the pulse or, conversely, a more frequent pulse
  • Bradycardia
  • Profuse sweat
  • Nystagmus
  • Skin stickiness
  • Superficial, mild breathing
  • Confusion
  • Sometimes - a coma
  • Asystole
Dangerous is also a complete abrupt discontinuation of the drug, so even addicts reduce it gradually, so as not to cause serious consequences for the cardiovascular system.

Treatment
In acute poisoning as an antidote, flumazenil is used, which inhibits the work of drugs in this group and reduces the risk of serious complications. But drug addicts with a long history of taking this medication is contraindicated because of the danger of even more unpleasant side effects.

The withdrawal syndrome in benzodiazepines may include such symptoms:

  • Sleep and appetite disorders;
  • Hyperhidrosis;
  • Dizziness;
  • Pain in the digestive tract;
  • Panic, fears;
  • Anxiety;
  • Headache;
  • Arrhythmias;
  • Convulsions.
The withdrawal syndrome lasts 1-2 days, but sometimes - up to 5-7 days or more (with a long service record). As for how to treat addiction and withdrawal symptoms, the basis of therapy is a gradual withdrawal of the medicine, as well as necessarily holding a psychotherapy. Outpatient treatment is possible only with mono drug addiction.

With the simultaneous abuse of more serious drugs, people are placed in a specialized clinic or dispensary, and then - for a prolonged (3-6 months or more) rehabilitation.


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Diabetic Nephropathy

21 Aug 2018

Diabetic nephropathy is a specific kidney damage in diabetes mellitus, accompanied by the formation of nodular or diffuse glomerulosclerosis, the terminal stage of which is characterized by the development of chronic renal failure.

Diabetes mellitus is a socially significant disease. leads to a decrease in the quality of life, early disability and high mortality due to micro- and macrovascular complications, one of which is diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetic Nephropathy. Actovegin pills

According to various epidemiological studies, diabetic nephropathy occurs in 40-50% of diabetic patients with a disease duration of more than 20 years.

Changes in the kidneys occur from the first days of the disease. Symptoms depend on the stage of the disease. The following stages stand out.

- Asymptomatic stage - there are no clinical manifestations, but an increase in the glomerular filtration rate indicates the onset of a disturbance in kidney tissue.
- The stage of initial structural changes - there are first changes in the structure of the renal glomeruli (thickening of the capillary wall, expansion of the mesangium).
- The prenaphrophic stage - the level of microalbumin exceeds the norm (30-300 mg per day), but does not reach the level of proteinuria (either episodes of proteinuria are insignificant and short), blood flow and glomerular filtration is usually normal, but can be increased. There may be episodes of increased blood pressure.
- The nephrotic stage - proteinuria (protein in the urine) acquires a permanent character. Periodically, hematuria (blood in the urine) and cylinderuria can be noted. Reduced renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate.

Arterial hypertension (increase in blood pressure) acquires a persistent character. There are edemas, anemia appears, a number of blood indicators are rising: ESR, cholesterol, alpha-2 and beta-globulins, beta-lipoproteins. The levels of creatinine and urea are slightly elevated or within the normal range.

Nephrosclerotic stage (uremic) - the filtration and concentration functions of the kidneys are sharply reduced, the levels of urea and creatinine are increased. Edema, proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), cylindruria, anemia, arterial hypertension. The level of blood glucose can be reduced. This stage is completed with chronic renal failure.

Fixed assets

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AT1 subtype): Aprovel, Cosaar, Lozarel, Losartan-Richter, Lorista, Prezartan, and others.

ACE inhibitors: Capoten, captopril, Diroton, Lysigamma, lisinopril, Amprilan, Dilaprel, Korpil, Piramil, and others.

Angioprotectors and microcirculation correctors: Doxie-Hem, Actovegin et al.

Antihypoxants and antioxidants: Tiogamma, Espa-Lipon and others.

Detoxifying agents, including antidotes: R-IKS 1, etc.

Additional medicines:

Supplements: Radaklin, OMEGA PREMIUM Life formula, etc.

Anticoagulants: Wessel Doué F, sulodexide, etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like agents: Ascorbic acid, Neurorolip, Thiocacid 600 T, Tioctacid BV, Milgamma compositum, Vitakson, Kompligam B, Milgamma, Benfolipen etc.

Hepatoprotectors: Berlition 300 and others.


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Sleep Disorders

21 Aug 2018

According to the study, almost 2/3 of pharmacists (64.9%) face a complaint about sleep problems, either "often" or "very often." According to the results of the same poll, more than half of all the primitive people (59.5%), after hearing such a complaint, "always give recommendations if necessary." What should the client pay special attention to when implementing these recommendations?

The cause of insomnia can be acute and chronic pain, various somatic, mental and other diseases (secondary insomnia). And yet more often sleep disorders occur in the absence of any pathology (primary insomnia).

Phenazepam and Sleep Disorders

The source of primary insomnia are excessive psychoemotional stresses. They lead to the development of the hyperactive state of the nervous system, which even with the onset of night time is supported by obsessive thoughts, fixated on the cause of stress, and is accompanied by an increase in the level of wakefulness, sensitivity to external stimuli. Over time, the main theme of these obsessive thoughts and the factor of insomnia can be the very fear of not falling asleep.

Primary sleep disorders can occur in three forms:

- difficulties with falling asleep;
- early awakening, inability to sleep again;
- superficial, restless sleep with frequent awakenings during the night, a feeling of dissatisfaction with sleep even after its long duration.

RX zone
At the expressed disturbances of a dream the leading role in their medicamental treatment play prescription hypnotics of different groups, appointed exclusively by the doctor. Recall that a significant proportion of these drugs is on the subject-quantitative accounting and is released strictly on prescription (the bulk of benzodiazepines, Z-drugs, barbiturates). Since only a narrow circle of pharmacy organizations has the right to work with them, we will not consider them in the framework of this article, focusing on "normal" Rx-preparations.

Benzodiazepines
The purpose of the application: ease of falling asleep, increasing the duration of sleep, reducing night awakenings with severe insomnia.

Principle of action: indiscriminately activate benzodiazepine receptors in the brainstem - increase the sensitivity of neuronal receptors to GABA (the main mediator of inhibition) - stimulate the inhibitory effect of GABA on the central nervous system.

Representatives of the group: phenazepam (generics - tablets Fenazepam, Fenzitat, Elzepam, etc.).

Features of the group
Benzodiazepines can depress the late phases of slow sleep and fast sleep, cause daytime lethargy and drowsiness, addiction, withdrawal syndrome, the formation of mental and physical dependence. In this regard, they gradually go to the background in the treatment of insomnia.

Z-drugs
The purpose of the application is: to facilitate falling asleep, to reduce night awakenings, to improve the quality of sleep in severe forms of insomnia.

Principle of action: enhance the inhibitory effect of GABA on the central nervous system by selective stimulation of omega-1 benzodiazepine receptors in the brainstem.

Representatives of the group: zaleplon (generic - Andante tablets).

Features of the group
Due to selective action, Z-preparations have a number of advantages over benzodiazepines: they practically do not distort the normal structure of sleep, they are better tolerated (especially zaleplon, which has a minimal half-life). However, with prolonged admission, they can also cause the development of withdrawal and dependence syndrome.

Sleeping H1-Histaminoblockers
The purpose of the application is to reduce the time of falling asleep, to reduce night awakenings, to improve the quality of sleep during short-term insomnia.

Principle of action: central histamine receptors are inhibited, as well as (partially) serotonin and acetylcholine receptors.

Representatives of the group: doxylamine (originator - tablets Donormil, generic - drops Valocordinum-Doxylamine).

Features of the group
Unlike benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, doxylamine is not associated with a risk of withdrawal and drug dependence.

Synthetic analogues of melatonin
The purpose of the application is: to facilitate falling asleep, to reduce night awakenings, to improve the quality of sleep in patients older than 55 years.

Principle of action: melatonin is the epiphyseal "sleep hormone", the maximum production of which occurs at night. Influencing the melatonin receptors in the brain, it plays a key role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle.

Representatives of the group: long-acting melatonin (originator - prolonged-action tablets Circadian).

Features of the group
- Melatonin does not cause addiction, withdrawal and drug dependence.
- On the pharmaceutical market, a short-acting melatonin preparation is also available, which is allowed to be dispensed without a prescription (section "OTC-zone").

Other drugs
Taking into account the etiology of insomnia, other groups of Rx preparations can be prescribed for its treatment, which can improve sleep and sleep by affecting the causative factors of the disease:

- antidepressants, nonbenzodiazepine tranquilizers, other antipsychotics - agomelatine (the originator is Valdoxane tablets), mirtazapine (the originator is Remeron tablets), alimamazine tartrate (the originator is Terialgen pills), etc .;
- nootropics - aminophenylbutyric acid (originator - tablets Noophen), etc.

OTC zone
A number of medications, shown for use in complex pharmacotherapy of sleep disorders, are allowed to leave without a doctor's prescription. In the absence of contraindications, the pioneer has the right to independently advise their clients pharmacies with complaints of mild or moderate insomnia.

Supplement to medicines can serve as a variety of "thematic" products parapharmaceutical assortment.

Sleeping Pills - Short-acting melatonin

Justification of the proposal: facilitate sleep, reduce night awakenings, improve the quality of sleep by normalizing the level of melatonin - the "sleep hormone", which normally is maximally produced at night and regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

Variants of the offer: Melaxen tablets.

Features of the group
Reception Melaxen is most suitable for insomnia in patients older than 55 years, tk. in old age there is a natural extinction of the production of its own melatonin. Melaxen can also be used for sleep disruptions caused by the change of time zones.
In comparison with the prescription melatonin of prolonged action (Circadian), Melaxen has a shorter half-life and a duration of hypnotic effect.
Melaxen is not recommended for use in pregnant and lactating women, children.
During the reception of Melaxen, one should abstain from the management of transport because of the possible decrease in the speed of psychomotor reactions.
Since light suppresses the metabolism of melatonin, after taking Melaxen, exposure to bright light should be avoided.
The possibility of taking Melaxen in combination with other sleeping pills should be agreed with the doctor, tk. the drug is able to enhance the effect of drugs that depress the nervous system.

Soothing preparations
Justification of the proposal: create the conditions for normal sleep when insomnia, caused by mild psychoemotional disorders - increased nervous excitement, anxiety, low mood.

Variants of the offer:
- phytopreparations - tablets and solution Novo-Passit, Lotosonik, Neuroplant, Simpatil, Fitorelax, capsules Deprim forte, Persen Night, "herbs" in the form of raw materials and alcohol tinctures - valerian, motherwort, peony, etc .;
- synthetic anxiolytics - Afobazol tablets, sublingual tablets Tenoten, Tenoten for children.

Features of the group
These drugs ease falling asleep, but practically do not affect the quality of sleep (depth, number of nocturnal awakenings, etc.).
During pregnancy and lactation, medications of this series are contraindicated or used with caution (only as directed by the doctor).
Most sedatives are used only in adult patients (from 12 or 18 years of age). The exceptions include Tenoten child (from 3 years old) and Dormiplant (from 6 years old). Do not counteract the preschoolers rhizome with the roots of valerian in the form of infusion of raw materials.
If the difficulties with falling asleep are caused by an easy or moderate anxiety, then the most appropriate drug intake with anti-anxiety properties: in addition to synthetic anxiolytics, they have complex phytopreparations Novo-Passit, Lotosonik, Simpatil, preparations with St. John's wort extract (Deprim forte, Neuroplant, etc.). In the case of difficulties with falling asleep against a background of mild or moderate deterioration in mood, apathy (but not in clinical depression!), The same phytopreparations with St. John's Wort extract are used. According to the instructions, the antioxidant Tenoten also has an antidepressant effect.
Most soothing drugs can inhibit the speed of psychomotor reactions, so during their intake should refrain from work and activities that require increased concentration. There are no such limitations of anxiolytics with anti-asthenic properties of Afobazol and Tenoten.
If the patient is already taking other neurotropic drugs (hypnotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, etc.), then taking OTC suppressants should be done with caution. With the exception of Tenoten, the drugs of this group can either enhance the inhibitory effect on the CNS of neurotropic drugs, or change the concentration in the blood of other drugs (remedies with St. John's wort extract).

Magnesium preparations, metabolic products
Justification of the proposal: play an auxiliary role in light sleep disorders: compensate or prevent a deficiency of natural anti-stress substances (magnesium, B group vitamins, glycine) regulating the inhibition processes in the central nervous system.

Variants of the offer:

- preparations with magnesium and vitamin B6 - tablets and Magne-B6 solution, tablets Magne-B6 forte, Magnelis B6, etc .;
- glycine preparations - sublingual tablets Glycine (100 mg dose), etc.

Features of the group
- Preparations with magnesium and vitamin B6 are contraindicated during lactation, and in pregnant women are applied only on the advice of a doctor. Preparations of glycine in a dose of 100 mg do not have such limitations.
- Magne-B6, Magne-B6 Fort, Magnelis B6 tablets are applied from the age of 6, Magne-B6 solution - from 1 year. Glycine has no age-related contraindications, but in small children this drug is difficult to apply purely "technically" because they do not know how to properly dissolve sublingual tablets.

Homeopathic remedies
Justification of the proposal: can help reduce psychoemotional disorders and facilitate sleep, incl. in combination with classical medicines.

Variants of the offer: tablets sublingual Homeostress, Dormickind, Nervochel, Nott's tablets, sublingual drops or spray Reskju Remedy (Bach), granules sublingual Vernison, etc.

Features of the group
In pregnant and nursing homeopathic remedies can only be used as prescribed by a doctor.
Most of these drugs are used since the age of three, Vernison is from the age of 18. From 0 years Dormikind is allowed (when used in children, the tablets are diluted in water).

Non-medicinal assortment
Supplements to maintain the functions of the central nervous system

Justification of the proposal: reduce the risk of progression of psychoemotional disorders and related sleep disorders. They are used in addition to medicines.

Variants of the offer: capsules Dream Interpretation, Sleep Formula, Trioson Tablets, Phytohypnosis, Dragee Evening, Baiu-Bai Drops, etc.

Features of the group
- Pregnant and lactating women, most "soothing" dietary supplements are either contraindicated, or applied with caution.
- The basis of the majority of dietary supplements in this group are the sub-therapeutic concentrations of various herbs of soothing action. Some of them also prevent a deficiency in the body of natural anti-stress substances: macronutrients (magnesium, etc.), vitamins (group B, etc.), amino acids (tryptophan, etc.).

Bath products
Justification of the proposal: contribute to the relaxation of the body during the evening water procedures.

Variants of the offer:

- salt and foam for baths - a series of "Sea fairy tale", "Doctor Solmoray", "Kneipp", "Fito", etc .;
- essential oils - basil, valerian, jasmine, myrrh, incense, chamomile, sandalwood and other soothing oils of the brands "Styx", "Elfarm" and others.

Features of the group
During pregnancy and lactation, these products are either contraindicated (especially essential oils), or applied in concert with a gynecologist.
In case of insomnia, the temperature of the evening bath should not exceed 33-45ºC. Too cold or hot bath can make it difficult to fall asleep due to a toning, exciting action.
Essential oils in order to normalize the state of the central nervous system can be used not only in baths, but also through burning (through aromatic lamps), inhalation, rubbing.


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Cirrhosis of the liver

21 Aug 2018

Cirrhosis of the liver is a chronic polyethological progressive disease that occurs with the defeat of the parenchymal and interstitial tissue of the organ with necrosis and dystrophy of the hepatic cells, nodal regeneration and diffuse proliferation of connective tissue, a violation of the architectonics of the organ and the development of some degree of liver function insufficiency. In economically developed countries cirrhosis of the liver is one of the six main causes of death in the age group of 35-60 years and is up to 30 cases per 100 thousand of the population. In the world, 40 million people die each year from viral cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, which develops against the background of the carrier of the hepatitis B virus.

Cirrhosis of the liver is more common in men, of the 4 patients with cirrhosis, three are men. The disease is noted in all age groups, but more often after 40 years.

Heptral. B12. Cirrhosis of the liver.

The main causes of cirrhosis:

  • intoxication with alcohol;
  • viral and autoimmune hepatitis;
  • chemical toxic substances;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • hepatotoxic drugs;
  • heart failure;
  • diseases of the biliary tract.
There is a cryptogenic cirrhosis, the causes of which are still unknown.

According to statistics, 80% of cirrhoses go unnoticed, without attracting the attention of either the patient or the doctor. Among the most common clinical manifestations of liver cirrhosis are general symptoms such as weakness, reduced ability to work, abdominal discomfort, dyspeptic disorders, fever, joint pain. Often there are flatulence, pain and a feeling of heaviness in the upper half of the abdomen, weight loss, asthenia.

The most frequent complaints are:

  • weakness;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • decreased ability to work (bloating, poor tolerance of fatty foods and alcohol, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea);
  • sleep disturbance, irritability;
  • feeling of heaviness or pain in the abdomen (mainly in the right hypochondrium);
  • impotence;
  • itching of the skin;
  • menstrual cycle disorders in women.

General medicines

Anabolics: Riboxin and others.

Beta-adrenoblockers: Anaprilin, propranolol, etc.

Hepatoprotectors: Hepatosan, Hepatofalk of the plant, Sirep, Erbisol, Heptor, Heptral, Methionine, Hepa-Merz, Ornitsetil, Karsil, Karsil Forte, Legalon 140, Legalon 70, Silageon, Silimar, Lipamida tablets, coated, 0.025 g, Lipoic acid, Brentzialle forte, Essentiale N, Essentiale forte N, Hepafor, Dipan, Liv.52, Liv.52 K, Tykveol, Phosphogliv Fort, Essley forte and others.

Diuretics: Aldactone-saltucine, Bufenox, Bufenoxa injection 0.025%, Aldactone, Vero-Spironolactone, Spirix, Spironaxan, Spironol, Urakton, Fursemid, Oxodolin, Moderetik, etc.

Metabolics: Lactulose Poli et al.

Inhibitors of fibrinolysis: Gumbix and others.

Interferons: Pegasys and others.

Coagulants (including coagulation factors), hemostatics: Vikasola injection 1%, etc.

Antiviral drugs: Viferon et al.

Enzymes: Creon 10000, Creon 25000, pancreatin, Hermitage and others.


Additional medicines

Supplements: Vazoton (L-arginine), Tykvelon, Hepagard Active, Hepagard, Neovitel - bioactive complex with milk thistle, Bifidum-Multi-1, Bifidum-Multi-2, Bifidum-Multi-3, Polibacterin, Hepatamin, Betusil and others.

Proteins and amino acids: Hepasol A and others.

Vitamins and vitamin-like agents: Pyridoxalphosphate, Ribovital, Retinol acetate acetate coated tablets 0.01135 g (Vitamin A 33000 IU), Retinol palmitate, cyanocobalamin, Ricavit, Livolin Forte and others.

Detoxifying agents, including antidotes: Carbactin, etc.

Immunosuppressants: Artamina et al.

Macro and trace elements: Oksirich et al.

Means that normalize the intestinal microflora: Probiophore, etc.


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What a holiday for people - for narcologist working weekdays

21 Aug 2018

The long-awaited New Year's holidays for the majority are additional holidays, which can be dedicated to personal affairs, family or travel. However, for some, a series of days off turns into hot working days: among them - health workers and especially doctors, drug experts. The demand for the latter in the first days of January is associated with a surge in the incidence of alcohol abuse among the population, manifested in the form of heavy drinking-bouts and poisoning with alcohol-containing products.

Phenotropil and alcohol

According to data, in 2018, more than 2.3 million people with a diagnosis of alcoholism were registered in Russia. The real number of people suffering from this disease significantly exceeds the official statistics - about 10 million. Each year the number of patients increases by about 200 thousand people, and the actual alcohol consumption per capita in Russia is already about 15 liters of absolute alcohol per year .

In patients with alcoholism disturbed functions of various body systems (nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, digestive tract, etc..); for this reason, treatment is carried out with a combination of psychological effects and drug therapy. When the active anti-alcohol treatment assigned different drugs that promote the formation of a negative reflex reaction liquor, causing at defined doses adverse cardiovascular reactions that alter the metabolism of alcohol in the body and others. As a maintenance therapy using antidepressants, tranquilizers (Phenazepam), antipsychotics and anticonvulsants facilities.

In the group of drugs for the treatment of alcoholism, the unconditional leader is the Calme conditional reflex therapy. The effect of drug therapy is expressed in the formation of the patient's unpleasant sensations from drinking alcohol on the background of taking the drug. The average duration of treatment is 3 months.

Lidevin also has a similar action. Unitiol and the B group vitamins that make up it block one of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol. Accumulation of alcohol oxidation products in the patient's blood is manifested in the influx of blood to the face, a feeling of nausea and malaise, vomiting, tachycardia (rapid heartbeats), increased blood pressure, which is ultimately directed toward the formation of aversion to the smell and taste of alcoholic beverages.

Against the background of increased retail sales of Phenotropil, Kolme and Lidevin, sales of Antaxon and Esperal drugs decreased.

Esperal is one of the most famous disulfiram preparations in Russia; the form of its release provides for both oral and parenteral administration. The latter - also known as "hemming" - is a subcutaneous implantation of the drug. The surge of those wishing to undergo this procedure according to statistics reaches a maximum in November-December of each year - on the eve of New Year's festivities.

After the cessation of taking alcohol or reducing its number with prolonged or prolonged drinking increases abstinence syndrome. Its uncomplicated forms are known to the townsfolk as a hangover, critical states (delirium) - as a white fever.

One of the groups of drugs used for abstinence, are antidotes. For a long time, drugs based on Unithiol, a substance capable of binding not only arsenic compounds and salts of heavy metals, but also products of alcohol metabolism, proved themselves in narcology. The standard forms of thiol preparations are injections used for emergency detoxification.

The most famous among the homeopathic medicines used in the treatment of the withdrawal syndrome is Proproten.

The decrease in consumer demand for homeopathic remedies in the treatment of withdrawal symptoms can be attributed to the skeptical attitude of many drug treatment doctors to these drugs, as well as to the lack of practice of their active prescribing for abstinence. A sufficiently high level of sales of Proproten is maintained by the manufacturer through active exposure to consumers through advertising in the media.

In addition to antidotes, other groups of drugs are used in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal: sorbents (Polysorb MP, etc.), hepatoprotectors (Heptral, Methionine), vitamins (mainly group B), nootropics (phenotropin, glycine), regulators of water-electrolyte balance (Regidron) and various analgesics.

There are hundreds of popular recipes that help to overcome the withdrawal syndrome - a hangover. A lot of materials are devoted to discussing the effectiveness of each of them, especially on the eve of the New Year celebration.

The results of a study devoted to the study of the effectiveness of various agents for the treatment of abstinence were published. Scientists have investigated the effect on the human body of a number of products and medicines: aspirin; bananas; complex of vitamins B, C and calcium; cocktail "Bloody Mary"; cucumber brine; calcium carbonate; activated carbon; cocktail "Ruff" (vodka + beer); coffee; cysteine; physical exercises; fresh air; Freshly squeezed fruit juices; ginseng; green tea; honey; Baths; ibuprofen; milkshake; multivitamin complexes; paracetamol; succinic acid, etc. Alas, scientists have not revealed reliable facts proving the unconditional effectiveness of any of the listed objects of research in the treatment of hangover syndrome.

Thus, the verdict of professionals in this field - drug treatment doctors - is quite severe: the only way to avoid abstinence is not to drink altogether. Otherwise, the reaction of the body will manifest immediately. The characteristics of the condition will depend on the individual sensitivity of the organism, as well as on the alcohol content of the drinks consumed.


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Season of sunburn

20 Aug 2018

Even in the worst summer, sunny days are issued - and most will immediately try to use them in order to "getting tan" on the beach. So, in the pharmacies will be added to buyers asking for the means for sunburn. Or for the treatment of sunburn. However, one does not rule out the other ...

Season of sunburn

Dangerous rays
Both sunburn and sunburn have one and the same nature - this is the reaction of our body to ultraviolet (UV) rays. When we are in the sun for a relatively short time, ultraviolet also burns the skin, but not for long and shallow. In response, the skin begins to produce more dark pigment, absorbing UV radiation - melatonin. This is the tan: the more melatonin in the skin, the deeper its brown shade.

In order to get a "bronze" shade of the skin, you need to get a sufficiently large dose of UV rays. And the same dose can be sufficient for a large (if sunbathing the entire body) burn, and with a lesion area of more than 50% of the skin, many problems can even be caused by a slight burn injury. Therefore, doctors recommend to sunbathe little by little. Well, those who need a "quick" tan, can not do without special cosmetics.

Means for sunburn should solve at once some problems. On the one hand, they must protect the skin from UV radiation, on the other hand - to pass a sufficient amount of the same rays for tanning. In addition, the spectrum of this radiation is divided into different areas: long-wave (type A - UV-A, or UVA on foreign marking) almost do not burn the skin, but penetrate it deeper and increase the risk of tumors, including. such a dangerous cancer as melanoma. Type B (UV-B, UVB) is represented by relatively short waves, they are better retained by the upper layers of the skin. And it is this radiation that causes both sunburn and burns.

The UV-A and UV-B rays reach our skin at the same time. Substances that protect our skin from UV-B-rays, allow you to stay in the sun without a burn several times longer. However, for the same long time, we will get and several times the dose of dangerous UV-A radiation ... So the maximum protection is achieved by introducing into the cosmetics substances absorbing or reflecting both types of UV rays - this is denoted by UVA / UVB, UVA + UVB, etc. Cosmetics only with UVA protection will not save from sunburn, but will allow sunbathing with a minimal risk of other complications, but only with UVB - protect from burn, but not from dangerous long-term consequences.

According to the content in the skin of melatonin and the possibilities of its production, all mankind can be divided into 6 phototypes, which react differently to solar radiation.
The first phototype, the so-called. "Celtic" is extremely pale skin - melatonin is very small in it, the beach and solarium are contraindicated for such people, there will not be sunburn, only a burn!
The sixth phototype is people with dark brown skin color: Negroids, aborigines of Australia.
Most Europeans refer to the second or third phototypes - you can sunbathe, but carefully!

Figures and Pros
Buyers often ask protection "stronger", and those who use the means for sunburn for a long time, can directly ask: "And what about the SPF of this cream?"

SPF - Sun Protection Factor - the main indicator of the overall effectiveness of sunscreen cosmetics, the value on the package can be from 2 to 100. However, in the US and EU the highest values are indicated as SPF 50+, in some tropical countries (for example, in Australia ) - SPF 30+. The real protection level can be 52, and 60, and 80, but "solid" manufacturers do not indicate this. Why?

Because of the common misconception that the SPF shows how many times longer than its "normal rate" a person can stay in the sun: for example, if a person sunburnt in 15 minutes uses a cream with SPF 20, he can safely to spend in the sun 300 minutes (ie 5 hours) ... Another variant of delusions - the figures indicate the percentage of delayed UV rays.

In fact, both assumptions are not true. SPF is calculated by a complex formula, and means with its value from 2 to 5 delay about 65% of UV-B-rays. At SPF from 11 to 19, up to 95% of the radiation will be delayed, over 20% to 99% ... So there is not much point to look for a means with the value of this factor above 50 - they are still intended either for maximum protection against sunburn in difficult conditions, for example in the highlands, or for people with extremely sensitive skin. Tanning with such creams and gels will not work, but to get a heat stroke, hoping that you can lie for hours on the sun - easily. If you combine sunbathing with swimming, playing on sand, etc., the protective layer from the skin is gradually washed off and erased, and under the influence of UV rays the protection gradually weakens, loses its effectiveness.

Recommending this or that remedy, you should ask - on the beach or in the solarium the buyer is sunbathing. And to propose the appropriate - the conditions of irradiation in these cases are very different, so that with the "for the beach" in the solarium you can very quickly get burnt, and with suntan cream there will not be sunbathing.

When it's too late to defend yourself ...
With a slight sunburn - for example, when the hands are blushed and itch to the short-sleeved line - they rarely go to the pharmacy. But if the touch of clothing becomes painful, the skin acquires a bright red tint - the search for a means for first aid for burns begins.

Remember that a severe sunburn is a dangerous injury! If the patient's body temperature rose to 39 C or higher, severe swelling, the skin wrinkled and sagged, large blisters quickly formed (over 5 cm in diameter) or a face covered with small bubbles, dark circles, dry mouth, nausea, dizziness , a fainting condition, pain persists even without touching the skin - you need to call a doctor immediately!

With a severe burn, it is recommended immediately to take inside the NSAIDs - this will at least partially relieve the pain and reduce the severity of the inflammatory reaction with swelling, redness, etc. If there is a suspicion of photodermatitis (burned places noticeably swelled, allergy symptoms are observed) - you can use antihistamines and drugs of systemic action. However, the main treatment for sunburn is done by local means.

For first aid, sprays (in extreme cases - gels) with lidocaine, anesthetine, etc. are often recommended. These same external pain relievers will be useful in those cases when the victim is difficult to fall asleep due to pain and itching from touching the bed.

As an anti-inflammatory agent that promotes the regeneration of burned skin, it is possible to offer dexpanthenol in various preparations - Panthenol, D-panthenol, Bepanten, Panesol, and the like. In the first hours and days after the burn, sprays with dexpanthenol are best used - they painlessly lie on extremely sensitive skin, do not damage it and are well distributed over the affected surface, forming a protective layer. In a few days, when the sensitivity decreases, you can replace the spray with water-based cream or gel: they do not have to be rubbed into the skin, and they do not violate thermoregulation - unlike a film of ointments on a fat basis.

To treat blisters on the skin, peeling or scaly areas, it is best to use antiseptics containing chlorhexidine, miramistin, silver sulfadiazine - unlike previously used alcohol solutions, they do not dry or burn the skin, do not slow down the regeneration and effectively prevent infection of the burn. Do not puncture the blisters!

After the acute period has passed, the regeneration stage begins - for simplification and acceleration, gels containing deproteinized hemoderivate (Solcoseryl, Actovegin) or allantoin are usually used.

Remind the buyer who asked for funds for the treatment of sunburn, that at least during the first week you can not go out in the sun, so as not to provoke an exacerbation. And even when the burn heals, a new skin grows on the damaged and peeling place - you need to protect it from new burns. And in order not to miss the summer and the possibility of sunburn, it is better to use protective cosmetics - by choosing means with increased protection, designed for sensitive skin.


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Colds in Pregnant Women

16 Aug 2018

With the onset of the cold season, we are increasingly reminded of the imminent approach of another flu epidemic. Journalists are waiting for another sensational pandemic, doctors are preparing to increase the flow of patients, and pharmacy employees are laying out popular anti-cold medications on the showcase and constantly responding to questions from customers about what can protect themselves from acute respiratory viral infection or how to heal if infection was not avoided . The worse the weather outside the window and below the thermometer, the more people who want to buy various antipyretic, antitussive and antiviral drugs - and, of course, there are many pregnant women among them, to the status and complaints of which the pharmacist should be especially attentive.

Colds at pregnacy

Cold and pregnancy: a dangerous combination
As you know, any infection during pregnancy is a very serious risk factor and the expectant mother should try to protect herself and her baby from her. However, avoiding infection during the seasonal epidemic is not so simple, most of the viruses that cause colds are highly contagious and can spread by airborne droplets. That is enough one trip in public transport or shopping, so that the immune system of a pregnant woman had to reflect a massive viral attack.

Given that the transferred ARI does not lead to the formation of a person's immunity, it is not surprising that the flu and ARI are in the lead in frequency and prevalence around the world. During pregnancy, the situation is further complicated by the fact that the immune system of the female body is not as active as in normal times. Especially the probability of infection for a future mother increases dramatically in the third trimester, when her body is most susceptible to any infections. Medical statistics show a rather alarming picture: from 55 to 82% of pregnant women suffer a cold, which often occurs quite heavily and is accompanied by serious complications.

Reduce the severity of the disease and prevent the development of complications will only help early diagnosis and timely adequate treatment.

Determine the onset of the common cold is simple, all of its symptoms are quite typical and well known. As a rule, from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first signs of the disease takes an average of about 1-2 days. At this time the woman can feel an incomprehensible weakness that does not pass even after rest, headache, discomfort in the nasopharynx and excessive sweating. If it is possible to "catch" this prodromal period and consult a doctor, then most likely the future mother will be prescribed antiviral treatment, which will help to avoid further development of the common cold. However, if a pregnant woman applies for antiviral drugs directly to the pharmacy, the pharmacist must dissuade her from such a purchase, or at least advise her before consulting the doctor.

Feverish syndrome - what to advise?

In most cases, the early period of the cold passes almost unnoticed and the sick turn to the doctor after the typical clinical picture of the flu or ARVI has been formed. As a rule, in the first days of the cold is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature and signs of severe intoxication - drowsiness, lethargy, headache and muscle pain. Especially high figures in the first days the temperature reaches at a flu (to 39-40 C) when it is very difficult to "knock down". Only after 2-3 days, the thermometer readings begin to gradually decrease and, under favorable conditions, finally normalize to the 5th-6th day of the disease. In some cases, there may be a secondary rise in temperature on the 2-3 day of the disease.

The increased temperature not only worsens the patient's well-being, but also has a very negative effect on the health of the baby's future, and therefore requires immediate treatment. Nevertheless, to normalize body temperature, physical methods should first of all be used: water wiping at room temperature, copious drinking, etc. Only in the case when the treatment did not help and the temperature continues to increase, you should resort to taking medications.

I must say that helping with the choice of antipyretic drugs - this is the main request from which colds turn to the pharmacy, tk. the assortment of preparations of this group today is huge and it is rather difficult to orientate the layman in it. The main thing that the pharmacist should pay attention to their customers is the effectiveness and safety of the drug they buy. According to international standards and WHO recommendations to date, the optimal ratio of benefit and risk is typical for drugs based on ibuprofen and paracetamol. But the intake of ibuprofen during pregnancy and lactation is not recommended, so paracetamol is recognized as the only safe for future mothers, which practically does not cause side effects during short-term use and has a good antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect.

It should also be sure to remind the customers about the need to strictly follow the instructions to the drug and do not exceed the recommended single and daily dosages, because overdose develops serious toxic effects.

In addition, a woman should be warned that any antipyretics, which include acetylsalicylic acid, are contraindicated in pregnancy.

Possibilities of symptomatic treatment

By the end of the 2-3 day of the disease, intoxication and fever decrease slightly, but there are abundant mucous discharge from the nose and cough - first dry and then wet. At this stage of the disease, decongestants, antitussive drugs and mucolytics are most in demand.

The choice of funds for the treatment of the common cold during pregnancy is severely limited, because traditionally prescribed local vasoconstrictive drugs based on naphazoline, xylometazoline, oxymetazoline, phenylephrine and other adrenomimetics are usually not recommended for use during pregnancy, tk. the study of their influence on fetal development was not carried out. The instructions to such drugs are usually written that "can only be used after a thorough assessment of the risk-benefit relationship for the mother and fetus." Therefore, the best advice a pregnant woman can get from a cold is various preparations based on vegetable oils with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial action, as well as sprays and drops with sea water or saline solution for washing the nasal cavity. In addition, it is necessary to warn a woman from using a very popular home remedy for the common cold - aloe juice, which is contraindicated in pregnancy.

Treatment for a cough in a future mother also has a number of features. Thus, antitussive drugs of central action during pregnancy are practically not used because of the high risk of side effects. The tactics of treating dry cough involves the use of funds that stimulate the sputum and improve its withdrawal. But mucolytics should be prescribed as carefully as possible: various syrups and medicines based on plant extracts - ivy, thermopsis, licorice, althaea, etc. - should become the drugs of choice. Any dosage forms containing ethyl alcohol, codeine and other antitussive substances of narcotic effect can not be recommended.

More recently, a solution of drinking soda or furacilin has traditionally been recommended as an anti-inflammatory agent for rinsing the oropharynx. However, now they are trying to refuse such methods, sodium hydrogencarbonate can provoke a violation of acidity and an increase in the stomach volume, as well as other unpleasant phenomena, and the effectiveness of furacilin as an antimicrobial agent has long been in doubt. For a pregnant woman the optimal anti-inflammatory drug are sprays and solutions based on chlorhexidine, a sufficiently safe and highly effective substance.

And, of course, do not forget about the possibilities of traditional herbal medicine, because a modern pharmacy can offer a rich selection of ready-made anti-cold medications based on medicinal plants. Antipyretic teas, anti-inflammatory rinses with decoctions of chamomile and sage, as well as many other phytopreparations will greatly facilitate the course of the cold and accelerate recovery. It is only necessary to carefully monitor the fact that among the contraindications to their use there is no indication of a period of pregnancy.


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WADA softened its position on Meldonium

15 Aug 2018

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) issued a special statement on April 14, according to which not all athletes with a positive breakdown into mills will be punished. WADA experts do not have accurate data on the withdrawal of the drug from the body and suggested that the drug could remain in the body of athletes after January 1, 2016, even if it was taken before the agency decided to include meldonium in the banned list. In turn, "Grindex" hopes for an open dialogue with WADA and will make every effort to ensure that the drug has been excluded from the list of doping.

Actovegin. Meldonium. Trental buy

Simple mathematics
Accredited WADA laboratories have begun studies that should clearly show what the timing of deducing Meldonium from the body. Already today the agency agrees that they can be long, up to several months. This is also indicated by the preliminary results of WADA research.

Academician of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Science. chem. Sciences, prof. Ivars Kalvish, the founder of Mildronate, is a little annoyed in this occasion. "If the agency WADA read my work on what is happening with Meldonium in the body, it would find out that the drug is stored inside the cells of the myocardium. The substance accumulates and lingers in the body, "he said at a press conference in Moscow on April 18. According to him, after a course of treatment in the body, a person accumulates about 18-25 g.

"The elimination half-life means that if the drug is taken in a dose of 1 g, then the first half of this amount, that is, 500 mg, is excreted for a certain period, indicated in the instructions, depending on the organism from 3 to 9 hours. In the next 9 hours 250 mg, the next 9 hours - 125 mg, etc. are output. Therefore, you need 20-30 half-lives in order to deduce 1 g. Now calculate how much will be deduced 20 g. About 120 days ", - counts the Latvian academician.

The main battle
However, this is only a temporary retreat of WADA. And it concerns only those athletes who will be able to prove that they took Meldonium until September 16, 2015, when it became known that he had been included in the list of prohibited medicines for athletes. The agency does not say that it intends to review the decision to the full.

At the same time "Grindex" - the Latvian manufacturer Mildronate - conducts active correspondence with WADA. "The position of the company" Grindex "is extremely simple: Mildronate has never been created as a dope, - says the Chairman of the Board of JSC" Grindeks "Juris Bundulis. - Its pharmacological properties and indications for use do not correspond to any criterion by which a drug could be classified as doping. As for our relationship with WADA, for a long period of time, on the basis of scientific publications, we tried to convince experts that Mildronate should not be included in the list. Unfortunately, the last decision on the list for January 1, 2016 was an unpleasant surprise for us. "

But, despite the disappointment, the company decided to open dialogue with WADA experts. On April 13, a letter was sent to the agency saying: "As far as we know, WADA's public statements on the properties of meldonium, which served as the basis for its inclusion in the List of Prohibited Substances in 2016, could be based on no more than three publications. At the same time, the conclusions drawn in these publications are not sufficiently substantiated. "That is why Grindex provided an overview of the therapeutic use of the drug for consideration by the agency.

Intermediate solution
How WADA will respond to these studies is still unknown. As they say in "Grindex", the agency is not very willing to communicate with the manufacturer. However, Russian doctors believe that the use of the drug for athletes should be made possible at least for therapeutic use.

"Now beta-blockers are prohibited, but there are life-threatening conditions, in particular, a rhythm disturbance, in which they can not be used," recalls Assoc. Department of Sports Medicine, head. the Laboratory of Sports Cardiology of the Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism, Ph.D. honey. Sciences Anastasia Mikhailova. - There are also beta-stimulants, which are shown to athletes with bronchial asthma. Probably, it would be possible to allow the use of meldonium in certain circumstances. "

To the question whether the company will be satisfied with this decision, at least, answered that specialists should solve it, but once again stressed that for the moment there is no scientific research that meldonium increases efficiency. And if this is so, then it should not be on the list.

As far as Grindex is enough, it is not yet clear. As noted during the press conference head. Department of Therapy, Clinical Pharmacology and Emergency Medical Care of MGMSU, Doctor of Medicine. honey. Sciences, prof. Arkady Vertkin, athletes - the smallest group of drug users: "Athletes are much less than the army of patients with whom we deal every day. Patients after a heart attack, stroke, oncology, fractures, injuries, the so-called group of less mobile people. "

So, even if the "Grindex" can not persuade WADA to exclude the drug from the list of banned, then for meldonium life will not end. Yes, and Mr. Bundulis himself admits that the doping scandal is a new opportunity for the drug. According to him, the company receives many letters from the professional medical community of countries where the drug is not registered.


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Buspirone

15 Aug 2018

Antidepressant: Buspirone (Buspiron)

Active substance: Buspirone
Buspirone struggles with vegetative and psychic manifestations of fear. In other words, it is an anxiolytic remedy. In addition, it has a significant antidepressant effect. Compared to classical drugs of this type, it does not give a sleeping pills effect, it does not relax the muscles. It can also be said that buspirone absorbed the qualities of both antidepressants and anxiolytics. Thus, the drug has a complex effect, which allows you to deal with several problems at once.

Buspirone

A significant advantage of the drug is that it does not cause the slightest addiction, and after discontinuation of its use, a person does not have an abstinence syndrome.

In clinical trials it was found that buspirone favorably affects the symptoms of social phobia, one of the most common types of anxiety disorders. So, 12 weeks of application of the drug was enough to make a marked improvement reached 2/3 of the patients.

Buspirone is ideally suited for complex therapy of depressive states with the concomitant use of SSRI antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). The drug not only enhances the overall antidepressant effect of such therapy, but also can prevent sexual dysfunction, which can occur as a side reaction to SSRIs.

Pharmacological action: The drug acts on a number of receptors of the brain (mainly on serotonin and dopamine receptors). The effect comes smoothly and is felt at the end of the first-second weeks of treatment. Peak effect is observed after 1 month of taking the drug.

Indications for use: Buspirone is used as a means to combat anxiety. First of all, it concerns neuroses accompanied by such unpleasant manifestations as insomnia, irritability, various somatic disorders, as well as feelings of danger, tension, anxiety and anxiety. In addition, the drug is used as a component of complex therapy for mild depressions, as well as for alcohol withdrawal (as an auxiliary therapy).

Contraindications: It should avoid taking buspirone during breastfeeding and pregnancy. The same applies to hypersensitivity, serious liver disease, kidney failure, epileptic seizures, myasthenia gravis and acute angina glaucoma. Finally, the use of this drug for people under the age of majority is prohibited.

Dosage and administration: The drug is taken orally. Start treatment with buspirone with a dosage of 15 mg / day for 3 doses. The effective dose, as a rule, is 20 - 30 mg, but go to it gradually, increasing the dosage by 5 mg every 2-3 days. The maximum daily dose is 60 mg.

Side effects: Buspirone is a safe drug in terms of lack of dependence, but can cause a number of adverse reactions of the body. This is dizziness, fatigue, nausea, headaches, tachycardia, a feeling of dry mouth, irritability, drowsiness or, conversely, arousal.


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What is detoxification?

15 Aug 2018

Detoxication - destruction and neutralization of various toxic substances by chemical, physical or biological methods.

Detoxification is a natural or artificial removal of toxic substances from the body. Or a complex of artificial and natural measures to cleanse the body of toxins.

What is detoxification

Complex detoxification presupposes first of all an artificial stimulation of natural processes of cleansing the body, and methods of artificial purification that the body would never be able to use independently, in view of the lack of such opportunities and resources in it.

Toxic substances enter the body in the form of drugs or alcohol and gradually accumulate in it. The longer a person uses narcotic substances or alcohol, the more toxic substances accumulate in his body. In simple terms, detoxification is the removal of poisonous substances from the body, purification of the poisoned organism.

What is the purpose of detoxification?

Detoxification is needed in order to rid the body of harmful substances, withdraw them naturally, while replacing the substances removed from the body for new vitamins and minerals necessary for the body.

Detoxification is useful to everyone, but it should be done correctly, so as not to harm the body. Studies were carried out, during which it was found that detoxification presupposes certain norms of necessary vitamins and minerals, which must be taken only in the right proportions.

After all, if you use them unbalanced the body can be destroyed, and not restored. Therefore, detoxification is a very important program, which requires close attention of specialists in this field of knowledge. This is why before the program detoxification for the public, the most complex studies were conducted, after which, for about 50 years, people have achieved success and become freer and happier.

Detoxification for addicts
Detoxification is necessary for people dependent on something either because in the body of these people accumulated deposits of any drugs or alcohol, which prevents a person from getting rid of addiction. It was noticed that these deposits in the fatty tissue of a person from time to time can again fall into the blood of a person, and even years later again cause a state of euphoria or the need to take this or that drug. Therefore, an inevitable step for any dependent is detoxification.

Detoxification involves running, sweating in the sauna, and filling the body with the necessary vitamins and minerals (Heptral, cyanocobalamin, B1 etc) that are washed out on the program. Detoxification becomes a simple and natural process, if we start with only these components. Detoxification should not be difficult, and its purpose is very simple, to remove toxins and teach the body to independently in the process of life get rid of those that in the future accidentally fall.


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