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Actovegin ointment and Actovegin gel. Indeed - an ambulance!

08 Oct 2018

The mythical hero Hercules for a long time could not cope with the Lernea hydra, because at the place of the severed head three immediately grew up. As you know, Hercules managed to make his second feat and win the same malignant amphibian. But the ability of the hydra to restore the lost, frankly, impressed. At first sight, in ordinary, non-mythical life, such miracles do not occur. But if we could, with the help of some magical gadget, see how the body repairs damaged tissue, in particular the skin, it would probably agree that it looks like a miracle. By the way, in the treatment of skin lesions, there is a mythology. We'll talk about this now.

Actovegin ointment and Actovegin gel

Each wound, abrasion or cut is an open gate for infection. Therefore, cuts and abrasions should be treated as quickly and carefully as possible with iodine or alcohol, without missing a millimeter of the damaged area.

If it is not a small surface abrasion, then use alcohol-containing solutions should be very carefully. Iodine, alcohol treat only the edges of the wound. The ingress of these funds to the wound surface further injures the tissues and causes a burn which will increase the number of dead cells and delay the normal healing process. Therefore, treat the wound better antiseptic, not causing burns - a solution of hydrogen peroxide or chlorhexidine. And then - in order to avoid re-infection of the wound and in order to speed up the healing process, it is useful to apply gel on the wound surface of Actovegin. It creates a breathable but insurmountable film on the wound and activates regenerative processes, stimulating blood circulation and improving the nutrition of tissues. And after the wound is delayed, you need to continue treatment with cream and ointment Actovegin - so that the skin does not form a coarse scar.

Burns, incl. and solar, it is necessary to treat with alcohol or smear with oil.

If the burnt skin is treated with alcohol, then a chemical burn is added to the thermal burn. As for oil, its use in the treatment of burns is not recommended for 2 reasons: oil forms a film on the surface of the burn which prevents the evaporation and cooling of the damaged area. In addition, the oil can not be attributed to sterile substances. Therefore, the probability of infection is high. To effectively treat burns, you can use Actovegin. With thermal burns with a wetting surface, Actovegin gel is suitable, with sunlight and thermal burns without wetting, help is provided by Actovegin cream. It has a light texture, it is easy to apply to damaged skin without causing additional pain. Cream Actovegin will accelerate skin regeneration, moisturize and soften irritated and inflamed skin.

To heal skin damage, you can use natural remedies - plantain or yarrow, for example. And no "chemistry" is needed.

Psyllium and yarrow, of course, can be used in marching conditions, if at hand there are no other effective means of help. But nevertheless it is necessary to consider, that such means can become a source of an infection. Therefore, it is better to use proven pharmacies in camping conditions: antiseptic and the means of the Actovegin line. This is not a "chemistry", but a set of natural factors that help to trigger natural metabolic processes. The main active substance is the deproteinized haemoderivat of the blood of young healthy calves. Included in the composition of drugs Actovegin substances improve skin nutrition, supplying cells of the affected tissue with oxygen, microelements and nutrients: amino acids and carbohydrate-lipid complexes, stimulate blood circulation.

There is no point in spending money on various dosage forms of Actovegin. It is enough to buy either a gel, or a cream, or an ointment. After all, the active substance is the same everywhere.

Actovegin is the only external preparation for 3-step therapy of wounds, abrasions, scratches and other superficial skin lesions. For each stage of healing is its Actovegin.

On a fresh wound with a wet antiseptic after separation, a 20% gel is applied. It covers the wound with a thin film, thereby reliably protects it from infection, and immediately starts the process of initial active healing. After 1-4 days, as soon as a fresh granular tissue (granulate) is formed in the wound, it is better to switch to 5% cream of Actovegin to accelerate the further healing. In the final phase of regeneration, for the full healing at the epithelization stage, the use of the Actovegin ointment is recommended. It is with this approach that the crusts will quickly disappear and the wound will heal without scars.

If the drugs Actovegin contain the blood of calves, then these drugs need special storage conditions. And the shelf life of them, most likely, is small.

Well, firstly, in the preparations Actovegin contains not blood, but deproteinized haemoderivat, containing only physiological substances - amino acids, oligopeptides, nucleosides, oligosaccharides and other useful trace elements. Due to this composition, Actovegin has antihypoxic, antioxidant and metabolic effects on damaged tissues. Secondly, all drugs Actovegin can be stored under normal conditions. They can be taken with them on a trip or on a summer residence. In this case, Actovegin has a long shelf life: the gel has 3 years, and the cream and ointment have 5 years.


Addiction to antidepressants

05 Oct 2018

Among the "normal" people there is an opinion that "antidepressants are very harmful", "they can go crazy", "get used to them for life", etc. Is this true? Of course, there is no smoke without fire, but fire is the cost of Soviet psychiatry, when strong remedies "just in case" were prescribed in large doses with the corresponding results. In the rest of the world, the attitude towards drugs is completely different. To date, about 65 percent of the US population is taking psychotropic drugs (primarily antidepressants and tranquilizers).

Addiction to antidepressants

There is a stereotype that taking antidepressants is a manifestation of a weak character. But at the same time, people who suffer from other diseases, such as hypertension or polyarthritis, take medication during periods of exacerbations and this is considered normal. For example, aspirin is not able to cure polyarthritis, but it can relieve pain in the joints and thereby alleviate the physical suffering of the patient. Unfortunately, in our society there is still a stereotype that depression is weak-willedness, non-assortment, and only a few understand that depression is the same disease that requires treatment. Yes, antidepressants can not always relieve depression, but they can reduce pain. Only not physical, but spiritual.

For many, the issue of addiction to antidepressants is important. Will not the body demand and after the release of depression another portion of the pills of joy? You can answer more than unequivocally - the drugs used to date in the treatment of depression, do not cause addiction, regardless of the duration of treatment. They only help the body to restore those mechanisms that were disturbed by depression.

Those people whose work is related to creativity, often worried about the question, will the antidepressant drug use interfere with the processes that are responsible for creativity? In most cases, depression does not have the best effect on creativity, but most often makes it impossible. Antidepressants are able to restore a broken inner world and restore the ability to create a person's ability to create, because most often creativity contributes to mental health.

The task of a psychiatrist is to select the right preparations. Only half of the patients experience improvement after the first course of therapy, so that the selection of drugs can be called trial and error. A doctor can prescribe several drugs before he finds the most effective one. In many clinics, it is practiced to prescribe free drugs to persons who are on psychiatric records. Since the cost of the drugs of the last generations can reach $50-100, and they can be written down several types, imagine how much it can cost. Although - they say that over the past 30 years nothing better and stronger than the good old amytriptilin has not been invented. New drugs basically differ in contraindications (they are much less) and at a price (it is much higher).

The effect of the drug is not immediately apparent - usually between the time of the beginning of the reception and the appearance of a positive effect is not less than 2-3 weeks, although in some cases, positive mood changes may appear in one week. For someone, drugs are a panacea, and a person who has tried to escape from depression for many months unsuccessfully comes to life right before our eyes. Someone they are able to remove only some of the depressive symptoms. But there are people on whom drug therapy does not affect. Do not rush to rank yourself in the last category - everything is very individual, and in some cases a stable result can come only after a few months.

Often drugs are prescribed together with other methods of treatment. Antidepressants are most often unable to fill the inner world with light and completely rid themselves of depressive experiences, but they are able to give at least some feeling of stability, to ease the symptoms of depression.

Another important point is the name of the drugs. For example, fluoxetine, which is by far the most popular drug both in America and in Europe, is represented on the Russian market by almost 20 pharmaceutical companies. This means that the same drug is sold under 20 different names. And if the recipe simply says "fluoxetine", then you have to focus on the ratio of "price / quality." The cheapest are Russian and Indian drugs, but they often have a lot of side effects. Drugs produced by Western pharmacists are more expensive, but the side effects are not as pronounced.

Mary, 32 years: “For several years I have to take antidepressants. At first they really "help the body to restore those mechanisms that were disturbed by depression." Rather, they even make the body (in particular, the brain) what it should do by itself.

And he gets so used to it that he refuses to work after the drug is discontinued. Even if you cancel the medicine according to all the rules, with the exact calculation of dosages.

I tried to cancel antidepressants several times, in different ways, under the supervision of doctors. As a result, the brain simply refuses to work.”

Many will say that an untreated disorder simply returns again in its entirety. This is not so: before going to the drugs I felt much better - at least, I could walk and talk.

In practice, I have come across many people who have been suffering from depression for years and often in severe form, but have never been treated with antidepressants. Many of them have a stereotype that "like as long as I am without drugs - I can consider myself normal, and it is only necessary to start ..." And what, what will happen next? See what is already happening to your life. I repeat - the drugs are not addictive, and you can stop the therapy at any time even if you sit on drugs for many years, without prejudice to your health. Often, it is the depression that does not use any of the techniques in this section, because in order to try something, you need strength and a sense of stability, and depression takes it all away. Drugs are able to give the necessary foundation, change your attitude, ease depression, and then, while taking medications, you can go jogging, go to a therapist, practice sleep deprivation and do many other things. I myself took antidepressants for many years and they played an important role in the therapy of my depression, and years later, when I managed to deal with depression, and its symptoms became much weaker, I just stopped taking them. Do you understand?


Rating of hypnotics and sedatives

03 Oct 2018

Most sedatives are combined medicines and herbal products. The leader of the segment by the volume of pharmacy sales for the third year in a row is Novo-Passit (Teva), the II place with 11.72% share of sales belongs to Valocordin, and the top three tablets Corvalol (producer - "Pharma Start"). "Traditional" Corvalol (in the form of drops) takes the 4th line of the rating of sedatives.

Rating of hypnotics and sedatives

In addition to Corvalol, Valoserdin is a popular sedative for Russian production, which is also used as a cardiac remedy for rhythm disturbances. Over the past year, its sales grew by 5%.

TOP 10 hypnotics and sedatives

1) Novo-Passit
2) Valocordin
3) Corvalol drops
4) Corvalol tablets
5) Persen forte
6) Valoserdine
7) Persen
8) Melaxen
9) Valerian
10) Motherwort extract


Destructive Power of Cocaine

02 Oct 2018

Cocaine destroys the nose

The incredible increase in cocaine consumption in all walks of life began in the 1960s. He attracted attention when the drug played a major role in the Hollywood blockbuster Easy Rider. He became a super-popular drug, and there was an explosion of demand for it, which caused an increase in supplies from South America. Formed international supply chains and the names of drug cartels have become well known. The largest drug lord of them all, Pablo Escobar, was one of the richest people in the world, earning millions of dollars every day.

Since Escobar, the cocaine business has expanded its product range. Now there is cocaine for every budget. This stuff costs $40 per gram. Can you easily see the difference, because it's powdery, while the coke that costs $80 grams, it is crystalline, you can even see a bit of shine. Just grind it. It's good stuff, you can taste the difference. This is a cheap material, it slightly hurts his nose. From this coke does not hurt at all, it runs beautifully and smoothly.

Destructive Power of Cocaine

What is harmful about cocaine?
If you inhale too much of any type of coke, you can damage your nose. The mucous membrane inside the nostrils is affected, this causes the blood vessels to shrink and clot, depriving the surrounding tissues of supply with blood and oxygen. In the end, the tissues weaken and die. This can lead to a perforation in the nose. To treat these injuries, surgery is often required. Consultant Surgeon Sandeep Paun is a leading specialist in the field of nose reconstruction. As a result of regular use of cocaine, a hole formed in his nose in the nose. He wished to remain anonymous. Today we are going to carry out an operation to eliminate the perforation of your nasal septum. When did you do it last? I do it regularly, most recently six months ago. OK. there are no guarantees that we will be able to completely close the perforation. After consuming cocaine, the operation to close the perforation of the septum is quite difficult.

Destructive Power of Cocaine
I learned about the hole only when I went to the doctor, and he pulled blood clots from his nose that covered the hole that looked really scary. And all the fault was cocaine, a drug. When you look at Danielle Westbrook, as soon as you see her, you will understand what happened to her, her nose actually collapsed and the worst thing is that it can happen to you. During operation, the patient's nose will be cut and divided into two parts. The picture is very illustrative. We'll just look in the nose of this gentleman now. We move in through the nostrils, that's the inner view. On the front wall we can see this hole. In fact, this is a relatively small hole for a patient who abuses cocaine. It should be much more. Often these holes progress far beyond the size that we see here. Knife, please. Sometimes, when you make a strip, you experience a very strong, unbearable burning sensation from the very beginning of your nose to the back of your throat, very painful. The next day, you wake up with blood clots, and you, in fact, snot the pieces of your nose.

With chronic cocaine abuse, perforation becomes more and more, and the cartilage becomes weaker and weaker, because it lacks support. The upper part of the nose begins to collapse, and you can, ultimately, get a boxing appearance. Scissors please. I had patients who had destroyed the entire nasal septum. They had one nasal cavity, and everything just fell through. I sniffed coke every day. You do not worry when you do this. But then, the nose hurts scared, when the nose is bleeding you regret that they were doing it .. So, we see inside the nose, the mucous membrane, on the one hand, you can see the hole in the shell, first the cocaine forms a hole in the shell, and not in the cartilage, but then it corrodes the cartilage and eventually forms a through hole.

About coke
Cocaine is often mixed with all kinds of contaminants, including soda, glucose and, in the worst case, even with talc, which can lead to an intense inflammatory reaction. This inflammation can cause tissues in the nose to die even faster. Ironically, Mr. Pawn uses cocaine to stop the bleeding of the patient. Patients do not inhale it in advance, we give them a small amount in a liquid form. I just cut out a small piece of cartilage from the back of the nasal septum, which we then intend to insert into the front part, A little cartilage will close the hole. So, you can see here that the shell was completely closed, in the place where the hole was. If we look at the other side, There's no opening right now. I do quite a lot of nose surgery in London. There is a lot of money. About once every few weeks, I have a patient who has problems with cocaine use.


Second stage of alcoholism

01 Oct 2018

Duration 5-15 years.

Second stage of alcoholism

At this second stage all the symptoms of alcoholism become heavier. The pathological attraction to alcohol becomes more intense and arises not only in connection with "alcoholic situations", but also spontaneously. Patients are more likely to find motivation for alcoholization themselves than to use the appropriate situations.

Tolerance in the formation of the second stage continues to increase, reaches a maximum, and then, for a number of years, remains constant. Alcoholic amnesia becomes systematic, individual episodes of a significant part of the intoxication period are forgotten.

During this period of the disease, the form of alcohol abuse changes. This can be expressed in the tendency to periodic or constant abuse of alcohol throughout the disease. In the first case, frequent single drinks are replaced by drinking-bouts. Drinks are characterized by periods of daily drunkenness, the duration of which can range from a few days to several weeks.

There is a physical dependence on alcohol. A sharp break in drunkenness is accompanied by an abstinence syndrome: limb tremor, nausea, vomiting, lack of appetite, insomnia, dizziness and headache, pain in the heart and liver.

Alcoholics have changes in the mental sphere. The level of personality decreases, creative possibilities are lost, intellect is weakened. There is psychopathy and delusions of jealousy. In the future, it can go into a persistent delirium, extremely dangerous for the patient and his loved ones.


How to treat fungal diseases

21 Sep 2018

Currently, fungal - mycotic - infections affect about 20% of the world's population. More than 100 thousand mushrooms are known, of which about 50 thousand are pathogenic for humans. In this case mycosis is very contagious.

The most common mycoses with a lesion of smooth skin and nail plates - onychomycosis. The causative agent of onychomycosis can be dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum) that affect the nail plates on the toes of the feet, brushes, smooth skin, as well as long and hairy hair, and Trichophyton interdigitale - the nails that damage the toes and the interdigital folds, the upper third of the sole and the arch of the foot. Often, onychomycosis causes yeast-like fungi of the species Candida and mold fungi - Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Aspergillus, Fusarium and others.

How to treat fungal diseases

The defeat of the nail plates can proceed according to the normotrophic type - only the color of the nails changes: in their lateral areas, spots and bands appear, the color of which varies from white to yellow, gradually the whole nail changes its color while retaining its thickness.

In hypertrophic type, subungual hyperkeratosis is attached to the changed color; the nail loses color, becomes dim, thickens and deforms.

For the onycholitic type, a dull brownish-gray color of the affected part of the nail, its atrophy and rejection from the bed is characteristic, the exposed area is covered with loose hyperkeratotic scales. In 15-25% of patients with mycosis, the stop fungal process spreads primarily to large skin folds, then to other parts of the skin. The effects of mycosis feet are quite serious. Under the influence of fungi and the products of their vital activity, polyvalent sensitization is formed, which leads to an increase in the frequency of allergic skin diseases, mucous membranes, attachment of eczematous complications, drug intolerance, especially antibiotics of the penicillin series. In addition, through erosion and cracks in the macerated, loosened horny layer of the skin, bacteria easily penetrate. Bacterial complications are characterized by resistance to therapy, bacteria under the influence of antibiotic substances produced by fungi, acquire increased resistance to antibiotics.

Combating the fungus from the outside and inside

Etiotropic treatment of onychomycosis happens:

- local (external) - the antifungal drug is applied to the smooth skin or the affected nail;
- systemic - the drug is prescribed inside, and it enters the nail plate through the blood.

To the requirements for antifungal drugs, in addition to their effectiveness, include a wide range of antifungal activity, rapid absorption, safety (the absence of common and local side effects), as well as ease of use.

Means of local therapy. If the patient has various diseases (chronic hepatitis, nephritis, pathology of the cardiovascular system), as well as with superficial mycosis and mycosis of smooth skin, the main principle of treatment is the appointment of local antifungal therapy (ointments, creams, gels, sprays, solutions and varnishes ). Antifungal components of these forms do not penetrate through the nail plate, so the drugs are applied to the smooth skin or to the naked nail bed - they are rubbed 2-3 times a day until a healthy nail plate grows.

Drugs containing only antimycotic are isolated, for example: bifonazole (1% cream, 1% solution, spray, powder), isoconazole (1% cream), ketoconazole (2% cream), clotrimazole (1% ointment, 1% solution, 1% cream, 2% cream, suppositories), miconazole (2% cream), econazole (1% cream, 10% solution), naphthiphine (1% cream, 1% solution), terbinafine (1% cream), natamycin (2% cream), chloronitrophenol (1% solution).

Drugs of double action, which, in addition to antimycotics, include anti-inflammatory substances: clotrimazole and betamethasone (cream), miconazole and mazipredon (ointment), isoconazole and diflucortolone (cream).

Preparations of triple action - with antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory action: clotrimazole, gentamicin and betamethasone (cream, ointment), natamycin, neomycin and hydrocortisone (cream, ointment, lotion).

Very convenient for use in local therapy of onychomycosis varnishes (with active substance 8% cyclopyrox and 5% amorolfin). They differ not only in high fungicidal activity against dermatophytes, molds and yeast-like fungi, but also antibacterial against gram-positive and gram-negative flora. To cure onychomycosis, 6 months of therapy is sufficient on the hands, 9-12 months on the feet.

A solution containing the active ingredient terbinafine hydrochloride (1%) is applied once a day. When applied, a thin film forms on the surface of the epidermis, from which the active component is released into the deeper layers in the therapeutic concentration for 13 days. Sprays, which include terbinafine and bifonazole, have a primary fungicidal effect.

At local use of preparations there are no systemic side effects, but when applied to the surface of the nail they do not always reach the pathogen capable of damaging not only the nail plate, but also penetrating into the nail bed, deep layers of the skin and even into the medullary canal of the fingers, especially with total defeat a nail plate. As practice shows, local treatment alone, in most cases, does not lead to complete recovery of patients.

Preparations of systemic action. Systemic therapy provides penetration of drugs into the nails through the blood. Although it does not allow you to immediately create in the nail such high concentrations as with topical application, but the supply of the drug in the nail bed and matrix with systemic therapy is guaranteed. Many systemic drugs accumulate in the nail matrix in quantities far exceeding the minimum inhibitory concentrations, and are able to remain there after the treatment is over.

There are 3 groups of compounds created for the systemic treatment of fungal infections in humans:

- inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis; it is the main sterol of the fungal cell and is necessary for the propagation of fungi;
- allylamines, squalene epoxidase inhibitors, blocking the conversion of squalene to squalene epoxide);
- azoles, inhibiting the activity of fungal cytochromes P-450;
- morpholines inhibiting delta14-reductase and delta8-delta7-isomerase.

Synthetic antimycotics of the azole series include itraconazole and fluconazole. Itraconazole has the widest spectrum of action on dermatophytes, different species of Candida and many mold fungi found in onychomycosis. At the distal ends of the nail plate, itraconazole can be detected after 1 week of treatment. In the matrix, the drug accumulates and is excreted only when the new nail plate grows, therefore, the effective concentration of the drug after its abolition is maintained in the nails on the hands for another 3 months, and on the legs - for 6-9 months with a 3-month course of treatment.

Fluconazole in the treatment of onychomycosis is used according to the pulse therapy scheme, the duration of which depends on the form and localization of onychomycosis: about 6 months with nail damage on the hands, up to 12 months on the legs.

Terbinafine (an allylamine derivative) is highly effective and safe in the treatment of onychomycosis, the drug can be used in children. But many yeast fungi, in particular Candida albicans, are resistant to terbinafine. At infections of fingernails or nails on arms or hand the term terbinafine treatment makes 6 weeks, at infections of fingernails or nails on legs or foots - 12 weeks (3 months).

The above drugs are metabolized in the liver with cytochrome P-450, but itraconazole, in addition, interacts with this enzyme, disrupting the metabolism of many medications, which it somehow influences. Hepatic complications from increasing the level of hepatic enzymes to the possibility of hepatitis are higher in itraconazole than in terbinafine (0.3-5% vs. 0.1%, respectively).

Ketoconazole, a synthetic preparation from the class of azoles, has a wide spectrum of action, but many mold fungi - causative agents of non-dermatophytic onychomycosis - are resistant to ketoconazole. With onychomycosis, the treatment takes 4-6 months and 8-12 months - with onychomycosis stops. The main toxic effect of ketoconazole is its effect on the liver. An increase in the concentration of hepatic transaminases during treatment is observed in 5-10% of patients taking ketoconazole.

The greatest efficacy of mycosis therapy is still achieved with combined etiotropic treatment, which combines the administration of a systemic antimycotic and a local drug.

It is also necessary to remember the prevention of the disease, which includes personal hygiene, nail and foot skin care, the prophylactic use of antifungals after exercise, visits to public institutions (saunas, swimming pools), disinfection of shoes and bath, sex and pedicure accessories, once a week For prevention, you can cover your toenails with antifungal lacquer.

Many people with foot mycosis try to start treatment on their own, which in most cases does not bring the desired effect, but only aggravates the course of the disease (spreading skin rashes, involving more nail plates and complications in the form of eczematiza- tion), so treatment should be done after consultation of a specialist - a doctor-mycologist who correctly diagnoses and selects treatment for each individual patient individually.


How to quickly remove hangover syndrome

14 Sep 2018

Dilute 5-6 drops of ammonia in a glass of cold water and drink. Dead drunk unclot your mouth and pour in. 20 drops of mint alcohol help in the same way.

Lay the one you want to bring back to life. With the palms of your hands, rub both his ears quickly and strongly. A rush of blood to the head should lead the drunk into consciousness.

How to quickly remove hangover syndrome

Strong sweet tea eliminates dizziness.

If things have gone too far, you should wash your stomach. A malicious but effective procedure: two fingers in the mouth - and vomiting. If it does not become easier, drink a weak solution of baking soda or potassium permanganate. Then take a laxative. Thus from you all the remnants of the holiday will come out.

A small, but a wide glass, moisten a few drops of vegetable oil (to cover the walls). Mix egg yolk with 10-20 drops of vodka and add a pinch of ground red and black pepper. Drink with a volley, pre-mixing properly.
The easiest method to combat a light hangover is a cup of coffee or tea on an empty stomach. These drinks relieve the feeling of weakness and fatigue. However, already a double dose can increase nervousness and irritability. In tea it is good to add lemon, honey or currant jam. All these additives can be consumed by mixing lemon or currant juices with mineral water. Folk remedies like brine or sour cabbage soup also fit into the pharmacological canons, although none of the medicines are listed. Paradoxically, these acutely acidic drugs are struggling with the acidification of blood, which is inevitable in a hangover. The weak acids contained in them, the blood only alkali.

When all standard brine-type methods have already been tried, and the soul craves something extravagant, try some foreign method. For example, out of solidarity with the Puerto Rican workers, get drunk according to their methods: take half a lemon and rub it under your armpits.

If the heart allows, go to the bath in the morning. Abundant sweating opens the pores and removes harmful metabolic waste from the body. After that, join the happy in marriage to men, from the earliest times, a borsch, a soup or broth brewed by good wives on the eve.

Maybe it's time for us, Slavs, to move on to cultural wine drinking? Then there would be no reason to write about alcohol poisoning.

Well, those who still decided to "tie" with alcoholic dope, but can not do it even with the help of official medicine, we will give some advice. The people have accumulated a lot of recipes to help people who pass before the green serpent. Here are some of them:

- Take 1 tbsp. a spoonful of centaury, one part of herb wormwood and one part of thyme - all dried. Pour 15 g of the mixture (5 g each) 200 ml of boiling water. Insist, wrapped, 2 hours, strain. Take 1 tbsp. spoon 4 times a day before meals;
- in 250 grams of vodka put a clean dried celery root and two dry leaves of the laurel of the noble. Insist for two weeks. To give a glass of such a tincture - most drinkers have a strong aversion to alcohol;
- 1 tbsp. Spoon the crushed dry roots of the claw into a glass of water. Boil for 10-15 minutes on low heat. Insist, wrapped, 30 minutes, strain, 1 tbsp. Spoon the decoction of the root of the claw into a glass with vodka, give a drink. Such a mixture will cause vomiting and a persistent dislike for alcohol. Precisely observe the dosage, since the plant is poisonous. The drunkard should not know that something has been mixed with vodka.

The use of glycine

In those ancient times, when every amateur photographer himself exhibited films and himself printed photographs, in the photoshop it was possible to buy glycine, a substance that was part of many developers. So called in everyday life the simplest of amino acids - aminoacetic acid.

Later, in the 80's, glycine began to produce the pharmaceutical industry. It was used as a metabolic corrector, that is, a substance capable of influencing delicate metabolic processes.

Not so long ago, a little over a decade ago, physicians paid attention to another property of glycine. It turned out that glycine is capable of neutralizing the toxic products of decomposition of ethyl alcohol and reduces the pathological attraction to alcohol. He was prescribed to people who abuse alcohol, or a patient with chronic alcoholism for interrupting drinking bouts and in an acute hangover period. Glycine prevents the development of alcohol "white fever" and alcoholic psychosis.

Glycine practically does not cause unpleasant side effects, except that the blood pressure decreases slightly and only in rare cases there is an individual intolerance of the drug. Habituation to it is not noted. The only thing that is not recommended is to use the drug along with sleeping pills, tranquilizers and neuroleptics - there can be unpredictable inhibition of the central nervous system.

Natural products containing glycine

Where to get the glycine? It is produced in a very primitive way from the cartilaginous tissue of cattle, if desired, you can get as many as you want. He is in the pharmacies of major cities, but should he chase after him?

The fact is that at the disposal of any hostess there are natural products containing glycine. This is a rich soup, an ear, a jellied fish, a cold. Even jelly marmalade contains glycine. In each 100 gram bag of gelatin contains not less than 20 g of glycine. Apparently not for nothing that our ancestors liked to have a snack of vodka with cold and jellied sturgeon!

In Armenia, for example, it is known as "hash". It is brewed from beef or mutton bones for a long time, and is eaten hot. They say that in Armenia you can not take a step so that you do not stumble upon "armenian cafe".

Now glycine is a part of many anti – hangover means, it even went so far that some distilleries began to produce special alcohol-free vodka, which includes glycine.

Back in 1994, a group of astronomers from the University of Illinois announced the receipt of evidence of the existence in space of glycine. This is the simplest form of an amino acid - one of the building blocks of DNA, and, consequently, of life on Earth. Even earlier, newspapers wrote about clouds of alcohol found in space. Apparently, someone there, upstairs, decided to prepare a lot of alcohol-free vodka.


Phenotropil is not high and no euphoria? There is a solution!

11 Sep 2018

If you clicked here, then at least heard about Phenotropil, but rather even tried it! By the way, other names of Phenotropil are Carphedon and Phenylpyracetam. I will say at once, for a long time this carphedon was for me in the top of my favorite nootropics and I did not understand why so many people write that they do not feel it at all. Until he did not come to this .. After a few years of admission, it can take place once every 2 weeks. And then he began to gather the pieces in small pieces. It looked like this, that almost every day a few months passed through the western and our forums, by research and wrote out some notes, then tested himself and close friends of the scheme for several days.

Phenotropil high, Phenylpiracetam euphoria, tolerance

How to reduce tolerance to phenylpyricetam
- Break
Option, which he spoke about in several issues. The meaning is in the recoil of the nervous system to about the starting parameters. For a month, refuse any chemistry, booze, cigarettes, porn (Who loves that). A month later, a little add your favorite thing and you're a lot more from them, including from nootropics.

- Add Potassium, Choline, L-Carnitine
These substances will slightly increase the sensitivity to Carphedon. Especially if there was any deficit. If you want to look for additives, then eat extra 2-3 eggs a day, 2-3 bananas and beef or seafood.

- Mexidol and Vitamins
Mexidol has a bunch of analogues, so it's not important to take it exactly. This is a very good scheme in principle for the recovery of the central nervous system, if you or your friends addicted / thumped and otherwise killed your brain, then at least 2-3 weeks of taking these substances have a positive effect on the brain.

- Memantine
The substance reduces the activity of NMDA receptors of glutamate. On the feedback mechanism, after a mini-course in a few days, the sensitivity of glutamate and dopamine increases, which means stimulants work better.

On whom does Phenylpiracetam work best?

An interesting study that partly answers this question.

Scientists divided mice into 2 groups: with congenital low and high research activity. That is very and not very curious mouse. The first immediately exploring the new terrain, the latter are cautious. All 5 days were administered either phenotropil or placebo.

It turned out that initially the active and passive brain differed in the number of receptors. Active had more NMDA and less Acetylcholine. And almost in 1,5 times.

After the course, in groups with phenylpyricetam the passive norm was pulled to active. The active special changes were not. Changes have occurred in research behavior. Passive began to show average results for active.

If it works on animals that way, it can and for people will be similar. Therefore, a logical summary: Phenylpyracetam works best for people with low motivation or activity. DMAA by the way, on the contrary, it is better for who works better.

How to Take Carphedon

So, after numerous tests on yourself and friends, in search of an ideal scheme, here's the best option for you: To an empty stomach, 2-3-200 hours before a meal, 100-200 mg of the substance! In these 2-3 hours a maximum - tea with cookies, but certainly no complete meals. After 3-5 hours after taking phenylpyricetam, add 100-200 mg of caffeine. This is the most powerful scheme of all.

There was another option to "snort Phenylpiracetam", it works, but who knows what people would think)

Bottom line:

- Phenylpyricetam works in many ways and in different ways for each person

- In general, the effect of stimulation is more pronounced in low-motivated people, if you are so extrovert, you are always prey and a bunch of ideas - there will be no special improvements

- If phenylpyrazetam used to work, but now do not, then take a break from everything, drink vitamins and adjust nutrition. Of the substances can help: Mexidol, Potassium, L-Carnitine, Memantine.

- Carphedon is best taken on an empty stomach a few hours before meals, and then add caffeine.

- Fenotropil now removed from production

Well, the work was done great and at last some exemplary answers were found on the scheme for reducing addiction and correct reception of phenylpyracetam. If you had your observations on this matter - write in the comments.


Smoking is a narcotic addiction

08 Sep 2018

At present, there is no longer any doubt that tar of tobacco smoke provokes cancer, especially lung cancer. It is also known that tobacco tar is not the only life-threatening substance inhaled in the process of smoking.

Until recently, in tobacco smoke, there were 500, then 1000 components. According to modern data, the number of these components is 4720, including the most poisonous - about 200.

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These thousands of chemicals are presented in tobacco smoke in the form of particles (tar, nicotine, benzpyrene, etc.) and gases (carbon monoxide, ammonium, dimethylnitrosoamine, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, etc.). Most of these substances have pronounced irritant properties, and about 60 are known or suspected carcinogens.

If the habit of tobacco, and especially the chemical dependence on it, arises from the influence of nicotine on the brain, the cause of most serious illnesses (often fatal) are tobacco tar, paralyzing purification processes in the lungs, reducing immunity, causing cancer and other diseases lungs.

Nicotine is one of the strongest poisons of plant origin. Birds perish if they bring a glass rod moistened with nicotine to their beaks; the rabbit dies from 1/4 drop, the dog - from 4. For the person a fatal dose - 2 - 3 drops; it's about 20 to 25 cigarettes. The smoker does not die because this dose of nicotine is introduced gradually (within 24 hours), but not in one step, and also as a result of partial neutralization of the poison with formaldehyde of tobacco tar.

It should be noted that smoking exists in two completely different clinical varieties: in the form of a habit of smoking and in the form of tobacco dependence. In the second variant (let's call it "thirst"), the smoker has a pathological, painful attraction to tobacco, and in the first one it does not form. Due to the fact that the outward signs of addiction to tobacco among all smokers are the same (regularity of smoking, a gradual increase in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, attracted to the smell of tobacco smoke), the difference between the two types of smokers can be established only when they try to quit smoking. Those who smoke only by force of habit, can become non-smoking completely painless, without any medical assistance and eventually forget that they were fooling. And those who have developed a tobacco dependence, at all desire can not quit smoking forever, even if the first days without tobacco they pass relatively safely. Sometimes, after a long break (several months and even years), they relapse. This means that smoking left a deep imprint in the mechanisms of memory, thinking, mood and metabolic processes of the body.

According to available data, 100 regularly smoking only seven smoke resulting habits remaining 93 patients - they become carriers of tobacco dependence, for which (as for any other type of addiction) characterized by craving to smoke, and on the thinking level, mental level processes.

It should be noted that severe somatic, bodily disorders affect equally both those who smoke by habit, and nicotine-dependent. These diseases do not appear immediately, they are as if deployed in time, and this often prevents the relationship between disease and smoking.

What is nicotine - the culprit of the formation of tobacco dependence?
Alkaloid nicotine (C10H14O2) in chemically pure form is a clear colorless oily liquid with a pungent taste and boiling point 246 ° C (730.5 mm Hg. V.), Well soluble in water, alcohol and other solvents. In the air it easily resists. Contained in tobacco (up to 2%) and some other plants.
Nicotine - an extremely strong poison, not inferior to the toxicity of hydrocyanic acid. In small doses, it acts excitantly on the nervous system, in large doses it causes paralysis: stopping breathing, stopping the work of the heart. Multiple absorption of nicotine with frequent smoking forms nicotinism - chronic poisoning, as a result of which memory and working capacity decrease, there is a constant cough with phlegm. One of the devastating effects of nicotine poisoning is also such signs: trembling of the hands, uncertain walk, the person throws something in the heat, then in the cold, the heart while it will happen as a hammer, then freezes.

Nicotine is the main component of tobacco smoke causing destructive changes in the spinal cord, inflammation of the lumbosacral plexus. Due to its effect on the adrenal glands, after each cigarette smoked, the number of circulating corticosteroids, as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine, involved in the regulation of the most important physiological functions of the body, significantly increases in comparison with the norm. Adrenaline, in particular, narrows the blood vessels, resulting in increased blood pressure. Nicotine increases the minute stroke volume of the heart and the rate of contraction of the myocardium. Attacks like coronary vessels of an inveterate smoker, as a rule, are narrowed and do not deliver myocardium with the necessary portions of oxygen, oxygen starvation of the heart muscle (coronary heart disease) occurs. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that less oxygen is supplied to other organs and tissues. After all, a part of hemoglobin, instead of transferring oxygen to them, attaches the carbon monoxide contained in the smoke of the cigarette.

The main metabolite of nicotine is cotinine, which, by its toxic properties, is close to its predecessor. In the blood serum of a person who smokes 10 cigarettes a day, 137.7 μg / l of cotinine is found; when smoking 20 cigarettes, its amount increases to 302 μg / l.

To learn about other, no less insidious components of tobacco smoke, consider them in order.

So, the cigarette was lit and the smoker began to breathe the smoke of burning tobacco. And its pollution and 384 thousand times exceeds the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of the substances contained in it. Inhalation of tobacco smoke is more than 4 times more harmful than breathing the exhaust gases of a car directly from the exhaust pipe. In a perfectly clean atmosphere, the human body at the moment of smoking is exposed to the same toxic effects as if it were in case of air pollution at 1100 MAC (hygienic norms should not exceed 1 MAC). Such air pollution in industrial centers does not occur. In other words, for smokers, environmental problems practically do not exist. For them, the costs of cleaning up industrial gases are a waste of money, because they "have enough" of those poisons that they inhale with smoke; exhale, they are not more than 10% of the components of smoke absorbed during the inhaling, the rest remain in the body!

But let's go along the path of destructive following of tobacco smoke in the body. The mouth and nasopharynx are the first to contact him. Tobacco smoldering in a cigarette has a temperature of about 300 ° C. At the smoke which has passed through a layer of tobacco packing and got to the mouth, the temperature drops to 50 - 60 ° Ń. To smoke through the nasopharynx into the lungs, the smoker, opening his mouth, inhales fresh air, the temperature of which is 35-40 ° C below the temperature of the smoke there. Only due to a multiple temperature drop on the tooth enamel cracks are formed - the "entrance gate" for infection. Hot smoke, in addition, contributes to the expansion of capillary vessels of the mucous cheeks, palate, gums and causes its chronic irritation, which can lead to an inflammatory process, and then to the development of leukoplakia, a precursor of cancer. The salivary glands of the oral cavity react to tobacco smoke. This leads to increased salivation, which the smoker has to either spit or swallow along with the poisonous components dissolved in it - aniline, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia, carcinogens. Getting on the mucous membrane of the stomach, these toxic compounds cause pain in the stomach, loss of appetite, alternating constipation and diarrhea, the development of gastritis. They can cause ulcers of the stomach and duodenum, stomach cancer.

No less harmful is the effect of tobacco smoke from the oral cavity through the vocal cords to the mucous membranes of the larynx, trachea, bronchi and alveoli. Dissolving in the moisture of mucous membranes, ammonia of tobacco smoke turns into ammonia, which causes increased secretion of mucus, which is why smokers suffer from chronic bronchitis.

The tar of tobacco smoke settles on the walls of the airways, accumulates in the pulmonary alveoli and also stands out when coughing in the form of gray sputum. The lungs are dirty brown. Their resistance to various infectious diseases, in particular tuberculosis, is declining. According to J. Petit and other French scientists, out of 100 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, which began in adulthood, 25 account for smokers. The vital capacity of their lungs is 300-400 ml less than that of non-smokers. The presence of carcinogenic substances and radioactive compounds in tobacco smoke (as will be discussed in detail below) causes the highest level of lung cancer in smokers.

A number of studies have shown that the increase in lung cancer diseases increases in direct proportion to the number of cigarettes smoked. Those. who smoke a lot, this risk increases by 15-30 times compared with non-smokers. It has also been proven that the risk of the disease is exacerbated by factors such as smoke inhalation when smoking cigarettes, smoking from an early age, holding the cigarette in your mouth between puffs, igniting a cigarette that is not smoked. And, as already noted, the use of alcohol increases the harmful effect of smoking on the respiratory system. Active smokers develop extensive metaplastic changes in the bronchi, considered oncologists as precancerous. Those who quit smoking experienced the reverse development of metaplastic cells, which indicates the reversibility of precancerous changes.

It is estimated that smoking cessation and industrial countries lead to a reduction in the incidence of cancer by almost 40%. One of the main components of tobacco smoke - carbon monoxide - flows through the airways to the alveoli, where carbon dioxide is exchanged, not so much oxygen is enriched as carbon monoxide. Having combined with hemoglobin, it forms carboxyhemoglobin - a dummy molecule, unable to carry the cells of the body the oxygen they need. The average content of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood of smokers is 4.3%, in non-smokers - 0.93%. That's why a person who smoked a few cigarettes in a row or was in a smoke-filled room, kneading oxygen starvation, manifested in headaches, dizziness, nausea, pale skin.

Cyanic acid is another component of tobacco smoke that reduces the ability of body cells to utilize oxygen. Together with nicotine, ammonia, essential oils and methyl alcohol, prussic acid helps to reduce visual acuity, deterioration of color perception, smell, dullness of taste. (Tabex can help to stop smoking).

On this list of disasters, in which tobacco smoke is guilty, does not end. It also includes atherosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, infertility, allergic diseases. Nicotine and tar entering the blood during smoking are one of the causes of the disease with obliterating endarteritis followed by spontaneous gangrene of the extremities, which arises from the severe narrowing of the peripheral vessels until the closure of their lumens with the necrosis of tissues devoid of blood supply. Manifestations of endarteritis: rapid fatigue of the legs, cramps, intermittent claudication, when a person can only go a few steps, and then one or both legs show numbness and unbearable pain. When you stop after a few minutes, the pain passes, but when you try to go on, it resumes. The vessels of the legs (and sometimes of the hands) are in a state of spasm with such a disease and are able to provide limbs with blood only in a state of complete rest, i. without any physical exertion. Movement increases metabolism in working muscles, and because of lack of oxygen and the accumulation of metabolic products, severe pain occurs. At the second stage of the disease, spasm increases, it also manifests itself in a state of rest. Fingers, starting with a large one, are always cold and blue. There are sores. Since the vessels do not provide for metabolism in the muscles even at rest, the foot, and then the entire limb, can become dead. At the same time the patient experiences unbearable unbearable pains. In severe cases, inevitable surgical intervention (plastic vessels, limb amputation).

Sometimes people think: where in the streets are there so many young people - legless and armless in camouflage uniforms? Not all of them are from the trenches of Afghanistan or Chechnya, not there they lost hands-feet, although this loss occurred just because of the "trench disease" - gangrene. During hard military times, she really got sick in the trenches from hypothermia in conditions of high humidity. And now it often suffers intensively smoking people, especially bums and vagabonds, whose lodging is served by ditches, gateways, cellars.


Allergic conjunctivitis

04 Sep 2018

Allergic conjunctivitis is an inflammatory reaction of the conjunctiva to the effect of allergens, characterized by hyperemia and edema of the lining of the eyelids, edema and itching of the eyelids, the formation of follicles or papillae on the conjunctiva, sometimes accompanying corneal damage with visual impairment. Allergic conjunctivitis occupies a significant place in the group of diseases united by the common name "red eye syndrome", they affect about 15% of the population on average, but conjunctivitis occurs more often among children.

Actovegin. Allergic conjunctivitis

The most common forms of allergic conjunctivitis are:
- pollinous conjunctivitis, which is usually a seasonal disease and is caused by pollen during the flowering of grasses, cereals, trees;
- spring conjunctivitis (spring catarrh), observed with increased sensitivity to the action of the ultraviolet part of the solar spectrum;
- drug allergy usually develops with prolonged use of eye drops to treat any eye disease (cataracts, glaucoma, iridocyclitis, etc.), but sometimes after a single application of eye medicinal forms;
- large-capillary conjunctivitis occurs as a result of prolonged contact of the upper eyelid with a foreign body - contact lenses (hard and soft), ocular prostheses, surgical sutures after cataract extraction, etc.

In the therapy of allergic conjunctivitis, several groups of drugs are used. Antiallergic - antihistamines LS azelastine, Allergodil, Allertec, Levokabastin (does not have sedative effect), etc., stabilizers of fat cells membranes Alomid, Allergokrom, Lecrolin, KromoGEXAL, Hi-Krom, etc .; glucocorticosteroids Dexapos, Oftan Dexamethasone, Garazon, Sofrax, and others.

In addition to the basis of therapy, with allergic conjunctivitis apply:

Anti-convoestants: Alergoftal, Afrin, nafazolin, Vizin, Sanorin, Nafkon-A and others.
Antiseptics and disinfectants: Ophthalmol, etc.

Vitamins: Riboflavin, Retinol palmitate, etc.

NSAIDs: indole derivatives - indomethacin, sulindac; derivatives of pyrazolone - phenylbutazone, oxyphenbutazone, azaprase, ketorolac; derivatives of propionic acid - ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen; derivatives of anthranilic acid - mefenamic acid, meclofenamic acid.

Wound healing preparations: Actovegin (eye gel 20%), Taufon, etc.

Homeopathic medicines: Allergies, Mucosa compositum (appointed by a doctor).

Dietary supplements: Artromax, Neovitel - bioactive complex with Echinacea, etc.

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