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Addiction

08 Aug 2018

The main mechanism for the formation of dependence and its consequences are the same from both alcohol and narcotic substances. Specificity of its manifestation can be called a shorter time interval of dependence in the addict (from the moment of experimentation with psychoactive substance). Often dependent alternates psychoactive substances (alcohol, drugs). Despite certain differences in the formation of dependence, the essence of their impact on a person is one. So are the ways of recovery of patients with alcoholism and drug addiction.

Addiction. Phenotropil. Meldonium

The essence of the disease of dependence in the loss of control over consumption

Dependent is a person who can not consciously control the use and who can not be responsible for his behavior after he starts to use.

Disease dependency consists of two elements: psychological dependence, which leads to the fact that the addict / alcoholic does not imagine life without use and physiological sensitivity. Despite the fact that every use causes more and more problems with health, family, environment, law dependent person uses again and again.

The most surprising thing is that despite obvious symptoms, the addict / alcoholic himself almost does not believe that he is ill.

Dependence refers to a particular group of diseases, where denial of the disease, its symptoms, is a manifestation of the disease.

The evolution of the use of chemically active substances, leading to the formation of dependence, can be described as follows:

- Contact with the substance. As a rule, the first experience causes positive feelings.
- Experimentation. Repeated return to the use of chemically active substances in anticipation of a certain physical and emotional state. The search for exactly those chemically active substances, which, in the opinion of the experimenter himself, are the most optimal and acceptable.
- Use. Increasing quantitative and qualitative reception of chemically active substances.
- Abuse. At a certain stage in his life, the person who uses it begins to lose complete control over how much he has used.
- Chemical dependence. This stage resembles a reference point, when quantitative processes pass into a new quality of the functioning of the organism and the human psyche. Then alcohol and drugs for an addicted person become more important than air and water, as they, in his opinion, determine the physical and emotional state. "We lived to take drugs, and took drugs to live."

The time intervals for the formation of all stages of human involvement in chemical dependence are very individual.

So, alcohol and other chemically active substances act destroy all spheres of a person - physical, mental, social and spiritual.

Main characteristics of the disease

Chronic - Formed and flowing for a long time. Like all other chronic diseases has a specific effect on the personality and predictable course and the dynamics of the disease. It is a disease that can be stopped, but can not be cured. The only effective alternative for an alcoholic and a drug addict is complete abstinence from chemically active substances until the end of life. Even a small dose can provoke the emergence of a desire to eat and lead to the resumption of the disease. For months and years, while the dependent is kept away from use, he behaves just like other people. Once he injects alcohol or drugs into his body, something happens to his physical and mental state - and he is no longer able to stop.

Progressive, (recurrent, i.e., recurring) - Regardless of the period of sobriety, there is always the risk of a relapse ("recession"). In a state of relapse, the patient may be long before active consumption. This will manifest itself in the course of his thoughts, emotional states, which is very important to monitor for the prevention of relapse. Progression of the disease manifests itself in the fact that the conditions and consequences of use are constantly exacerbated and worsen.

Deadly - Since these diseases are chronic and progressive, their course is predictable: physical destruction - degradation of the person - death.

The main symptoms of alcoholism and drug addiction

Change in tolerance - This is the ability of the body to change the required amount of chemically active substances that affect the emotional state in order to evoke the expected physico-emotional effect. Alcoholics and drug addicts need more and more alcohol and drugs over time to achieve the expected result. The ability to drink and take chemically active substances intensifies in time, in other words, a person can hold more alcohol and drugs than before. There is also a reverse tolerance, when intoxication comes from less than in the past.

Loss of control - The symptoms are:

- Repeated failures in attempts to stop using;
- Uselessness of effort to control or reduce use.
- Substitution of drugs or vice versa.
- Transition to use since. medical narcotic drugs.
- Taking drugs and alcohol alone.
- Necessity of use before bedtime and immediately upon awakening.
- Emotional state and mood depends on the presence or absence of alcohol and drugs.
- Continuation of use, despite the negative consequences.

Abstinence syndrome (withdrawal syndrome). Can be improved by Phenotropil. It is accompanied by a tremor of extremities, increased sweating, cardiac arrhythmia, impaired coordination of movements, etc. The essence of this phenomenon is that as soon as alcohol and drugs stop their euphoric impact, a person experiences suffering at the level of the body and mind (breaking, cold turkey - a drug addict, a hangover - an alcoholic). In order to get rid of this agonizing condition, the dependent person again takes a chemically active substance, which gives him relief and a state of euphoria, but only for a certain time. Use - a hangover - use to remove hangovers. The circle closes.

If at the first stage the goal of taking a reactive substance is to achieve an euphoric state, then use is necessary to remove the most severe physiological and emotional consequences. In the second and third stages of dependence, a person takes substances simply in order to maintain existence.

Alcoholism and drug addiction are diseases of emotions. The dependent person experiences a gamut of destructive feelings and emotions: anger, resentment, suffering, self-pity, anxiety and loneliness. Anger and resentment are predominant. These emotions cause anxiety, forcing the alcoholic and the addict to take chemically active substances to anesthetize negative feelings. Resentment from not splashed out anger - motivation for the use of alcohol or drugs. Loneliness gives rise to suffering and self-pity, which, in turn, causes anxiety and anxiety. The emotional state of the dependent person is like a swing, which then rises (after taking a reactive substance), then go down (withdrawal syndrome).

Recovering is a constant and progressive process. Many recovering alcoholics and drug addicts successfully continue their sober life without returning to the use of chemically active substances. Return to use, which includes relapse and disruption, is not something exceptional, putting an end to the possibility of further qualitative recovery. Relapse and disruption are manifestations of a chronic, incurable, progressive disease.

Despite the fact that diseases of alcoholism and drug addiction are incurable diseases, they have predictable symptoms and predictable treatment. Chemically active substances destroy the body, mind, feelings and spirit of a person. Recovering requires healing in each of these areas.


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What is Bromantane?

07 Aug 2018

In those not too distant years, bromantane was not among the drugs banned by the International Anti-Doping Committee. Since initially nobody knew about him except the Russians.

The computer during the doping tests recorded the presence in the blood of athletes of some unknown and, of course, an unpreserved drug. They did not pay attention to this: they could get a normal aspirin. But it was far from aspirin.

bromantane

BROMANTANE
Scientific name: 2-adamantyl-parabramyl-analysine.

WHAT DOPING GROUP APPLIES TO
To a group of so-called actoprotectors - drugs of different groups, which increase the body's defenses.

WHERE WAS CREATED
Bromantane was developed by Soviet military physicians as a means of increasing overall immunity, endurance of man. Including in the heat. According to some reports, it was created specifically for use in Afghanistan.

HOW WAS IT PROHIBITED
In preparation for the Olympics-96 in Atlanta, Bromantane was recommended by science to athletes of all federations and all countries. And a year before the Games, when the Anti-Doping Service of the IOC began to find an "unknown substance" in the urine of athletes (not only ours), Russian representatives presented the doctors all the necessary documentation for the Bromantane. There were no objections.

However, 15 days before the Olympics in Atlanta, Bromantane is suddenly added to the restricted list. It was found that the drug also has a psychostimulating effect. In addition, he disguises the use of steroids: all standard doping procedures that the IOC practiced turned out to be ineffective when bromantane was taken.

Whoever suffered from Bromantane
In Atlanta, sixteen Russian athletes fell under the "Bromantane" suspicion, of which seven were disqualified. Including two prize-winners - wrestler Zafar Guliyev and swimmer Andrey Korneev. The scandal was hushed up, arguments were found: the bromantane was banned on the very eve of the Games, and there was still no strong scientific evidence that he was a doping agent. The Russians appealed to sports arbitration and, strangely enough, won the case. Disqualification of athletes was abolished by the judiciary.

But the six-time Olympic champion skier Lyubov Egorova could not be defended. After winning the race at 5 kilometers at the World Championships-97 in Trondheim, she was "pumped" two years of disqualification - a fee for the use of bromantane, which was finally added to the list of banned stimulants.

The drama of Yegorova turned out to be instructive, the "bromantane" scandals stopped. The more surprising results (if they will not be refuted) of doping tests by Yegor Titov. After all, the use of such a well-known prohibited drug is, if you like, a bad tone. Egor himself could not have known this. But he did not take the fatal remedy on his own initiative?

Expert Opinion
In the hierarchy of terrible doping from international experts, Bromantane is in the top position. But not because he is very active and effective, but because he heard a lot about Bromantane. Mysterious military drug, and, apparently, because of him, the Russians are so good and perform in different sports. But there is certainly no medical data about some unique effectiveness of this drug. According to the latest information, it does not work. It's more of a legend than a drug. What does not prevent Bromantane from being such a scarecrow for anti-doping services.


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Hepatitis

06 Aug 2018

Viral hepatitis is a group of viral anthroponoses, i.e. diseases transmitted from person to person. They differ in the mechanism of transmission and in the features of development, but are combined by the similarity of clinical manifestations, as well as hepatotropic pathogens. For the first time hepatitis as an infectious disease, which causes jaundice and damaging the liver, was described by SP Botkin in 1888. For a long time viral hepatitis bore his name. Now Botkin's disease is sometimes called viral hepatitis A, which in the people has another name - "disease of dirty hands." In 1973, WHO decided to divide viral hepatitis B and A. And those that differed from them, identified in a separate group "neither A nor B hepatitis", of which later isolated hepatitis C and E. To date, there are 7 viruses, which cause the same types of hepatitis: HAV (A), HBV (B), HCV (C), HDV or delta virus (D), HEV (E), HFV (F), HGV (G). But since there are no reliable markers of the last two types of disease, now these two options are classified as "neither A nor E". For sure, this is not a complete list of pathogens, other varieties will be discovered.

Hepatitis. Heptral

Viral hepatitis is widespread on Earth and ranks second after the flu in terms of the number of affected people. According to statistics, about 300 million people are infected with the hepatitis B virus.

For all viral hepatitis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Cytolysis of hepatocytes, underlying the development of the disease and leading to a disruption of liver function.
- Cyclic flow:
- incubation period;
- pre-jaundiced;
- icteric;
- convalescent;
- residual phenomena.
- Leading clinical symptoms of hepatitis.
- Features of changes in biochemical parameters of blood.
- The natural involvement of other systems of organs in the process.
- The appearance of persistent immunity to the transferred form of hepatitis.

Symptoms of hepatitis
The clinical picture will depend on:

- type of hepatitis (for the virus-pathogen);
- duration: acute, chronic, protracted;
- the severity of clinical manifestations: manifest, subclinical, asymptomatic forms;
- flow pattern: cyclic, acyclic, recurrent;
- the severity of the process: light, heavy, moderate severity;
- presence of jaundice: icteric or jaundice;
- the nature of the pathological process in the liver: with the predominance of a cholestatic or cytolytic syndrome. And other factors.

The main signs of hepatitis are the presence of a virus in the blood, pain in the right upper quadrant, enlargement of the liver and spleen, increased transaminases and bilirubin in the blood, jaundice (with icteric forms), changes in urine and feces, symptoms of intoxication (fever, headache, arthralgia, malaise, weakness). (Heptral and Cyanocobalamin, layennec can cope with hepatitis).

The first signs of hepatitis can resemble the symptoms of the flu: a sharp increase in temperature, headache, joint pain, general weakness, decreased appetite. And then the clinic unfolds according to the type of disease and the form of the current. An early test that allows to diagnose viral hepatitis A is the detection of antibodies (immunoglobulins) against the hepatitis virus class M with the help of an enzyme immunoassay. For the diagnosis of viral hepatitis B, a blood test for antigens and antibodies is made, blood testing for the presence of markers of delta-virus infection, etc., is performed to determine hepatitis D.

Treatment of hepatitis
The approach to the treatment of viral hepatitis should be comprehensive. The main rule is to prescribe as few drugs as possible. This is due to the possible violation of their metabolism in the affected liver. The complex of therapeutic measures includes:

- mandatory diet, in severe cases, parenteral nutrition;
- detoxification;
- antiviral drugs, in particular interferons, if necessary antibiotics;
- desensitizing, enterosorbents;
- hepatoprotectors, vascular drugs; (Heptral, layennec)
- symptomatic therapy; (Phenotropil)
- vitamins; (Cyanocobalamin, Ascorbic acid)
- psychotherapy and other methods of treatment.

Prevention of hepatitis
Preventive measures include keeping sanitary standards and hygienic requirements for preparing food and processing medical equipment, examining donor blood and its preparations, injecting with disposable syringes, using condoms for sexual intercourse, vaccination and more.

Prevention of hepatitis also includes the early detection of patients, if necessary their isolation, quarantine measures in the foci of hepatitis transmitted by airborne droplets, the introduction of immunoglobulin to people in contact with patients, the exclusion of those who have recovered from viral hepatitis from among donors, etc.


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What the junkie feels?

06 Aug 2018

At first, after taking the drug, the addict really experiences pleasure, called euphoria. He relaxes, all problems disappear, life seems pink. If a person experiences pain, it subsides (that is why drugs are used in medicine for anesthesia), if he was concerned, irritated, angry, becoming affable and cheerful.

What the junkie feels

After a few hours - a maximum of 12 - the action of the drug ends, and all problems are piling up with renewed vigor. If a person takes drugs for a long time, the time of euphoria shortens each time and eventually can reach several minutes. A few more hours the addict feels less tolerant, and then a painful "breaking" begins, what is this you already know. A drug addict takes drugs no longer for pleasure, but in order to avoid "breaking".

He lives like a squirrel in a wheel - the faster it runs, the faster the wheel turns, and the faster it needs to run so as not to fall. Similarly, a drug addict - to avoid "breaking", he has to take the drug more and more often. Gradually, the addict comes to complete exhaustion, stops eating and sleeping. He already curses the drug, he dreams of quitting, but he can not because he has terrible pains without the next dose.


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Insomnia

03 Aug 2018

Definition

Insomnia (insomnia) is a disorder associated with difficulties in initiating and / or maintaining sleep. Insomnia is a quantitative and / or qualitative disorder of sleep with a concomitant deterioration in overall well-being and quality of life.

Phenazepam. Insomnia

Causes
Stress, neurosis, mental, neurological, somatic diseases, the use of psychotropic drugs, alcohol abuse, toxic factors, endocrine-metabolic diseases, adverse external conditions (noise, humidity), shift work, jet lag, sleep hygiene. Causes of insomnia associated with the violation of the "sleep-wake" cycle, leading to a violation of melatonin secretion: psychophysiological factors (psycho-emotional and physical overstrain), endogenous factors of various diseases, exogenous factors (noise, time zone change).

Risk factors
Duration of sleep less than 5 hours, adverse heredity, difficulty breathing, overweight, circadian rhythm disorders, immaturity of the brain systems responsible for sleep and wakefulness regulation, stress, use of stimulants (caffeine, alcohol, tobacco) in children and adolescents, winter season.

Symptoms
Nocturnal symptoms:
- difficulty in falling asleep and / or sleeping;
- intermittent sleep (more than 3 awakenings per night);
- short duration of sleep (less than 6.5 hours), early awakening with the inability to fall asleep again;
- lack of a sense of freshness, recovery from sleep.

Daytime Symptoms:
- fatigue;
- drowsiness;
- increased excitability, irritability;
- anxiety.

Prevention and treatment
Prevention
Establish a daily schedule and observe the time of going to bed and waking up, waking up every day at the same time, regardless of when the sleep occurred, reduce the time spent in bed without sleep;

- avoid daytime sleep;
- increase the load in the afternoon, after lunch, and stop them 3-4 hours before going to bed;
- avoid taking foods containing caffeine and nicotine for 6 hours before going to bed;
- avoid excess fluid intake before going to bed;
- Ensure silence and comfortable temperature in the bedroom;
- remove the clock from the bedroom;
- use hypnotics only in rare cases.

Biologically active additives - Mystic, Yantavit, FET-X (chromium picolinate), Morpheus, etc.

Drug therapy
Anxiolytics - alprazolam (Alzolam, Zolomax, Neurol, Helex, Helex CP), aminophenylbutyric acid (Phenibut, Anvifen, Noofen), bromodihydrochlorophenylbenzodiazepine (Phenazepam, Tranquesipam, Phenorelaxan, Elzepam, Fezanef), diazepam (Sibazon, Relum, Seduxen), lorazepam Laurafen), medazepam (Mezapam), oxazepam (Nosepam, Tazepam), chlordiazepoxide (Elenium), and others.

Antidepressants - mirtazapine (Kaliksta, Mirzaten), etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like products - Biovital elixir, etc.

Homeopathic remedies - Valerianahel, Vernison, Passidorm, Primula / Onopordone Composite, Ginkgo Biloba, etc.

Neurotropic agents are glycine (Glycine Fort, Noopept), and others.

Correctors of cerebral circulation disorders - ginkgo bilobate leaf extract (Bilobil intens 120, Ginos, Tanakan, Memoplant, Bilobil forte), etc.

Macro- and trace elements - Beresz Plus drops, etc.

Neuroleptics - alimamazine tartrate (Teraldzhen), clozapine (Leponex, Clozasten, Azaleprol), levomepromazine (Tizerzin), chlorpromazine (Aminazine, Chlorpromazine hydrochloride), chlorprotixen (Chlorprothixen Zentiva, Truksal) and others.

Sedatives - Dormiplant, Dormiplant-Valerian, Persen Fort, Persen, valerian medicinal rhizome with roots (Valerian tincture, Valdispert), Leonurus grass, Barbowal, Valemidin, Valoserdin, Valium drops, Novo-Passit, Phytodesan No. 3 (sedative collection 3), Fito Novo-Sed, Fitorelaks, Phytodesan 2 (sedative collection 2), Lundyshev-Leonurus drops, Corvalol, Valocordin, balm of medicinal herb, peppermint leaves, etc.

Sleeping pills - doxylamine succinate (Valocordin-Doxylamine), zolpidem, zopiclone, midazolam (Midazolam-hameln), nitrazepam, phenobarbital, etc.


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Annoying Heartburn

02 Aug 2018

An unpleasant burning sensation in the epigastrium or in the middle of the chest, or heartburn, can appear occasionally - for example after a heavy meal or consumption of fatty, fried and spicy food. Frequent heartburn may indicate a GI disease, in particular about gastroesophageal reflux disease. Excreted also heartburn pregnant.

Annoying Heartburn

One of the most frequently used groups of drugs used for heartburn is antacids. To date, the most in demand for the consumer non-absorbing antacids. They are characterized by a higher efficacy and a less pronounced side effect.

Slightly less than half of all sales (45.6%) are accounted for by antacids in the form of tablets, more than 35% of which are taken by TM Rennie, Gastal, Rutatsid and Gastrofarm. About a quarter of the total volume of sales of preparations for heartburn is made up of suspensions, for example, the share of the well-known Almagel drug was 12.3%, for another sample in the form of a suspension, the Sab simplex - 1.9%. Also popular are preparations of a similar consistency - gel, for example, Fosfalugel. There are preparations presented in both solid (tablets, capsules), and in liquid (suspension, emulsion) dosage form. These include Espumizan, Maalox, Gaviscon. Espumizan, the market leader, has 12.3% share of emulsion sales, 11.5% capsules.


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Chronic venous insufficiency

02 Aug 2018

Definition

Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) of the lower limbs is a syndrome caused by a violation of the outflow of venous blood and manifested by pain, severity, rapid fatigue, pastose of the legs in an upright position, leading to the development of trophic disorders in later stages.

Actovegin. Chronic venous insufficiency.

Causes (risk factors)
Age, high growth, standing work, weighed heredity, genetic characteristics of the body constitution, static loads associated with the "non-physiological" way of life, the use of hormonal contraception, pregnancy and childbirth, obesity.

Symptoms
- severity, tension and pain in the legs;
- pasty in the area of the ankles in the evening;
- itching;
- night cramps in the calf muscles.

Prevention
Maintaining optimal body weight, prevention of acute deep vein thrombosis.

Biologically active additives - VITABS Cardio, Venokomfort, Piknogenol-Extra, etc.

Drug therapy
Adenosinergic drugs are pentoxifylline (Vasonite, Trenpental).

Angio-protectors and correctors of microcirculation - Actovegin, Solcoseryl, Endotelone, Antistax, Antistax Gel, escin (Aescin, Venen, Dr. Thiess Venen gel, Escuzan 20), diosmin (Vasoket, Diovenor 600, Fleobody 600), pentoxifylline (Vazonite, Trenpental), chestnut (Venoplant), rutoside (Venoruton, Rutin), calcium dobezilate (Doxilek), troxerutin (Troxerutin Lechiva, Anavenol), hesperidin + diosmin (Venarus, Detralex), thiamine + escin (Escuzan), Yuglanex extract for oral administration , Cyclo 3 and others.

Antiaggregants - calcium dobezilate (Doxilek), pentoxifylline (Trenpental), etc.

Antihypoxants and antioxidants - Actovegin, Solcoseryl, ascorbic acid + rutozide (Prophylactin C), etc.

Anticoagulants - escin + essential phospholipids + sodium heparin (Essaven), etc.

Antiseptics and disinfectants - Cosmetic foot cream "Pirouette", etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like agents - ascorbic acid + rutozide (Prophylactin C, Ascorutin), etc.

Immunomodulators - sodium deoxyribonucleate (Derinat), etc.

Compression knitwear - stockings, stockings, tights; compression knitwear is divided into 4 compression classes, each of which corresponds to a certain venous pathology: 1st class - light compression (18,4-21,1 mm Hg on the ankle) - recommended for the syndrome of "heavy legs", propensity to edema, for pregnant women; 2nd class - medium compression (25,2-32,3 mm Hg on the ankle) - recommended for acute thrombophlebitis, as a complex therapy after vein surgery and in the prevention of deep vein thrombosis; Grade 3 - strong compression (36.5-46.6 mm Hg on the ankle) - recommended for varicose veins with trophic disorders, deep vein thrombosis, lymphovenous insufficiency; 4th grade - (over 59 mm of mercury on the ankle) - recommended for serious anomalies of the venous system.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs- indomethacin + trokserutin (Indovazin), acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin "York"), etc.

Regenerants and reparants - Aktovegin, Solkoseril, etc.

Fibrinolytics - Thrombovazim and others.


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Food antidepressants

01 Aug 2018

Everyone, probably knows a state where everything is boring, nothing pleases, nothing you want. This means that we are in a state of constant stress, from which natural antidepressants help to exit, these are products that have beneficial effects on the body.

Food  antidepressants

Why do these products help against depression? First, they stimulate the development of serotonin, which increases muscle tone and lifts the mood. He improves self-control and creates emotional stability, thanks to this, there are feelings of joy and satisfaction. And as noripinefrin which raises vigor, awakens the reaction of readiness, concentration

Chocolate
One of the most famous antidepressants is bitter chocolate. White, antidepressant quality does not possess. It does not have the theobromine, the tonic material, which is contained in cocoa products. And in bitter chocolate it is. Its aroma relieves irritation, and contained in it phenylethylamine, stimulates the production of endorphin, a hormone of happiness. Chocolate contains substances that improve digestion, increase efficiency.

Almond
It helps the body cope with stress. As in chocolate, almonds contain magnesium, which helps the nervous system cope with mental unrest. Neutralization of free radicals that lead the body into a stressful state is provided by vitamin E.

Almond helps to cope with irritability, aggression, fatigue. This is a fairly high-calorie product, which means you need to consume it in small portions, up to fifty grams a day.

Seafood
In our time, seafood has become almost indispensable food, and it turned out that not for nothing.

They also have antidepressant properties due to vitamins: A, D, B12, B2, PP, as well as zinc, phosphorus and protein. Salmon contains a huge amount of omega-3 fatty acids that relieve the body of stress.

In trout there are fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, vitamins B6 and B12 (cyanocobalamin), stimulating the reproduction of hormones of happiness. Pantothenic acid, responsible for the clear work of the adrenal glands, constantly producing adrenaline, is a part of sea kale.

Broccoli
This cabbage contains vitamins E, B1, B2, C, A, PP. In addition, it includes: potassium, iron, calcium, iodine and others. It is rich in folic acid. This acid helps to cope with anxiety.

Broccoli cabbage strongly contributes to the purification of the whole organism and neutralizes carcinogens and toxins, restores the hormonal balance.

Dairy
From early childhood we drink milk and do the right thing. It turns out that, it not only saturates the teeth and bones with calcium, but also suppresses the production of stress hormones. Microelements and B vitamins, as well as antioxidants successfully cope with nervous disorders, blood levels of tryptophan levels increase.


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My heart hurts and aches ...

01 Aug 2018

Currently, among all diseases, the greatest number of deaths in the world occurs in connection with cardiovascular diseases. According to WHO estimates, by the year 2030, about 23.6 million people will die of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. the main cause of death will, again, heart disease. Among the overall mortality in Russia, cardiovascular disease is 57%. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels are socially significant.

Sales of drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases amounted to almost 43 billion rubles in the reporting period, which is 26% more than in the same period last year. Imported drugs account for 70% of the market (in value terms).

Actovegin. Concor. Mexidol

The leader of sales in value terms - Actovegin - 6.98% of total sales in value terms. A slightly smaller share is taken by Concor - 6.75%. Leader among domestic drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease became Mexidol with a share of sales of 1.64% in value terms.

The most commonly purchased drug is Validol, which has almost 11% of the total sales of this group of drugs in packs. It is followed by Enalapril - 9.73% of sales in physical terms.

The maximum sales of drugs for the treatment of heart disease and vascular system are fixed in the middle price segment - from 100 to 500 rubles.

The most expensive drug group - Trakliir (INN bosentan), the cost of which - more than $7000 per package. The cheapest drug is Envas (INN enalapril), its price is about $40.

Rating of Therapeutic Groups
1) C09 - drugs affecting the renin-angiotensin system
2) 01 - cardiac therapy
3) 07 - Beta - adrenoblockers
4) 04 - peripheral vasolidators
5) 03 - diuretics
6) C08 - calcium channel blockers
7) 06 - other cardiovascular preparations
8) 02 - antihypertensive drugs

Top 10 cardiovascular drugs
1) Actovegin
2) Concor
3) Mexidol
4) Lozap
5) Preductal
6) Enap
7) Panangin
8) Prestarium
9) Diroton
10) Noliprel


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Best hepatoprotectors

31 Jul 2018

Hepatoprotectors are complex drugs designed to increase liver resistance to toxic effects, promote the restoration of its functions, normalizing or enhancing the activity of liver enzymes.

Among hepatoprotectors, drugs containing essential phospholipids are most in demand. Their share was 56% of the total volume of the hepatoprotector group under study in value terms. Almost 40% of all sold drugs are on Essential, the share of Essling TM is 8.6% (an increase of 58% in money terms), Phosphogliv - 5.2%, and Resalut pro, previously not on the market, on the basis of the results of 8 months took a confident 7th place in the TOP10 with a share of 2.5%.

Heptral. hepatoprotectors

The second place on sales is occupied by the preparation Heptral (16,9% in value terms) on the basis of ademetionine. Also worth noting is Gepa-Merz with a share of 2.4%, sales of which have grown.

Among the herbal preparations, Carcil (8%) and Gepabene (1.8%) are the leaders on the basis of the extract of milk thistle, as well as the Indian combined drug LIV.52 (2.3%) and the pumpkin seed preparation Tykveol (2.5%) . The total share of hepatoprotectors of plant origin was 13.7% in USD.

The drug tioctic acid, Berlition, occupies the largest market share among hepatoprotectors of the group of vitamin-like compounds - 6.4%. Its increase compared to last year was 22% in monetary terms and 26% in quantitative terms.

The proportion of hepatoprotectors of animal origin (Hepatosan, Progepar, etc.) is very low and amounts to 0.1% of total sales.

The proportion of groups of hepatoprotectors
1) Essential phospholipids - 56.4%
2) Amino acids and their derivatives - 20.1%
3) Vegetable preparations - 13.7%
4) Vitamins and vitamin-like compounds - 9.7%
5) Preparations of animal origin - 0.1%

Top 10 hepatoprotectors
1) Essentiale
2) Heptral
3) Essler
4) Karsil
5) Berlition
6) Phosphogliv
7) Resalute about
8) Gepa-Mertz
9) Liv 52
10) Gepabene


Someone from the Portugal - just purchased the goods:
Polynadim eye drops 10ml