During each of the forms of drug addiction, three stages are distinguished:
The first is the acquaintance of a person with a narcotic drug. It is characterized by adaptation. This is manifested in the disappearance of protective reactions, the development of the ability to use drugs constantly and often, increasing the doses of the drug to achieve the former effect (increasing tolerance), increasing the desire for drugs at the level of mental dependence, the formation of the ability to achieve mental comfort in intoxication.
The second stage is characterized by the appearance of two new symptom-complexes -an abstinence syndrome and a change in the form of intoxication. An abstinence syndrome (deprivation syndrome) develops after the cessation of narcotization. The syndrome is expressed in a consistent appearance at certain times (several hours after the last drug use) of various symptoms and their regression is usually also in a logical sequence.
With opium abstinence syndrome, after 8-12 hours after taking the drug, the attraction to it begins to exacerbate, tension, dissatisfaction, yawning, lacrimation, a runny nose with sneezing, and appetite disappear. On the second day, chills are added, followed by a feeling of heat, bouts of sweating and weakness, goosebumps, motor anxiety. There is a feeling of numbness in the muscles, pain in the chewing muscles. By the end of the second day of abstinence, agonizing pains in the muscles of the back and limbs are added, they are reduced, pulled, twisted. The patients become vicious, their mood is depressed. Attraction to the drug is irresistible. In order to take possession of it, patients who are in this condition can commit serious crimes.
On the third day there are pains in the abdomen, vomiting and debilitating diarrhea (10-15 times a day). The severe condition, due to the pronounced manifestation of all these symptoms, lasts for 5-10 days and is accompanied by an increase in temperature, blood pressure and changes in the biochemical parameters of the internal environment of the body.
In the future manifestations of withdrawal symptoms decrease, and they disappear usually in the reverse order within 2-6 weeks. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms depends on the duration of the narcotization. The developed abstinence syndrome described above can develop if a person has been systematically narcotized for 2 to 5 weeks. With less time and an irregular intake of opiate drugs, the syndrome does not manifest itself fully and its flow is shorter. When drug addiction is caused by other narcotic drugs, it has its own characteristics in each case.
At the second stage of the disease, another symptom develops - a change in the form of intoxication. The pharmacological effect of the drug disappears. To achieve the former euphoria, the patient increasingly raises his doses. But there comes a time when no dose can cause the former euphoria. This means that the drug does not cause the patient a euphoric effect. Narcotics exhausted the strength of the body. The addict, being alert and moving earlier before taking the drug, is sick and weak at the second stage of the illness outside his action. Now the drug only stimulates it - for a while it returns strength and vivacity.
Even more exhaustion characterizes the third stage, especially when opioaning. The drug does not cause not only euphoria, but even stimulating action. He only normalizes, tones up the patient, whose well-being, working capacity, interest in life is sharply reduced without a drug. "'A sufficient dose of it can temporarily improve one's health and return work capacity. And this dose may be less than before, since in the third stage in a number of cases there is a decrease in tolerance. Against the background of general exhaustion, and the severity of craving decreases, the pattern of withdrawal symptoms changes, but the patient can not still do without drugs.
The duration of each stage of the disease depends on the type of drug, the regularity and frequency of its administration, the way it is administered, for example, when using opium, the duration of the first stage is 3-4 months, the second is 5-10 years. injections of morphine or after 2-3 weeks of irregular intravenous administration of opium tincture. In just 2 weeks, a healthy teen doesomed herself to long years of severe illness.
The illusion of bliss and joy of the first 3-4 months of taking opium will turn into incalculable torments for him for many years to come. Of the innumerable possibilities of life that open before him, he chooses a dead end, instills in himself an insatiable monster - an attraction to the drug, and all the forces will go to the constant feeding him.