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Cardiovascular system - the effect of alcohol

05 Mar 2019

That's what happens when alcohol through the stomach and intestines gets into the blood: in the usual state, the outer surface of the red blood cells is covered with a thin layer of "lubricant", which, when rubbed against the walls of the vessels, is electrified. Each of the erythrocytes carries a unipolar negative charge, and therefore they have the original property to repel each other. Alcohol - a good solvent - removes this protective layer and relieves electrical stress. As a result, the erythrocytes, instead of starting off, begin to stick together, forming larger entities. The process follows the principle of a snowball, the size of which increases with the amount drunk.

Cardiovascular system - the effect of alcohol. Phenylpiracetam and alcohol

The diameter of the capillaries in certain parts of the body (the brain, the retina of the eye) is sometimes so small that red blood cells literally "squeeze" through them one at a time, often pushing the walls of the capillaries. The smallest diameter of the capillary is 50 times thinner than the human hair, is 8 microns (0.008 mm), the smallest erythrocyte diameter is 7 microns (0.007 mm). Therefore, it is clear that the formation containing several red blood cells is not able to move along the capillaries. Moving along the branching arteries, and then through the arterioles of an ever smaller caliber, it eventually reaches an arteriolus with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the clot and blocks it, completely stopping the blood flow in it, hence the blood supply of individual groups of brain neurons ceases. The clots are irregular in shape and contain an average of 200 to 500 erythrocytes, the average size being 60 microns. There are separate clots that contain thousands of red blood cells. Of course, thrombi of this size overlap the arterioles of the smallest caliber.

For large vessels (in the arm, in the leg), the gluing of erythrocytes at the initial stages of taking alcohol is of no particular danger. The insidiousness of alcohol is also in the fact that the body of a young man has a significant, approximately 10-fold capillary reserve, so in youth, violations of the circulatory system and their effects are not as obvious as in later years.

However, over time, the "reserve" of capillaries is gradually exhausted, and the effects of alcohol poisoning are becoming more pronounced. At the current level of alcohol consumption, "average" in this regard, the man "suddenly" faces a variety of ailments at the age of about 30 years. These are diseases of the stomach, liver, cardiovascular system, neuroses, disorders in the genital area. However, diseases can be the most unexpected: after all, the effect of alcohol is universal, it affects all organs and systems of the human body. After 100 grams of vodka, at least 8,000 actively working cells die forever. (Meldonium and Phenylpiracetam help to protect cells).

As for the consumption of beer, the very fact that large quantities of liquid have entered the body (and young people are now swallowing beer with such doses - water or tea people would not drink so much!) Adversely affects the work of not only the cardiovascular system, but also the kidneys. The fans of a hop-drinking "drink" form a so-called bovine or beer heart - the expansion of its boundaries, with the frequency of heartbeats increasing, arrhythmias occur, and the pressure increases.


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What is a drug and how does a person become a drug addict?

21 Feb 2019

Drugs are substances that have the ability to change the work of brain cells and thereby cause a false sense of pleasure and elevated mood. At the same time, any drug is primarily a poison. And the poison is very insidious. It damages almost all organs and cells.

What is a drug and how does a person become a drug addict

But when the drug is taken in small doses, as do drug addicts, its toxic effect is not so noticeable. The damage accumulates gradually, and the person notices the deterioration of health only after several receptions. But he can no longer stop taking drugs because he is dependent on him. If the drug addict inadvertently takes too much of a dose, he dies of poisoning, just like poisoning with any other poison. Many have probably heard or read that drug addicts often die from an overdose. Despite all this, people continue to take drugs.

Note: in its effect on the body, drugs and alcohol are similar in many respects, so everything that will be said about drugs is true for alcohol.

What is the cunning of drugs? First of all, they damage the human psyche. You should know that after the first use of the drug, you will change - it will not be you, but another person, a person with a changed mentality. Already after the first use of the drug in the human brain, the so-called center of attraction to drugs is formed - this is a group of cells in the brain, figuratively speaking, "crazy."

Including, the narcotic center rebuilds the work of the entire brain, suppresses self-control, causes cravings for drugs, forces a person to take it again and again. If you still doubt before taking the drug, remember the danger, say to yourself "I'll just try it once", then after even a single reception your thoughts and desires will change. Due to the fact that the drug has the ability to suppress internal self-control, the sense of danger disappears.

The person begins to think: "So I tried and nothing terrible happened, just wasted nothing." And after a while he decides that nothing terrible will happen if he tries again, and then again and again. This is how the drug acts insidiously and insidiously. A normal, mentally healthy person completely loses control over himself. In fact, it turns into a "zombie", a robot controlled by the center of attraction to drugs, and the person does not notice anything at all, it seems to him that everything is in order and he can stop at any moment. In fact, it's too late.

The man has already turned into a drug addict himself and can not stop. If there is no drug in his blood, then mental depression begins - life seems gray, joyless, something is always missing, a person feels anguish, anxiety and even fear - he becomes like a mental patient, (it's not uncommon that in a state of depression drug addicts commit suicide).

The brain works in one direction - how to get a drug to get rid of this unpleasant condition and once again experience the sense of narcotic intoxication. All that he was interested in before - friends, hobbies, studies - is meaningless. In life there is only one goal, one desire is a drug.

Indeed, after taking the drug, the mood and state of health improve for a short time. All this is called psychic addiction.

According to medical experts, in 30-50 percent of adolescents mental dependence develops after the first intake of the drug. That is, almost half of teenagers turn into drug addicts after the first "acquaintance" with the drug (the rest of the drug addiction occurs after several receptions). This leads to the most important conclusion. The only sure way to not become a drug addict is not to try the drug at all - not once, not half a time.

For the first time you can be offered a free trial. You can believe that this is not done for good motives. Drug dealers who earn very big money, are sure that the costs will be repaid a hundredfold. They also know that almost half of people turn into drug addicts after the first "dating" with a drug. Next time you ask for a drug for money. Thus, they consciously turn people into drug addicts, and thus into their regular customers.

There is another common variant of "familiarizing" with drugs. Often teenagers take what they say for the company, not to be a "black sheep" or to increase their "credibility" among friends. Someone develops drug addiction immediately after taking the drug, while someone responds to taking the drug and activates the defensive reaction of the body and develops a picture of poisoning (the body, as it were, does not take the drug). Instead of the promised pleasure begins a headache, indigestion, vomiting. Despite this, in order not to fall in the eyes of comrades, the teenager is most often pretended to be blissful and the next time he does not refuse the drug. After several such samples, the protective reaction disappears and the drug dependence is still produced. And the credibility earned with the help of drugs is not enough for a long time. Think for yourself what kind of authority a drug addict can have, which looks like a living corpse: "... he was so rude that he had open wounds everywhere. He was simply rotting alive: his feet were black with necrosis - he hardly walked. It smelled so bad that it smelled like two meters. When they told him to go to the hospital, he just smirked - like a skull bared the remains of black teeth. He really was waiting for one - death ... "

If a person continues to take the drug, then over time, he develops and physical dependence. Let's try to explain what it is. The drug has a strong negative effect on all cells of the body. Trying to adapt to his constant presence, the body is forced to change the normal metabolism and include a drug in it. That is, the drug becomes a "regular" participant in the metabolism and its cancellation leads to disruption of the cells and the whole organism.

If the addict has already developed a physical dependence, then after stopping the use of drugs, a phenomenon that is called "breaking" begins, in medicine this phenomenon is called withdrawal syndrome or withdrawal syndrome.

Depending on what kind of drug was used and for how long, the picture of "breaking" may be slightly different, but any "breaking" is accompanied by a sharp deterioration in physical condition.

Usually "cold turkey" is the strongest chills, aches and pains in the loin, joints, muscles, bones, muscle tremors and cramps, weakness with cold sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pains, runny nose. Plus anxiety, fear, hallucinations, insomnia. This agonizing condition, which junkies themselves compare with hell, lasts 5-7 days. Sometimes it happens that during the breakdown the addict dies from cardiac arrest or breathing.

If during the "breaking" take a drug, then it stops, well-being normalizes. Usually, drug addicts do this. The addict is forced to continue taking the drug in order to prevent the painful "withdrawal" - this is physical dependence.


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Marplan - instructions, dosage, side effects, analogs

19 Feb 2019

Antidepressant: Marplan

Active ingredient: Isocarboxazid (isocarboxazid)Analogs: Enerzer, Marplon

Isocarboxazid belongs to the class of antidepressants that inhibit MAO and, as a result, eliminate depressive states along with such manifestations as melancholy, guilt, uselessness, loss of ability to enjoy life, low self-esteem, etc. One of the clinical studies of the effectiveness of this drug showed that 86.7% of people who suffered from depression and who took this antidepressant felt about 50% improvement in their condition.

marplan-isocarboxazid

In addition, Isocarboxazid is effective in the treatment of depressive states, accompanied by excitability and phobias. Often the drug brings relief, even if all other antidepressants did not help.

Indications for use: Treatment of depressive conditions (as a rule, it is recommended to use this drug in the treatment of short-term depressions that are not subject to other types of treatment).

Contraindications:

- Childhood;
- Dysfunction of the liver;
- Cerebrovascular diseases (diseases of cerebral vessels);
- Severe cardiovascular diseases;
- Tumor adrenal glands;
- Allergy to any component in the formulation;
- Manic phase of manic-depressive syndrome.

Dosing and Administration: Isocarboxazid can be taken separately from a meal, with plenty of water.
To achieve the optimal effect, the dosage of the drug should be based on individual observations. Use Isocarboxazid should be started with 10 mg twice a day. With a positive tolerance, the dosage can be gradually increased (+ 10 mg every 2-4 days) up to 40 mg / day. If necessary and no negative reaction of the body, the dosage can be increased by 20 mg per week. The maximum daily dose is 60 mg. If there is a complete cure, you should stop the drug gradually reducing the dose. In the event that no tangible changes occur after 3-6 weeks of taking Isocarboxazid, further use of the drug is usually useless.

Side effects: Medicines, including antidepressants, affect different people in different ways. Therefore, if one of the side effects occurs in one patient, this does not mean that the others will react the same way.

Most often manifested: dry mouth, forgetfulness, fatigue, weakness, constipation, diarrhea, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, drowsiness / insomnia, headaches, increased sweating, nervousness, heart rhythm disturbances.

Storage: Store in a dry place inaccessible to children at room temperature.


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Memory impairment

14 Feb 2019

Memory impairment is one of the most common symptoms in the clinic of organic and functional brain diseases. About a third of people have ever experienced significant dissatisfaction with their memory. Elderly people complain of memory impairment much more often. Age changes in memory are secondary and are associated with a weakening of attention concentration and a decrease in the response rate to external stimuli, which leads to the inadequacy of the processes of encoding and decoding information during the stages of memorization and reproduction.

Memory impairment. Cortexin. Phenotropil

The weakening of memory usually manifests itself in the form:

- reproductions - a person can not recall a particular fact that is needed at the moment, a little later it appears in the memory;
- retentions - a person forgets that he previously reported the fact to a certain person.

Initially, the memorization, reproduction of a specific material, date, name, figure, name, term, person is violated. Forgotten fresh impressions, which have not yet had time to gain a foothold in memory. Man is less oriented in time, chronological memory begins to suffer, the sense of time is also broken.

Mnestic disorders are observed with dementia, dyscirculatory encephalopathy, dysmetabolic disorder (chronic intoxication, neuroergiatric diseases), depression, dissociative and anxiety disorders, hypothyroidism.

Memory impairment can be observed against a background of chronic alcoholism, lack of thiamine, vitamin B12 deficiency and folic acid, in the presence of a tumor, trauma, poor blood circulation, encephalopathy.

Non-drug prevention of memory decline suggests:

- balanced nutrition with the exclusion of fatty foods, sugar, salt;
- regular exercise (walking, morning gymnastics);
- memory training (board games, crosswords, learning foreign languages);
- rejection of bad habits (smoking, alcohol).

General medicines:

Angioprotectors and microcirculation correctors: Memoplant, Trental 400, etc.

Antihypoxants and antioxidants: Mexiprim et al.

Correctors of cerebral circulation disorders: Amilonosar, Bravinton, Vinpoton, Vinpocetine, Vinpocetine-Acry, Cavinton, Bilobil, Bilobyl Intensive 120, Bilobil Fort, Ginkoum, Breinal, Nimotop, Stugeron, Vazobral and others.

Nootropics: Cortexin, Cortexin for Children, Noopept, Cerebrolysate, Pantogam Active, Phenotropil, Tenoten, Gynos, Pantogam, Nooclerin, Idebenone 0.03 g in capsules, Idebenone tablets, coated, 0.03 g, Lucetam, Noothbril, Nootropil, piracetam, Encephabol, Gliatilin, Cerepro, Cereton, Combbitropyl, and others.

Dopaminomimetics: Pronoran and others.

Metabolics: Karnicetin and others.

Additional medicines

Biological supplements: Aviton GinkgoVita, Artromax, OMEGA PREMIUM Life formula, Ricoline, Ginkgo Biloba "Evalar", Coffeeberries, Acuity of feelings, Chernega, etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like remedies: Vitrum Perfomens et al.

Homeopathic remedies: Memorial, Cerebrum compositum N, and others.


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Freshen the Nip

12 Feb 2019

Physical dependence is the need of an organism of a sick person in the systematic (constant or periodic) use of alcohol. How does it manifest itself?

Freshen the Nip - Phenylpiracetam alcohol

With insufficient amount of alcohol in the body, for example the morning after drinking, the patient develops a hangover state of varying degrees of severity, but always painful. He experiences frustration, weakness, headache, sweating, frequent palpitations, blood pressure rises or falls. Characterized by swollen, red face, trembling in the fingers, and sometimes in the legs and even in the whole body, loss of appetite, often a general chill.

A serious physical condition is almost always combined with depression or nervous tension - an inexplicable anxiety, a fear of something terrible, but inevitable, gnawing at the feelings of guilt for loved ones for the booze.

To recover from hangover Phenotropil can be used.

The patient tends to hangover, looking for any alcohol. And only drunkenness improves well-being, leads him to normal, removes gravity from the soul. Sometimes the patient, realizing that you can not drink before work, tolerates until dinner or even until evening and only afterwards drinks (retarded alcohol). But the essence of the matter is that it does not change: freshen the nip (a new portion of alcohol) is necessary.

It is important to understand that a hangover is not so much a consequence of poisoning the body with alcohol, but rather a manifestation of a shortage, a deficit of it. Poisoning by mushrooms, for example, or a new portion of fly agarics is not treated. And the alcoholic is forced to get drunk, re-enter the poison, because without it, it's even worse.


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Is doctor's help necessary if a person tries to quit drugs?

08 Feb 2019

Parents question: Is doctor's help necessary if a person tries to quit drugs? It is not necessary, unless it has severe concomitant diseases (for example, heart or lung disease) or complications of addiction - thrombophlebitis, phlegmon, convulsive seizures, etc. On the other hand, if the promise of medical assistance helps the drug addict to decide on treatment and you are of course, we should use this opportunity.

addiction treatment

The first way to treat drug addiction, which comes to the head of the addict himself is to alleviate withdrawal with the help of various medications. He reasons this: "The most important thing is to going cold turkey, and then I will not just take drugs."

What medicines does the addict choose for self-treatment?

1. Sleeping Pills
2. Painkillers
3. "For the liver." (Heptral etc)

As drug addicts feel ill during the treatment, they are habitually trying to "disconnect" from their poor health. The most suitable from their point of view for this tool are sleeping pills, which they are ready to use in incredible quantities. And the most popular in their environment are the strongest drugs. Currently, almost the only means for self-treatment addicts consider Phenazepam or reladorm - a combined hypnotic drug in the form of tablets containing cyclobarbital. Cyclobarbital refers to the hypnotic barbiturate series and, like other barbiturates, is able to form a real drug addiction. In addition, it is with massive use (namely, so it is used by drug addicts) causes brain damage - encephalopathy.

But that's not all

If in the treatment of abstinence syndrome ("cold turkey") the rate is to be made only for sleeping pills - even not for reladorms, then this treatment may not end in anything. The fact is that the addict takes sleeping pills to "not feel broken". But as soon as he wakes up, unpleasant symptoms arise with renewed vigor. He again takes an increased dose of sleeping pills (the normal dose does not cause sleep during the abstinence period). And so a few days (from 7 to 14) in a row. As a result of an overdose of sleeping pills, poor state of health persists, although abstinence ("withdrawal") has already subsided. And the more the dose of sleeping pills, and the reception of them longer, the worse the condition becomes. True, this situation is typical only for drug addicts with a relatively long experience of narcotics, but in 50% of cases of self-treatment attempts and even more often this is what happens.

Parents question: How to deal with sleep disorders in a drug addict? While he uses drugs, it is better not to fight. The problem does not completely solve all the same, and the regular use of sleeping pills worsens the prognosis for recovery. When he stops anesthesia, this question should be addressed to a doctor. In general, during this period, a hot bath or shower at night helps, if sleep disorders are not too pronounced.

As an anesthetic, first of all, the addict tries to choose opiate drugs - for example, methadone. He tells his family that other drugs do not completely "relieve" the pain and do not help fall asleep (and this is true). The result of such "treatment" is usually the transition to another drug, often more dangerous and expensive. Therefore do not agree with this method of "treatment".

Parents question: Should I use analgin, pentalgin, reladorm during abstinence? Analgin is not absolutely safe drug - in large quantities it damages the heart muscle. In addition, its effectiveness with abstinence is usually low. Pentalgin and reladorm contain barbiturates, which in themselves are drugs and cause damage to the brain.

So think ...

In recent years, there are two effective publicly available analgesics, and since drug addicts still use them spontaneously, I will also say a few words about them.

The first is called "tramal" and is sold in ampoules, capsules, candles and drops. It helps well from toothache, but in healthy people (especially women) it often causes nausea. It costs expensive. In itself, during abstinence, drug addicts help badly. Doctors use it, but in combination with other drugs and quite a limited time. If you use tramal for several days, its effectiveness drops dramatically.

The second drug is called "ketorol" (sometimes "ketanov") and is sold in tablets and ampoules. Its advantage over tram is that it is sold without a prescription. It is relatively expensive. You can take only after eating. During abstinence drug addicts help badly. We use it, but only when the "breaking" is already on the wane. If applied more than 5 days in a row, it can cause a stomach ulcer; therefore it is contraindicated in those who have already had it.

Only in occasion of reception of preparations "for a liver" - Essentiale, karsil, Heptral, Layennec, etc. - I can not say anything bad. Of course, they are shown to most drug addicts, especially those who use "intravenous" handicrafts. But I advise you to consult your therapist at your place of residence - just not to overdo it with the dose.

Of course, one can not expect that these drugs will help a drug addict to quit drugs

As you can see, I am skeptical about self-medication with the help of pharmacological agents. But there are other ways to help yourself. And I am glad to welcome them with all my heart:

1. "Breaking into dry" - that is, without the use of medicines. This method can be used by 95% of drug addicts without serious risk to themselves. This is dangerous only for those who suffer from severe chronic diseases such as ischemic heart disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney failure, etc. Among drug addicts, such patients are found, but infrequently - usually die before they decide to be treated. But! Most drug addicts do not agree to transfer "breaking to dry" simply because of the fear of pain.

2. Use of a bath, a sauna and hot water procedures. The restrictions are the same as for "dry breaking", but the abstinence in the hot water is much easier to tolerate. A good physiological way, I would gladly recommend it to anyone who wants to give up drugs.

3. The same, but in the summer in the Sea. In conditions of constant high atmospheric pressure and relatively high air temperature, against the backdrop of mountains, green cypresses and the sea coast, you can abandon drugs almost painlessly. The method is good for those who have money and time.

4. Refusal of drugs on the background of religious enthusiasm, a very joyful, frightening or tragic event in life. In the conditions of a sharp, prolonged and violent change in the emotional background, "breaking" is almost not felt (for example, this happens when a drug addict has to hide from pursuit). The same is true of sudden spiritual enlightenment. So for those who have the strength to believe in God - this is a good chance to get rid of the drug addiction forever. In the jargon of narcologists such a method of detoxification is called "to break on the holy spirit." In the case of sincere faith, he works irreproachably.

5. Finally, giving up drugs after a long, serious illness. If the addict is in serious or even in a relatively serious condition due to pneumonia, pulmonary edema, heart attack, trauma, poisoning, etc. and at this time does not use drugs for at least five days - he can safely abandon them and in the future - "break" it will not.

There is another way to "cure" without drugs - to get to a prison where drugs can not be obtained. To my great regret, it is impossible to get rid of addiction as a state of mind in prison.


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Action of Ethanol on the Stomach, Pancreas and Liver

06 Feb 2019

When drinking alcohol, first of all the stomach suffers. And the stronger alcohol products, the harder it is to lose. There are profound changes in the entire glandular apparatus of the digestive canal: glands located in the wall of the stomach and producing gastric juice containing pepsin, hydrochloric acid and various enzymes necessary for digesting food, under the influence of irritation, they first give off a lot of mucus and then atrophy. There is a gastritis, which, if not removed from its cause and not treated, can go to stomach cancer.

Action of Ethanol on the Stomach, Pancreas and Liver

Sclerotic changes also occur in the pancreas. The autopsy of persons aged 30-40 years who consumed wine in large doses or for a long time showed profound changes in the pancreas, which explains the frequent complaints of people drinking on poor digestion, abdominal pain, etc.

These same patients often have diabetes because of the death of special cells located in the pancreas and producing insulin. Pancreatitis and alcohol-based diabetes are phenomena that are usually irreversible, which is why people are doomed to constant pain and malaise. Few of this, pancreatitis exacerbates with the slightest violation of the diet.

Passing through the hepatic barrier, ethyl alcohol adversely affects the liver cells, which under the influence of the destructive effect of this poisonous product perish. In their place, connective tissue is formed, or simply a scar that does not perform liver function. The liver gradually decreases in size, that is wrinkled, the blood vessels in the liver are compressed, the blood in them stagnates, the pressure rises 3-4 times. And if there is a rupture of blood vessels, a profuse bleeding begins, from which patients often die. According to WHO, about 80% of patients die within a year after the first bleeding. The changes described above are called cirrhosis of the liver. The number of patients with cirrhosis is determined by the level of alcoholism in a particular country.

Alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver is one of the most serious and hopeless in terms of treatment of human disease. Cirrhosis as a consequence of alcohol consumption, according to WHO, is one of the main causes of death. (Can be treated by Heptral and cyanocobalamin).


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Sequela from alcoholism

30 Jan 2019

Diseases of the liver are most typical for alcoholism, and their severity is determined by the severity of alcoholism. There are three increasing severity of liver pathology in alcoholism: fatty degeneration, hepatitis and cirrhosis. With the progression of alcoholism, these forms can successively replace one another.

Sequela from alcoholism. Heptral for cirrhosis

Alcoholic fatty degeneration is the most common form of liver damage in alcoholism. It is rarely diagnosed because of the scarcity of clinical manifestations. Patients either do not complain of poor health, or talk about a recurring feeling of overfilling of the stomach, flatulence, diarrhea. The main clinical sign of fatty liver disease is its increase; the edge of the liver is rounded, the consistency is rather dense.

The liver is sensitive to palpation. The pathology detected by laboratory tests is negligible. With prolonged abstinence of patients from alcohol their condition is usually normalized.

Alcoholic hepatitis is usually chronic and can manifest itself in two forms: persistent, relatively stable, and progressive. Chronic persistent hepatitis is observed more often than progressive. Like fatty liver disease, it is clinically manifested a little. Symptoms are determined primarily by gastrointestinal pathology. Patients feel heaviness in the epigastric region or in the right hypochondrium, eructation, mild nausea, a feeling of overflow of the stomach, flatulence. The liver is enlarged, usually denser than with fatty degeneration, and slightly painful on palpation. (Heptral can help to cope with this problem).

There are compensated and decompensated forms of alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver.

With alcoholic compensated cirrhosis of the liver, persistent anorexia (refusal to eat), flatulence, fatigue, a tendency to a low-apathetic mood are observed. Often there is a special thinning of the skin with the appearance of vascular asterisks and white spots on them. Sometimes there is a "lacquered" language (shiny), hair loss, weight loss, gynecomastia, weakening of sexual desire. The liver is usually enlarged and dense, has a sharp edge.

Decompensated cirrhosis of the liver from the clinic's point of view is determined by three types of disorders: portal hypertension leading to ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity), as well as to esophagus (through the esophagus) and hemorrhoidal hemorrhage; jaundice with a possible increase in the liver and - in the most severe cases - liver failure with a precoma or coma. In these cases, nausea, vomiting, anorexia (refusal to eat), flatulence, persistent diarrhea develop. Skin covers have either icteric or grayish tint due to the increased content of melanin.

Diseases of the pancreas with alcoholism are manifested in the form of acute and chronic pancreatitis. From the subjective signs of pancreatitis it is necessary to note pains in the abdomen, localized mainly on the left and radiating into the back. Characteristic dyspeptic disorders: a decrease in appetite, nausea, flatulence, unstable stool. At an aggravation of process pains sharply amplify and sometimes become surrounding. There is multiple vomiting, subfebrile temperature, stool retention. When palpation the abdomen is soft, without clear zones of soreness. The pancreas is usually not palpable.

With alcoholic gastritis, patients periodically complain of lack of appetite, nausea, eructations, unpleasant taste in the mouth, pain in the epigastric region and other disorders. The clinical picture of gastritis is often masked by manifestations of withdrawal symptoms. In more severe cases, vomiting occurs in the morning on an empty stomach with an admixture of blood in the vomit, sometimes painful, multiple. When examined, the lagging of the tongue with a grayish coating and slight soreness on palpation in the epigastric region are found.

Acute alcoholic myopathy can develop after heavy drinking-bouts and is characterized by a weakness of sharp soreness and swelling in the muscles of the shoulders and hips.

Chronic alcoholic myopathy is the most common form (up to 60%), manifested by weakness of the pelvic muscles and less often - the shoulder girdle, difficulty in walking, painful muscle spasms, weight loss, muscle loss. A separate group within the framework of myopathies is alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Currently, alcoholism is the most common cause of damage to the cardiac muscle of non-ischemic origin. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is manifested by fatigue, palpitations, shortness of breath during exercise, orthopnea. Alcoholics with severe heart failure have a poor prognosis, especially when they continue drinking alcohol. Less than 25% of them live more than 3 years. The key to treating patients with alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a complete and constant refusal of alcohol consumption.

If the mother abused alcohol during pregnancy, intrauterine growth retardation, CNS damage in the fetus, anomaly of the facial skeleton develop (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome). Appearance is characteristic: fusion of eyelids in the corners of the eyes, hypoplasia of the upper lip, flattening of the fovea over the upper lip. The ears are often turned back and are irregular in shape, the nose is flat. Typical persistent mental retardation (Phenylpiracetam choline can help to solve this problem). Threshold doses of alcohol that cause fetal alcohol syndrome are unknown; most doctors recommend a complete refusal of alcohol during pregnancy. The severity of the affected fetus varies (from individual subtle defects to the unfolded picture described above).

The trembling of the hands, eyelids, tip of the tongue, limbs is noted in the early stages of chronic intoxication. With an increase in the duration of alcohol abuse, vegetative-vascular crises are intensifying or appearing as panic attacks.


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Hyperstimulants (hallucinogens, psychedelics)

28 Jan 2019

Hyperstimulants (hallucinogens, psychedelics) are substances that stimulate mainly the cerebral cortex, in contrast to stimulants that act mainly on the stem part of the brain and, in addition, cause numerous peripheral effects. capable of receiving them even in small doses (often milligrams) cause hallucinations. In pharmacology, they are often referred to as psychotomimetics, i.e., the means by which short-term ("model") psychoses occur.

Hyperstimulants (hallucinogens, psychedelics)

The cannabinoids (active principles of hashish), atropine and atropine-like substances, as well as inhalants (gasoline, acetone, etc.) are also capable of causing a hallucinatory effect. However, their hallucinogenicity is detected with the use of significantly higher doses, and besides, hallucinations are not always the leading symptom in the clinical picture of intoxication with these substances.

Due to the localization of stimulating action, its level can be much higher than that of classical stimulants, which leads to "acidic" effects - the appearance of visual echoes, "patterns", depending on the intensity of the effect or concentration of attention, etc.

Hallucinosis begins with the fact that the coloring of surrounding objects seems incredibly bright, sounds - loud and saturated, there is a subjective sensation of aggravation of all senses ("intensification of perception"). Synesthesia arises: audible sounds are accompanied by color sensations, music is perceived as "color music" .. In the future, visual and auditory illusions join, and in a number of cases - the phenomena of derealization and depersonalization. Emotional disorders are diverse. Sometimes euphoria prevails, sometimes anxiety and fear or confusion.

Behavior during hallucinations also happens unequal-from passive contemplation with critical attitude to active defensive or aggressive actions with complete loss of criticism. Such actions at certain moments can be dangerous for both the hallucinating and, to the least, also for those around them. Among the somatic disorders, sympathicotonia symptoms predominate (wide pupils, frequent pulse, muscle tremor). The hallucinosis usually develops in half an hour-hour after taking a hallucinogen. Duration depends on the substance used and its dose, from 1-2 hours to a day or more. Postgallucinatory asthenic condition is usually expressed in a blurry and short time. During this period they gladly talk about their experiences, share their impressions with others. Among the complications, besides the mentioned aggression and autoaggression, spontaneous relapses of hallucinosis (without repeated hallucinogen administration), development of hallucinogenic paranoid and hallucinogenic depression occur. Reception hallucinogens can provoke the first attack of schizophrenia and affective psychosis.

Hyperstimulants are relatively safe to use, usually do not cause addiction and other long-term adverse effects. Nevertheless, their application can have obvious negative psychological consequences.

Typically, hallucinogens are used sporadically, from case to case. Regular, almost everyday, methods of these drugs with the development of a constant gravitation to hallucinosis, something like psychic dependence, in adolescents are very rare. However, in recent years there has been a tendency among some adolescent groups to a fairly regular abuse of cyclodolum in small doses, which cause a kind of euphoria (nervousness, agitation, sensation of increased activity), but are still unable to cause delirium. In such cases, there may be an addiction to cyclodol, similar to psychic dependence, and the diagnosis of substance abuse becomes lawful. But even with such abuse of cyclodol, adolescents go on to other intoxicants. It is also possible spontaneous termination of intoxication. As it was said earlier, in the USA in relation to LSD some individuals have a fairly persistent mental dependence-acid freaks- "acid cranks", in which hallucinosis begins to form the main meaning of life. In adults, cases of severe cyclodolum substance abuse are described with an increase in tolerance of up to 30 tablets of 0.002 per reception. At the same time, signs of a psychoorganic syndrome-memory impairment, attention, and ingenuity are developing rapidly. A break in use leads to abstinence phenomena, which is manifested by anxiety and fear or an angry, melancholy mood, a common muscle tremor, pain in the muscles and joints.

Treatment consists of stopping the hallucinosis or delirium with the help of psychotropic drugs, detoxification and psychotherapy. To relieve the hallucinosis or delirium, intravenous infusions of sibazone (phenazepam, seduxen, relanium, diazepam) are more often used, and less often - to injections of aminazine by intramuscular injection. Their use is indicated in the description of certain types of delirium. Detoxification is carried out with the help of nonspecific means. Earlier, when intramuscular sulfosine was administered for the purposes of detoxification (1% solution of purified sulfur in peach oil), the hyperthermic reaction caused by this drug sometimes resulted in recurrence of delirium without repeated hallucinogen administration.

As already mentioned, since 1989 this remedy has been withdrawn from use in our country. Psychotherapy is most shown in the form of rational individual. When a teenager has just suffered an acute psychosis himself and has witnessed chronic psychoses in neighboring patients, during this period he represents the most favorable object for psychotherapy - more susceptible to explanations of the harm that threatens him in case of repeated abuse. If in the present era, in some part of the teenage population, the subjective price of somatic health has fallen, then the fear of "going crazy" is still quite effective. Prevention, first of all, is to prevent access to hallucinogens in the hands of adolescents.

In our country, so far, no cases of abuse of adolescents with LSD have been reported, since such drugs are not available to them. "From teens with a hysterical type of character accentuation, one had to hear that they used LSD." However, with careful clarification of the circumstances and questioning of experiences, , that either such a statement was just a demonstrative boast, or cyclodol or diphenhydramine was used, in small doses, and the experiences described were either fantasies, or-scooped up from literature.

Cyclodol adolescents can extract from patients with schizophrenia, which he is prescribed as a corrector in the treatment of neuroleptics. Close such patients should monitor the expenditure of this medication. It should be avoided that a significant amount of it accumulates in the patient's hands. With regard to preventive lectures and conversations about the dangers of hallucinogens, special care must be taken. They are useful only in those groups of adolescents, among whom there has already been an abuse of these substances or some information about them in these groups has already arrived and has evoked obvious interest. In the general population of adolescents, such lectures and conversations, especially those spread by the media, may lead to a desire to experiment, to experience unusual experiences.


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Diabetic retinopathy

24 Jan 2019

A frequent complication of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, a specific retinal lesion. This complication develops in 70-100% of patients with diabetes mellitus and inevitably leads to impairment of visual functions, up to blindness. In the world annually about 40 thousand people suffering from diabetes mellitus become blind due to the development of diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy. Mildronate. Retinalamin

The frequency and progression of retinal changes depend on the effect of the so-called. objective unfavorable factors:

- duration and type of diabetes mellitus;
- compensation for diabetes mellitus and the severity of its course;
- the age of the patient;
- concomitant pathology (hypertension, atherosclerosis);
- genetic predisposition.

Diabetic retinopathy is based on microangiopathy, one of the characteristic manifestations of diabetes mellitus, which is a diffuse generalized pathological process that affects the entire microvascular system of the body.

In the case of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, patients complain of reduced vision, fog before the eyes, a desire to change glasses for reading, or do not make any complaints. With pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, patients may complain of a more significant and persistent decline in vision, a pronounced fog in front of the eyes, a decrease in vision both far away and close, a difficulty in reading in the usual glasses.

With proliferative diabetic retinopathy, patients complain of decreased vision until the disappearance of objective vision. Also, patients notice floating spots and strands of various sizes in front of the eyes, often dark (black, dark red) color. In addition, they note a pronounced fog, a significant loss of color perception, a lack of ability to read.

General medicines:

Anabolics: Retabolil and others.

Anticoagulants: Wessel Douay F et al.

Metabolics: Vazomag, Idrinol, Cardionate, Meldonium Organica, MILDRONATE, Actovegin etc.

Coagulants (including factors of blood coagulation), hemostatics: Etamsilat-Ferein, etc.

Correctors of cerebral circulation disorders: Vazobral, Cavinton, Sermion, etc.

Immunostimulants: Wobenzym and others.

Additional medical sources:

Angioprotectors and correctors of microcirculation: Bilobil, Bilobil intens 120, Bilobil forte, Doxie-Chem, Emoxibel, emoxipin, Venoruton, Routin, Troxerutin Vramed and others.

Biological supplements: Ophthalamine, OMEGA PREMIUM Life formula, Anthocyan Forte, Shark cartilage, Lutein complex, etc.

Vitamins and vitamin-like remedies in combinations: Vitrum Vizhn Fort, et al.

Other Metabolics: Myrtilene Forte et al.

Ophthalmic: Histochrome, Lucentis, Adgelon, and others.

Regenerants and reparants
: Retinalamin, Strix, etc.


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