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Pentoxifylline (Trental) is a xanthine derivative. It improves the microcirculation and blood rheology. The mechanism of action associated with inhibition of phosphodiesterase, and an increase of cyclic adenosine monophosphate 3.5 (3.5 AMP) in platelets and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in erythrocytes with simultaneous saturation of the energy potential, which in turn leads to vasodilation, reducing the total peripheral vascular resistance an increase in systolic and minute volume of blood without a significant change in heart rate. Expanding the coronary arteries, increases the delivery of oxygen to the myocardium (light antianginal effect), pulmonary vessels - improves blood oxygenation.
When administered intravenously, it leads to increased collateral circulation, increase volume of blood flowing through a unit cross section.
It reduces blood viscosity causes platelet disaggregation, increases the elasticity of red blood cells (due to the impact on pathologically altered deformability of red blood cells). It improves the microcirculation in the areas of impaired circulation.
In peripheral arterial occlusive disease ( "intermittent" claudication) leads to a lengthening of the distance away, elimination of night leg cramps and pain at rest.
It improves the microcirculation and blood rheology, has a vasodilatory effect, blocks the phosphodiesterase, and contributes to the accumulation of c-AMP in cells. Erythrocyte membrane elasticity increases, reducing their adhesion, platelet aggregation and decreases blood viscosity. Blocks adenosine receptors.
It has little myotropic vasodilator action. Pentoxifylline slightly reduces the total peripheral resistance and slightly dilates coronary vessels.
In general, improvement of microcirculation causes Pentoxifylline and supply tissues with oxygen and in the CNS in the extremities, to a lesser extent - in the kidneys.
The first signs of overdose: weakness, dizziness, tachycardia and low blood pressure, drowsiness development, fainting, agitation, convulsions.
Treatment is symptomatic: the maintenance or restoration of blood pressure, maintaining respiratory function.
Duration of treatment and dosage regimen set Pentoxifylline doctor individually, depending on the clinical picture of the disease and the resulting therapeutic effect.
The drug is taken orally immediately after a meal, without chewing, drinking plenty of fluids.
For adults the drug is prescribed, beginning with 200 mg 3 times / day.
Prolonged dosage form administered 2 times / day. The course of treatment for 2-3 weeks or more.
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