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Work of Genes - Transmission of Biological Signals

26 Oct 2016

Microbiologist says about the problem of biological solutions, the interaction of hormones and receptors and gene regulation work. How are biological solutions? How can regulate of genes? How is the process of information transfer between cells?

Life in the end - it's a matter of making the right decisions. The external environment is changing, and the living organism has to adapt to it. If he adapts, taking the wrong decisions, then, most likely, a long body and his descendants will not exist, and we are about it just will not know. The question arises: how biological decisions are made? Everything that we do, but we can discuss any number of free will, in the end still comes down to the interaction of macromolecules in our brain, our muscles, our body cells.

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If we consider a cage which can respond to the presence in the medium of the hormone (which is small, typically the peptide molecule) that on its surface - a cell partitioned off from the outer world membrane - float receptors, protein molecules that are partially outside and can interact with other molecules that exist in the external environment. Moreover, for a given hormone should be at the cell receptor that can interact with hormone. This interaction is at the level of the key and the lock. The hormone interacts with a receptor because surface receptor molecule, a protein, or has a certain cavity shape, which is exactly the same external form of the hormone. And so the interaction is very dense. When such an interaction occurs, the receptor does not remain the same as it was before, it really changes its shape. He was the first of such, and become another. Energy for change, receptor conformation turned from hormone binding energy with the receptor. Any binding brings some energy into the system, and this excess energy can find its expression (or yield) that most of the receptor molecule to change their shape. Such changes lead to a receptor molecule that are new, not previously exposed areas, which in turn can communicate something else. There is a kind of information transmission chain. Each member of the chain due to molecular interactions with a partner above the cascade is able to transmit a signal and then lower just slightly changed.

If we have somewhere on the surface of cells originated signal cascade that led to the transfer of the modified macromolecular interactions between molecules, one can imagine that this signal reaches where it is necessary. And it is necessary that he came precisely to the repressor, and some additional interaction with the repressor will lead to the following: changes already repressor structure so that it will no longer complementary to the DNA molecule, where he stayed until now. So, if it goes out, the gene would be open, transcription can go with it, it will earn.

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