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Sport pharmacology maximum effect without any damage to health - this is real?

18 Oct 2016

Despite the fact that the article was not written by a professional in the field of sports pharmacology, it seemed to us a very interesting, as has been done a lot of work and collected useful information from many authoritative sources. Of course, this material can not take the place of experts composed of pharmacological maintenance plans, but it can save you time in the study of a large number of literature, which was today widely used, and introduce you to the other side of ensuring the training process. We also found it necessary to publish the comments of experts, which you can find at the end of the article.

Have you ever wondered if there is enough of some physical activities in order to achieve a good result? Personally, when I was just beginning to engage in cross-country skiing, he treated the matter with indifference. It seemed to me that my success depends on the number of kilometers that I will overcome in training, and I was able to work without rest for weeks, not even thinking of the consequences ... But as soon as I get to know the professional training side of sports, I was convinced that no daily menu rich in healthy and varied diet, and without even the most basic methods of pharmacological support loaded the body, it is impossible to achieve a good result: the athlete is still not a robot, although it differs from the "ordinary" people greater strength and endurance.

How to eat and what medicines to use in order to maximize the effect of training and minimal damage to health? After all, our sport is one of the most difficult on energy costs, and overloading of the body here - not uncommon.

Sports Pharmacology

Today, the problem of drug use begins more and more to excite and professionals and amateurs in our sport. To be or not to be sports pharmacology, and whether there is a reasonable alternative to doping? With the constant growth of physical and psychological stress in skiing when the training process at times borders on the limits of human capabilities, this dilemma comes to the fore. So what to do? Basically to give up all forms of pharmacological correction or reasonable use "harmless" drugs in order to maintain health and immunity?

Nowadays those competitive and training loads experienced by athletes and in particular the cross-country tracks, are so high that complete rejection of medication designed to support the operation, is outlook yesterday. Now talk about the harm to health likely comes from the failure of pharmacological support, rather than when it is used in the training process. Speed on the track are growing, and with it grows and the likelihood of overloading the body, which is fraught with all sorts of complications. "Pharmacology healthy person" - In recent years, there was even a new field of sports medicine. Its purpose is to introduce not doping drugs to enhance the adaptive capacity of the body to extreme physical stress.

"Sport Pharmacology", like any other branch of medicine, contains the most important belief - "do no harm!". The athlete receiving a doping consciously, does not understand what harm it causes to their health. Proof of this are the numerous death right at football matches and cycling, is no longer a sensation for us. Anyone who chose the way of life sport with a capital letter, should listen to the moral and ethical principles of the Olympic movement and make for themselves the only correct choice: never use prohibited drugs, no matter how tempting, and soon there was to achieve a result, and no matter how improbable does not I was tempted to get on the podium.

Sport pharmacology, of which we are going to talk to you, is not intended to artificially enhance athletic performance and to help the body recover from heavy loads to support him in top form when the immune system is weakened and protect it from adverse environmental effects. In addition, given the fact that there is still some skiers prefer to stick with the training of a single rule: "the more - the better!", Overloading the body - a frequent phenomenon.

It is especially important for athletes use of biologically active additives (BAA). This clearly say scientific developments and findings of more than fifty thousand of medical research. Once the athletes are beginning to take nutritional supplements, their results are improving. If the fans are taking supplements, it is good for their overall health.

Overvoltage of Organism

Objectively evaluate the degree of fatigue on an athlete can only several biochemical parameters such as lactic acid (lactate) formed in the Glycolytic (anaerobic) breakdown of glucose in muscle concentration of Pyruvic acid (pyruvate), the enzyme Creatine, urea and other. It is clear that to carry out at home a biochemical analysis is impossible, therefore, to follow certain rules: if you have no appetite, or worse you fall asleep at night, if you become irritable and have considerably reduced efficiency - these are the first signs of fatigue. Used in sports medicine means the recovery and rehabilitation activities can be divided into three groups: pedagogical, psychological and medical-biological.

Pedagogical recovery tools include individualization of training process and the construction of training cycles. The most important thing is not to boost training and give the body a rest. By the psychological methods of recovery include auditory training and a variety of hypnosis (it is very important to know the individual characteristics of the character of the athlete, his psychology - then the effect will be spectacular). For biomedical recovery methods are complete and balanced diet; various types of manual therapy, the use of saunas, baths and other physiotherapy treatments; reception "not doping" pharmaceuticals, additional amounts of vitamins, essential amino acids and trace elements that contribute to the normalization of well-being and physical condition.

Let us consider the medical and biological techniques Recovery overvoltage organism ... There are four clinical forms of overvoltage:

  • Overvoltage of central nervous system (CNS)
  • Overstrain of the cardiovascular system
  • Overstrain of the liver (liver-pain)
  • Overvoltage of neuro-muscular system (muscle-pain)

Overvoltage of Central Nervous System

It may manifest as depression and excitement. If CNS depression, with sensation of weakness, reluctance to exercise, lethargy, decreased blood pressure prescribed tonic and stimulant: adaptogenic drugs and tonic herbal preparations imported (Vigorex, Brent et al.). Adaptogen - it is drugs that enhance the body's non-specific resistance to adverse environmental effects. This group includes drugs of plant and animal origin, or chemically synthesized. It is believed that adaptogens are absolutely harmless to the body and have a wide therapeutic effect. They have a thousand-year history and came to us from the Eastern countries. The most studied drugs adaptogens of plant origin - is Ginseng, Chinese lemongrass, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Rhaponticum carthamoides (Maral root), Eleutherococcus senticosus, Aralia Manchu, Sterculia platanifolia, Oplopanax (Echinopanax elatum), black cohosh dauricus, Solanine, Solasodine, Aescusan (extract from horse chestnut), drugs of various algae (Sterculin, Morinil - Sport) and marine animals, as well as Pantocrinum, Pantogematogen, Pantogam, Lipocerebrinum, bee products (pollen, pollen, bee pollen, honey, propolis, honeycomb honey and └­ilacum - royal jelly - a useful restorative remedy exhausted and debilitated patients after a serious illness, contributing to the emergence of appetite, weight gain, appearance of vivacity and joie de vivre).

Approx. Ed .: beekeeping products in general are a promising class of drugs so-called "natural" pharmacy, as without any harmful effects on the body, they have a restorative effect and increase endurance and performance. Recommended intake of pollen mixed with honey 2 times a day for 1 tablespoon for 30 days. Prepare the mixture as possible by mixing 50 grams of pollen with 250 grams of honey, and it must be stored in a glass container in a dark place. As a result, improves cardio pulmonary and muscular systems, increased maximum oxygen consumption, improves hemoglobin and red blood cells.

Some of these Adaptogens are part of the combined drugs, which are produced in the form of drugs and biologically active food additives, such as Elton, Leveton, Phytoton and Adapton.

From pharmaceuticals group adaptogens ginseng has been studied first, and later high efficiency Siberian Ginseng has been proven, and others. Drugs in combined use them with bee products. They improve efficiency and stability of a wide range of unfavorable factors, which allows to evaluate the new indications for their use in sports medicine. The history of the use of ginseng in Chinese medicine has more than 2000 years. "Continuous use it - it is the road to longevity", - claimed the elderly residents of the East, consistently applied this root to improve their mental and physical states. For a long time in Europe evaluated its therapeutic properties, which absorbed the strength and power of the Chinese mountains, but soon became widely used ginseng and on our continent.

With increased excitability, sleep disorders, irritability use light sleeping and sedatives: valerian, Leonurus, passionflower. The course is for 10-12 days. In combination with the above drugs can also be administered Glutamic acid and Calcium Glycerophosphate, and enhancing neural activity increasing mood.

Also in disorders of brain activity - reduction of mental performance, memory impairment, etc. - Prescribed nootropics (from the Greek "HOOC" - the mind, mind, mind, soul, memory and "tropos" - direction, desire, affinity). They are also called neuro-metabolic stimulants. It is not necessary to state a stimulating effect on the central nervous system (Acephen, Instenon, Phenibut, Pantogam, Pyritinol, Piracetam (Nootropil), Phenotropil, Aminalon and others), as there are drugs with sedative (soothing) properties (Acidum aminophenylbutyricum, Phenibutum, Picamilon, Pantogamum and Mexidol). Neuroprotective drugs normalize cerebral blood flow and increase brain resistance to harmful environmental influences. Given that the exercise part is that of the impact, and the fact that training - is the development of certain skills and memorization, it becomes clear that Nootropics are a promising class of no doping pharmacological agents that can prevent the "central fatigue".

Overvoltage of Cardiovascular System

It can be detected by an electrocardiogram or a simple "folk" ways - with tingling and itching in the heart, increasing the heart rate at rest should immediately reduce physical exertion. This is the case when for no reason you can not "greedy" with the training volume, because the heart of the skier - a "motor", and it plays a major role in achieving the result. Generally accepted drugs for maintaining the cardiovascular system are Riboxin (Inosine), Potassium Orotate, Safinor, Pyridoxine, Cyanocobalamin, Folic Acid (which, incidentally, plays also an important role in the formation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA), regeneration muscle tissue, protein synthesis and cellular respiration; Folic Acid also stimulates the formation of red blood cells and vitamin B12). It is advisable to use Mildronate, Phosphorus as drugs, ATP, Carnitine and Choline Chloride. Carnitine is generally very "versatile" and is not only a "vitamin for the heart", but also known for its wide therapeutic effect on other body functions. After all, if there were such a dietary supplement that could help you at the same time gain more energy, lose weight (L-carnitine), boost immunity and mental abilities (Acetyl-L-carnitine), reduce cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, then surely you would want it a try, is not it? Meanwhile, it is just about Carnitine: a wide range of useful properties, the ability to help cells in the production of more energy, as well as lack of toxicity identified a strong demand for it.

Carnitine was discovered by Russian, who first discovered it in the muscle tissue and carried to a group of extractives (non-protein nitrogenous compounds in muscle tissue). The simplest example of the use of these substances in medicine - is to use the broth to treat debilitated patients. The broth contains virtually no protein, fat and carbohydrates, but rich in extractive substances, in particular ľ carnitine and Meldonium. Inclusion in the diet of broths allows more rapid recovery than those who did not take them. Once Carnitine called ""vitamin of growth." In sports practice Carnitine proved as good non doping anabolic agent, leading to an increase in strength and muscle mass, an increase in protein digestibility coefficient, vitamins and carbohydrates, increase endurance. Drugs such as Carnitine, are very few. It allows you to kill two birds: to strengthen the anabolic activity of the organism and adjust arising in the course of sports pathology.

Pharmacology is well known fat-burning function of Carnitine (for example, L-carnitine - an amino acid vitamin-like compounds involved in fatty acid metabolism, and plays a crucial role in the formation and cleavage of these energy). Our body contains a lot of fat, and the fight against fat tissue in medicine, and in sport, by its intensity and material costs can be compared only to that of the struggle for space exploration. Carnitine in this case has opened a whole epoch of new drugs to combat obesity. Carnitine A unique feature is that, increasing the speed of disintegration of adipose tissue, it increases the absorption of body fat for energy purposes and slows as a result of its deposition in subcutaneous "reservoirs". Especially greatly improved energy and endurance of the heart muscle, increases the protein content in it and, especially significant, glycogen content, as the heart of a 70% powered by fatty acids. L-Carnitine is mainly found in meat, so it is especially important for vegetarians its application.

Accumulate in the muscles and promoting the breakdown of fats in the muscle cells, muscle carnitine provides a powerful and long-lasting energy. This process contributes to the preservation of the main source of quick energy - glycogen, the decay of which is stored in the muscles stubborn lactic acid. The use of carnitine allows for longer exercise without tiring at the same time. It is particularly effective in the sport disciplines requiring prolonged physical exertion at submaximal and maximal levels, ie cyclic sports such as skiing.

Hepatic-Pain Syndrome

Or, in other words, over-voltage of the liver, which is also characteristic of the representatives of endurance athletes and is a kind of "occupational disease" cross-country racers due to high cyclic loads, it says that it is necessary to take measures to control food intake. Firstly, we should limit consumption of fatty, spicy, fried, salted, smoked, as well as "non-natural" products acquired "on the fly" at the streets. From pharmacological agents can be identified Allochol, Legalon, Silibor Flamini, Methionine, Carsil and Essentiale. Taking these Choleretic and hepato-protective means desirable to exercise after a meal, when the process of digestion begins. In folk medicine for the following plant diseases of the liver have long been used: Berberis vulgaris, betony, sow thistle garden, Lysimachia vulgaris, Bupleurum, globeflower, toadflax vulgaris, corn camomile and medical fees, such as tea thistle and procedure called tyubazh : once a week on an empty stomach to drink two fresh chicken egg yolk or two cups of warm mineral water ( "Barzhomi") without gas. Lie on your right side (position of the fetus in the womb), putting a warm heating pad under the liver and lie within 1.5 hours.

Overvoltage of neuromuscular system

At the "oppression" of muscles, which is familiar not only weightlifters, but to us, the athletes cyclic sports, should be reduced and anaerobic power loads and take a sauna or a massage. Of the medicinal products intended for the treatment of muscle-pain, appointed antispasmodic, vasodilator and improves microcirculation drugs: Xantinol nicotinate, Magnesium, Nikoshpan, Grental. Good effect gives the appointment of Sodium oxybutirate as a means of prevention before the planned load in the aerobic zone, as well as developed syndrome "oppression" of muscles. In the case of persistent pain for reducing muscle tone may be appropriate to use Skutamil-S (1 2 days) or Mydocalm (1-2 doses).

A major role in the recovery after exercise plays a massage, circular shower and sauna at the end of each training cycle before the rest day (May 3 calls for 5 minutes with a cold shower or a swimming pool between the steam room). It is advisable to bring the bath you took a broom: in addition to the therapeutic properties of birch, pine needles, nettles and other plants, of which make bath broom whippings it promotes early restoration of health after exhausting exercise. This procedure is referred to as methods of pain impact, used since ancient times as a powerful therapeutic tool, when all other treatments are ineffective. The usual mechanism of action of painful procedures - increased synthesis of endorphins, the endogenous compounds similar to morphine. In addition to the analgesic and euphoric effects, endorphins can stimulate anabolism, delaying catabolism, as well as lower blood cholesterol levels and burn excess fat. Generally accepted means of good muscle relaxation after a high-intensity strength training and is also a swimming (15 - 20 minutes). This is especially true during the summer training period, and can pool in the winter. The higher in the program of training the proportion of speed-strength training, the greater the psychological tension of the athlete. After these sessions is recommended to include in the recovery process or fresh warm coniferous baths.

I would also like to note that an important condition for the fruitfulness of training, as well as reducing the "oppression" of muscles is gymnastics, or so-called "stretching" (from the English "stretch" -. Pull, pull, stretch). As a result of compaction, reducing flexibility and mobility of muscles in them receives less blood, which in turn leads to deterioration of the ability of muscle to contract. Moreover, this state of the body when the muscles become tense, as if ossified over the years leads to problems with the spine and joints. In short, the development and preservation of the flexibility of muscles and joints is vital. With the development of flexibility increases the sense of balance, agility, coordination, and other improved physical properties, allowing to increase speed and help in carrying out the technical and tactical problems. In addition, the development of flexibility helps to avoid injuries or minimize them. Keep in mind that flexibility exercises should be part of your day throughout the sporting life, we must not forget about them. Stretching helps to maintain the softness and suppleness "muscle" - There is even an opinion that replaces 1:00 gymnastics 30 min workout routine!

Speaking of pharmacological maintenance training process skier-rider in a year cycle of preparation, which is divided into four phases - recovery, preparation (baseline), pre- competition and competitive - it should be noted that the largest share pharm-maintenance accounted for recovery and, in particular, the preparatory period, gradually decreases in the transition to the precompetitive and beyond - competitively.

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