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Piracetam (Piracetamum) is a nootropic agent which due to a direct effect on the brain improves cognitive (cognitive) processes, such as learning ability, memory, attention, and enhances mental performance. Piracetam affects the central nervous system in different ways: influencing the speed of propagation of excitation in the brain, improving metabolic processes in the nerve cells and improving microcirculation hemorheology, without causing vasodilating action. Piracetam inhibits platelet aggregation and restores erythrocyte membrane elasticity and reduces the adhesion of erythrocytes. At a dose of 9.6 g reduces levels of fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor by 30-40% and increases bleeding time. Piracetam has a protective and restorative action in violation of brain function due to hypoxia and intoxication, reduces the severity and duration of vestibular nystagmus.
Piracetam helps to restore cognitive disorders after cerebral functions as a result of hypoxia, intoxication or injury. Reduces the severity and duration of the vestibular nistagma. Piratsetam used in the treatment of cortical myoclonus as monoterapiiili in combination with anti myoclonic agents.
Piracetam is the main representative group of neuroprotective drugs. Currently we synthesized a number of its direct analogs and homologs (etiratsetam et al.), Similar to them in action, but piracetam continues to be the main drug in this group.
Indications for use:
Piracetam is used in neurological, psychiatric and drug treatment practice.
In neurological practice Piracetam is used primarily for vascular brain diseases (atherosclerosis, vascular parksinsonizm) with symptoms of chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, which manifests itself in impaired memory, attention, speech, dizziness, and headache; residual effects of cerebral blood flow (ischemic type); comatose state and subkomatoznye (including after injuries and cerebral intoxication); convalescence (for improving motor and mental activity); nervous system diseases associated with decreased intellectual-mental function and impaired emotional and volitional (including Alzheimer's disease), metabolic myopathies, neuromuscular dystrophy, Parkinson's disease, the effects of traumatic brain injury (long-lasting headache and dizziness).
In psychiatric practice Piracetam is used in patients with neurological depressive states of various origins with a predominance in the clinical signs adinamii, asthenia and senesto-hypochondriacal disorders, phenomena ideatornoy retardation, as well as in the treatment of sluggish - apathetic defect states, senile and atrophic processes in the treatment of mental illness, occurring at "organically deficient soil." Furthermore, Piracetam is used as an adjunct in the treatment of depressive illness resistant to treatment with antidepressants and neuroleptics in poor portability and other psychotropic drugs in order to eliminate or prevent somatovegetativnyh caused by them, neurological or psychiatric complications cortical myoclonus.
The drug used in the practice of the drug as a treatment for abstinence, pre - and delirious states in alcoholism and drug addiction, as well as in cases of acute alcohol poisoning, morphine, barbiturates, amphetamine and etc. In addition, Piracetam is used in the treatment of chronic alcoholism with symptoms of persistent violations of mental activity (asthenia, intellectually - mnemonic disorders, muscle tremors, sweating, hallucinations).
In pediatric practice Piracetam is used to correct the effects of perinatal brain damage caused by intrauterine infections, hypoxia, birth trauma, with mental retardation, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, if necessary, to speed up the learning process.
Paracetamol is also used for long-term general anesthesia (anoxia and hypoxia prevention of the brain) and sickle-cell anemia (in combination therapy).
Hypersensitivity to the components included in the composition of the drug, severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance (CC) of less than 20 ml / min), children's age (up to 1 year), hemorrhagic stroke, psychomotor agitation.
From the nervous system: mental stimulation, motor disinhibition, irritability, imbalance, reduced ability to concentrate, anxiety, insomnia or drowsiness, depression, ataxia, dizziness, headache, extrapyramidal disorders (including hyperkinesia), convulsions, tremor .
From the digestive system: gastralgia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Allergic reactions: dermatitis, pruritus, rash, swelling.
Other: increased sexual activity, worsening of angina, weight gain, fatigue.
Side effects most frequently observed in elderly patients at doses higher than 2.4 g / day.
Inside (during meals or on an empty stomach, with some liquid). Note: the latest single dose should be taken no later than 17 hours (to prevent sleep disorders).
Early treatment at 800 mg administered in 3 divided doses, with the improvement in a single dose was gradually reduced to 400 mg. Daily dose - 30-160 mg / kg, the multiplicity of reception - 2 times / day, if necessary - 3-4 times / day.
The course of treatment continues from 2-3 weeks to 2-6 months. repeat the treatment if necessary.
When long-term therapy psycho-organic syndrome in older drug prescribed by 1.2-2.4 g / day; loading dose during the first weeks of treatment - up to 4.8 g / day. piracetam treatment, if necessary, can be combined with the use of psychotropic, cardiovascular and other drugs.
In the treatment of the effects of coma, posttraumatic period in the initial dose - 9-12 g / day maintenance - 2,4 g, a course of treatment - 3 weeks.
This formulation is recommended for children from 5 years - 1 capsule. 3 times per day. The maximum daily dose - 1.8 g The course of treatment - from 2 weeks to 2-6 months.
When alcoholism - 12 g / day during the manifestation of alcohol withdrawal; maintenance dose - 2.4 g
In sickle cell vazookklyuzionnom Stroke (adults and children): prevention - the interior of 160 mg / kg / day, divided into 4 equal doses. The dose of less than 160 mg / kg / day or irregular intake of the drug may cause a worsening of the disease.
As piracetam excreted from the body by the kidneys, caution should be exercised when treating patients with renal insufficiency.
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