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Dexamethasone eye drops - is a corticosteroid drug that has anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. It is used for the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory processes of the eye, for allergic eye diseases, for the prevention and treatment of inflammation after trauma or eye surgery.
Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticosteroid (a group of hormones of the adrenal cortex and their analogues). Within 4-8 hours after instillation of 1 drop of the drug, a rapid and pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effect develops into the eye - dexamethasone suppresses the inflammatory process that has developed in the eye tissues due to mechanical trauma, chemical attack or allergic reaction.
Eye drops Dexamethasone penetrate well into the epithelium of the cornea and conjunctiva, and, with damage or inflammation of the mucous membrane, the penetration rate of the active substance in the tissue increases. In the aqueous humor of the eye, therapeutic concentrations of the drug are observed. In small amounts enters the systemic bloodstream and is metabolized in the liver, discharged through the intestine (half-life - 3 hours).
GCS for topical application in ophthalmology. Has a pronounced anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and anti-exsudative action.
Interacting with specific protein receptors in target tissues, regulates the expression of corticoid-dependent genes and thus affects protein synthesis. Reduces the formation, release and activity of inflammatory mediators (including histamine, kinin, prostaglandins, lysosomal enzymes).
Suppresses the migration of cells to the site of inflammation. Reduces vasodilation and increased vascular permeability in the focus of inflammation. Stabilizes lysosomal enzymes of leukocyte membranes. Suppresses the synthesis of antibodies and disrupts the recognition of the antigen. It inhibits the release of interleukin 1 and interleukin 2, γ-interferon from lymphocytes and macrophages. It induces the formation of lipocortin, inhibits the release of eosinophils by inflammatory mediators and stabilizes the membranes of mast cells. All these effects are involved in suppressing the inflammatory response in tissues in response to mechanical, chemical or immune damage.
The duration of anti-inflammatory action of the drug after instillation of 1 drop of solution is from 4 to 8 hours.
Suction and distribution
After instillation into the conjunctival sac, dexamethasone penetrates well into the corneal epithelium and conjunctiva, and therapeutic concentrations are achieved in the aqueous humor of the eye. With inflammation or damage to the mucous membrane, the penetration rate increases.
Systemic absorption of the drug is minimal. About 60-70% of dexamethasone entering the systemic circulation communicates with plasma proteins.
Metabolism and excretion
Dexamethasone is metabolized in the liver by the action of cytochrome-containing enzymes. Metabolites are excreted with feces. T1 / 2 is an average of 3 hours.
The drug is intended for topical use only. Do not use for intraocular injection.
Before use, the preparation should be shaken.
If there is no improvement after 3-4 days of treatment, additional local or systemic therapy should be prescribed.
The preparation contains antimicrobial preservative benzalkonium chloride, which can be adsorbed by soft contact lenses. Therefore, you should not use the drug while wearing soft contact lenses. It is necessary to remove the lenses before using the drug and to establish not earlier than 15 minutes after instillation.
When using the drug in combination with other ophthalmic drops, it is necessary to keep the interval between instillations for at least 15 minutes.
Treatment with the drug can mask the picture of a bacterial or fungal infection, so when treating infectious eye diseases the drug should be combined with adequate antimicrobial therapy.
Dexamethasone can lead to a false positive test result for doping.
Impact on the ability to drive vehicles and manage mechanisms
Taking into account the possibility of lacrimation after instillation of the drug, do not apply it directly before driving vehicles or working with mechanisms. Within 30 minutes after the instillation of the drug should refrain from occupations that require increased attention.
Adults with acute inflammatory processes, the drug is instilled into the conjunctival sac by 1-2 drops 4-5 times / day for 2 days; In the future, the drug is used 1-2 drops 3-4 times / day for 4-6 days.
In chronic inflammatory processes, the drug is instilled 2 times / day for 3-6 weeks.
The maximum duration of the drug is 6 weeks.
With allergic eye diseases, the drug is buried in the conjunctival sac 1-2 drops 4-5 times / day for 2 days with a gradual withdrawal within 1-2 weeks.
If the eyeball is damaged as a result of injuries or during surgical interventions after an antiglaucoma filtering operation, the drug is used on the day of the operation or the next day.
After the operation of cataract extraction, surgery for strabismus, retinal detachment, as well as after the injury, the drug is used starting from the 8th day. Depending on the degree of symptoms of inflammation, the drug should be instilled 1-2 drops 2-4 times / day for 2-4 weeks.
Children aged 6 to 12 years in the treatment of allergic and inflammatory conditions are instilled 1 drop 2-3 times / day for 7-10 days. If necessary, the treatment is continued after a fluorescein test is performed on the 10th day (to check the integrity of the corneal epithelium).
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