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Doping - Danger to health of athletes

17 Oct 2016

Sometimes you can hear the opinion that modern high-tech doping ceased to be harmful to health. However, it is not. For all we have to pay, especially for artificially high threshold of human capabilities.

Regular use of performance enhancing drugs is a violation of functions of several physiological systems. Many disorders manifest themselves immediately after the use of performance enhancing drugs, and after 10-20 years or in the offspring.

The first fatal case of doping was recorded back in 1886, when British cyclist David Linton died in the competition in France from the use of excessive doses of Cocaine with Heroin.

In XX century, the memorial list continued.

1912 - at the Olympic Games in Stockholm marathon runner died of drug overdose;

1960 - died while cycling cyclists Knud Jensen and Dick Howard (use of Amphetamines);

1967 - during the bicycle race "Tour de France" died of an overdose of amphetamines Tommy Simpson;

1983 - water polo player Billy Ilvisaker (Cocaine);

1986 - as a result of cocaine abuse was killed American basketball player Leo Bayes;

1987 - professional football player Don Rogers (also cocaine); rounder Badge Dressel (Anabolic Steroids); bodybuilder David Singh (anabolic steroids);

This is not a complete list of the victims of doping, it is only those cases where the doctors were able to establish that the death was caused directly by receiving stimulant. No less athletes died at home, in bed, already finished speaking, the disease seemed to be in no way associated with the sports activity.

For example, the entire sports world was shocked by death of American runner, Olympic champion in the women's 100 and 200 meters Florence Griffith-Joyner, however, she has never caught in her career with doping. Meanwhile phenomenal records were set anything up this American does not stand out in the distant 1988, when the Olympic Games in Seoul, she was able to run 100 meters in 10.49 seconds. The vast majority of experts believe that such a second show without additional stimulants impossible. In addition, guards, and that the end of his career, Griffith Joyner announced immediately after the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has tightened the rules for doping - control.

Harmful effects on the athlete's doping different groups is expressed as follows.

Most stimulants have side effects, depending on the dose: respiratory depression and the risk of sudden death. Use of stimulants may cause that the athlete as a result of an inadequate assessment of the situation an accident may occur. In addition, abuse of stimulants leads to drug dependence.

Drugs increase the pain threshold so that the athlete can not recognize how serious the injury is. Cause very addictive, leading to severe dependence.

Beta-blockers increase fatigue and reduced endurance. Side harmful effects of anabolic steroids are extremely diverse and dangerous. Met earlier in the literature allegations of harmless use of anabolic steroids was based on the results of individual studies in a short period of time and proved to be incorrect.

Now fully proved that any use of anabolic steroids, even in small doses and even for short periods of time, we should speak of the absolute hazard application of these drugs, more or less. Anabolic always cause some damage to the athlete's health. A number of studies indicate the possibility of occurrence, many of the negative consequences in 15-20 years after the end of supplementation.

The nature of side effects of anabolic steroids are substantially dependent on a number of factors, among which the most important are: the individual response to the drug; gender and age differences; the presence of acute or chronic disease; dose quantity; the duration of treatment.

Particularly rapidly and are more pronounced negative side effects of taking anabolic steroids in children and adolescents. Very great is their negative effect on the female body.

The doses of anabolic steroids used in weightlifting and athletic gymnastics, much higher than the therapeutic, ie, used in the treatment of certain diseases (10-20 and even up to 40 times). Many athletes to maximize the benefits from the use of doping and reduce the likelihood of identifying it with doping - control, used the so-called «staking» - reception mode of anabolic steroids, which is a gradual change in the dose of the drug and the alternation of the types of specific formulations for the course, as well as combining anabolic steroids with other groups of drugs (primarily testosterone and diuretics). It is shown that the application of such circuits receiving anabolic steroids can cause adverse effects even more than using separate formulations.

Effect of long-term use of anabolic steroids in the different organs and systems of the body are as follows.

The pathology of the liver and biliary tract. The result of the survey it was found that up to 80% of the athletes taking anabolic steroids, suffer from impaired liver function. The use of tablet forms of anabolic steroids can lead to a violation of antitoxic and excretory functions of the liver and the development of hepatitis. Long reception taking anabolic steroids leads to blockage of bile ducts, jaundice, and were marked even deaths. There are a significant number of data indicating the occurrence of liver cancer from chronic administration of anabolic steroids. There is an effect on urogenital system. In humans, long-term taking anabolic steroids may develop renal tumors, the deposition of stones and violation of urine formation process.

The effect on the endocrine system. Anabolic steroids promote the development of disorders in the endocrine system, particularly negative effect on carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Admission older men testosterone reduces secretion of own hormone. Chronic administration of anabolic steroids develop testicular atrophy, inhibition of spermatogenesis, decreased sperm count, "fertility index" changes in sexual feelings, etc. And it requires 6 months or more to restore normal level of spermatogenesis, and chronic administration of steroids, these changes may be persistent, and even irreversible. In men receiving anabolic steroids can cause the development of symptoms of gynecomastia, ie significant development of breast tissue and the nipple, which in severe cases may require surgery.

In women receiving even small doses of anabolic steroids causes rapid development of the phenomena of virilization: coarsening and deepening of the voice, the growth of hair on the chin and upper lip, hair loss on the head of male type, reduction of breast, clitoral enlargement, the development of a common hirsutism (hairiness), atrophy uterus, and violation of the cessation of the menstrual cycle (amenorrhea and dysmenorrhea), acne, increased secretion of the sebaceous glands, the total masculinization.

Menstrual irregularities, acne are reversible after the abolition of taking anabolic steroids drugs. facial hair growth, hair loss, enlargement of the clitoris, and voice alteration - is irreversible. Especially expressed virilizuyuschee effect of anabolic steroids in women and girls; phenomenon can be observed pseudohermaphroditism. In women receiving anabolic steroids can lead to infertility in pregnant women slows fetal growth and fetal death occurs.

Such terrible consequences of taking anabolic steroids on the endocrine system of women and girls is explained by the phenomenon of androgenic activity of testosterone, a hormone that is normally present in a minimal amount of a woman's body, and an artificial increase in the concentration which leads to such extensive abnormalities in the blood.

Disorders of the thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract. It has been shown that taking anabolic steroids may contribute to disorders of the thyroid gland function, activities of the stomach and intestines, cause gastrointestinal bleeding.

Mental disorders. The use of anabolic steroids necessarily accompanied by a reduction in sexual activity and increasing changes in the psyche - with unpredictable mood swings, increased excitability, irritability, aggressiveness, or the appearance of the development of depression.

Pronounced changes in the nature, behavior often lead to serious consequences: a break with friends, family breakdown, the appearance of the prerequisites for making the negative and even dangerous in the social action plan. According to some observations, the complete discontinuation of anabolic steroids is often accompanied by depression, which is seen as a manifestation of psychological dependence on anabolic steroids, analog drug dependence.

Effect on cardiovascular system. Anabolic steroids cause disorders of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, reducing the resistance to glucose, which is accompanied by a fall in blood sugar levels. When using the tablet form of anabolic steroids increases insulin secretion, which contributes to diabetes. In addition, possible development of atherosclerosis and other diseases of the cardiovascular system.

Side effects of the action of anabolic steroids. Admission anabolic steroids promotes rapid muscle growth, significantly outstripping the growth and development of the corresponding tendons, ligaments and other connective tissues. This leads to tearing of ligaments during heavy physical exertion, the emergence of inflammatory diseases and joint capsule, tendon degeneration development. Lowering the viscosity of muscle tissue due to the delay of water and sodium, it causes a decrease in muscle elasticity (subjectively evaluated as "delayed onset muscle soreness" or "oppression"), the inability to develop full-fledged muscle effort. All this causes a predisposition to injury, muscles and ligaments during training and competition. After discontinuation of anabolic steroids decrease the phase of immuno-biological activity of the body, increased susceptibility to disease.

Side effects of the action of anabolic steroids in children and adolescents. Acceptance of anabolic steroids adolescents can cause irreversible changes: cessation of growth of long bones, before puberty, the phenomenon of virilization and gynecomastia.

With regard to diuretic, in recent years due to the increased participation of our athletes in international competitions, there was the need for weight categories and the corresponding weight limit at the time of the competition. In weightlifting, this problem has been known for a long time and is very severe.

For urgent weight weight in the competitive period, some incompetent coaches and athletes recommend taking diuretics (Furosemide, Clenbuterol), ie, diuretics, although it is known that they have long been included in the list of doping agents. In addition, the sports environment there is a perception that diuretics contribute to the strong conclusion of the body decay products of anabolic steroids and other drugs, and thus reduces their negative side effects and shorten drug withdrawal before the performance.

It should be noted that even the use of diuretics in the clinic for therapeutic indications, laboratory and requires careful medical supervision, as fraught with potential complications. Excreted from the body fluid, together with the necessary for normal metabolism of salts (eg, potassium, required for normal operation of the heart muscle), diuretics are used without a compensating diet, lead to the development of heart failure. And the danger is growing with the increase of physical activity - and at the moment the highest competitive forces, it can lead to severe disruption of the heart.

Moreover, diuretics causes an increase in blood sugar content, which may cause aggravation of diabetes, disorders of the gastrointestinal (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), allergic reactions, development of skin diseases. It is also possible exacerbation of diseases of the liver, kidneys, central nervous system depression, accompanied by sleepiness, lethargy, sensitivity disorder.

If you try to build a rating of doping agents according to their degree of threat to the health and life of an athlete, you get the following picture: the most dangerous stimulants and drugs are used directly before or during the race; they can cause death right on the highway. In second place anabolic steroids and beta-blockers (usually serious consequences of the use of these drugs "float" in a few years after the end of his sports career) and a short list of diuretics, which when properly used, are practically harmless.

Today, scientists are very concerned about the fact that the much-touted "magical" properties of drugs of gene doping (such as GW1516 and AICAR) will lead to a rapid dissemination in the sports world. At the same time there had been no adequate studies on their effect on the human body. In particular, a growing concern of the potential impact of the substances on the cardiovascular system of a person, which can lead to the most catastrophic consequences such as myocardial infarction (best treatment Mildronate).

An additional health risk exists even in the case of substances and methods are applied more and injections. Non-sterile conditions, including the possibility of using the same needle repeatedly and in different patients, increase the risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV / AIDS.

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